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Julian, his successor. At length, the last-mentioned
VARANES IV., OR KERMAN SCHAH, emperor, contrary to the sage advice of Hormisdas, a Persian general on the side of the Romans,
who was so denominated from his having been advanced too far into the country, and being ruler of the province of Kerman, the ancient already half conquered by thirst and famine, his Carmania. Varanes governed the kingdom of army was destroyed by Šapor, and himself slain. Persia eleven years, during which no event of A peace was now concluded with the Romans on importance occurred. Internal revolts seem only advantageous terms. Jovian, the successor of
to have disturbed his peace. These were freJulian, ceded the five provinces in dispute for quently dangerous, and he was eventually killed ever to the Persians, together with the strong by an arrow, when endeavouring to quell a fortress of Nisibis, in Mesopotamia, which had
tumult in his army. so long been the bulwark of the eastern boundary
The throne of Persia was next filled by of the Roman empire. This peace was concluded, ISDEGERTES, OR JEZDEGARD AL ATHIM. Sapor now turned his attention to that part of
The character of Isdegertes is differently given his empire which was bounded by Tartary and by the Byzantine and Persian historians. By the India. He was thus occupied for some time ; latter he is represented as a monster of cruelty, but Jovian, the Roman emperor, dying, and the
whose death was hailed as a blessing by his subaffairs of that people being again embarrassed, jects, while the former represent him as a monarch regardless of the peace subsisting between the deservedly renowned for his many virtues. Both two empires, he again invaded the Roman terri- accounts, says Dr. Hales are overcharged, and tories. The particulars of this invasion have we may ascribe each to his partiality for the not been handed down to us. All we know is Christians, whom he, first of all the Persian that he slew Arsaces, who reigned in Armenia, monarchs, favoured and protected. and reduced a large territory under his obedience ;
Procopius and Cedrenus relate, that the emthat on the arrival of Arinthius, he was con
peror Arcadius left Isdegertes guardian of his strained to abandon a great part of his conquests ;
son Theodosius II., and protector of the Roman that upon this he transferred the imperial seat to empire, a trust that he faithfully discharged. Ctesiphon, the old capital of the Parthian em
The Greek writers also relate, that during his pire, that he might improve such opportunities reign, for twenty-one years, he lived in the as might offer; and that after this act he did not utmost harmony with Theodosius. This fully gain any great victory.
vindicates the character of this prince from the The restless and ambitious Sapor ended his calumnies of the Persian priesthood, who pracdays in the beginning of the reign of the Roman
tised several pious frauds upon him, for which he emperor Gratian, about A.D. 375, or 377, after ordered the magi to be decimated'; allowed the having reigned seventy or seventy-two years
Christians to build churches throughout his (for authors differ on this point) with great dominions; and repealed the penal laws enacted variety of fortune ; a variety that might have against them by his predecessors. It was doubttaught him the folly of pursuing the honours
less this indulgence and toleration that extended and possessions of this changing world. He
the fame of Isdegertes among strangers, and seems by no means to have lacked wisdom. caused it to be handed down with execration by Some of his observations have been preserved, the priesthood of his own country. They themwhich exhibit a knowledge of the human mind. selves, however, have preserved some of his say“Words,” he used to say, “ may be more vivifying ings, breathing a spirit that contradicts the chathan the showers of spring, and sharper than the
racter they have given of him. He often resword of destruction. The point of a lance may marked, say they, " That the wisest of monarchs be drawn from the body; but a cruel word
was he who never punished when in a rage, and can never be extracted from the heart it has who followed the first impulse of his mind to wounded.”
reward the deserving.” He used also to obSapor was succeeded in his kingdom by
“That whenever a king ceased to do good
actions, he necessarily committed bad ; and that ARTAXERXES, OR ARDSCHIR,
the thought of eternity could not for a moment concerning whose origin and life nothing is re
be absent from the mind, without its verging corded, save that he maintained peace with the towards sin.”. Such sentiments as these are Romans, and governed his dominions four years. worthy even of a Christian philosopher. To him succeeded
At the death of Isdegertes, A.D. 418, the magi,
through hatred to him set up Kesra, a nobleman, SAPOR III., OR SCHABOUR BEN SCHABOUR, in opposition to his son Baharam Gour, or Jur,* who governed the kingdom of Persia for five who was then abroad, educating by an Arab years in great tranquillity. He was contemporary Baharam raised an army to recover his crown,
prince. By the assistance of the Arabs, however, with Theodosius the Great, whose friendship he
which he did almost without a struggle. enjoyed during his reign. Persian writers say that he was killed by the fall of his tent; the
VARANES V., OR BAHARAM GOUR, OR JUR. cordage was broken by a whirlwind,* and the pole struck the monarch while he slept. Sapor who had educated
him ; his second, to pardon
The first act of Baharam was to reward Noman, III. was succeeded by his brother
those who had endeavoured to deprive him of * These violent gusts are common in Persia. Malcolm
the crown. Such gratitude and clemency dissays, that he has seen a whole line of tents levelled by their force, and some of them carried to a distance from
* This surname was derived from his fondness for the spot where they were pitched.
hunting the jur, or wild ass.
posed the hearts of all his subjects towards this Numbers fled, during this persecution, for proprince; and his munificence, virtue, and valour, tection to Theodosius, who espoused their cause. are the theme of every historian. His generosity 2. Theodosius, in the days of Isdegertes, had was not limited to his court or capital, but ex- lent a certain number of miners to that prince, to tended over all his dominions. So unbounded work anew some neglected gold and silver mines was his liberality, that his minister, dreading the in Persia. These miners he now required, and effects of its excess, presented a memorial to him, Baharam refused to send them back. pointing out how essential the possession of trea- It was from these two causes that the war besure was to support the throne. Baharam wrote tween the Romans and Persians, at this date, under this representation, “ If I may not employ arose. Fired with indignation, Theodosius took benefits and rewards to gain the hearts of free up arms, and Baharam followed the example. men who render me their obedience, let the The contest was attended with no success of any framers of this memorial inform me what means great consequence to either. Alternate victory I am to use for attaching such persons to my and defeat made up the whole sum of it; and it government."
ended in a truce for 100 years, in which it was Under Baharam, it is said, minstrels and agreed that an end should be put to the severities musicians were first introduced into Persia, from exercised upon the Christians. India. Sir J. Malcolm says that this circum
A noble Christian action, however, contributed, stance, with others of a similar nature, produced more than the peace between the two empires, to an impression among foreign powers that the king the re-establishment of Christianity in Persia. and his subjects were immersed in luxury; and When the province of Azazene was ravaged by that the love of the dance and song had super- the Romans, in the beginning of the war, 7000 seded that martial spirit, which had so lately Persian prisoners were brought to the city of rendered Persia the terror of surrounding nations. Amida in extreme misery. Acases, bishop of
The king of Turan, or Turkistan, acting under that place, having assembled his clergy, reprethis impression, invaded Persia. He crossed the sented to them in pathetic terms the misery of Oxus at the head of a large army, and laid waste these unhappy creatures. He then represented the whole of Khorassan. This invasion spread that as the Almighty preferred mercy to sacria dismay which was greatly increased by the fice, he would be better pleased with the relief of disappearance of Baharam, who it was concluded these his creatures, than by being served with had Aed from a sense of inability to meet the gold and silver vessels in their churches. The impending storm. The result of this was, the suggestion was adopted: all the consecrated universal terror of the Persians, and the unguarded plate of gold and silver vessels were sold for the confidence of the Tartars. “ The great king"con- maintenance of their enemies, and they were ceived the war was over, and that he had only to sent home at the conclusion of the war with moreceive the submission of the Persian chiefs, who ney to defray their expenses on the road. Badaily crowded to his standard to implore his favour haram was so struck with this act, that he invited and protection. Baharam, however, was not lost: the bishop to his capital, where he received him fetching a compass round by the coast of the with the utmost reverence, and granted the Caspian Sea, he gained the important pass of Christians many favours at his request. Thus, Khuarasme, in the rear of the Turks; and while by heaping “coals of fire” upon the head of this the invading host was buried in wine and sleep, high-minded prince, says Dr. Hales, did these he fell upon them with seven thousand of the Christian miners melt his heart to mutual combravest warriors of Persia, and put them to flight. passion and kindness, verifying St. Paul's preThe slaughter was great : the chief of the enemy cept, Rom. xii. 20, 21. This is the true genius fell under the sword of Baharam, who pursued of the ever blessed gospel of Christ. the fugitives across the Oxus.
After this, Baharam enjoyed peace as long as The use Baharam made of this victory was, to he lived ; and having reigned twenty-three years, establish peace with all his neighbours, after he died, beloved and honoured by his subjects, which he returned to his capital.
A.D. 441. The Persians relate a romantic tale about the Baharam was one of the best monarchs that adventures of Baharam in India ; and they assert ever ruled Persia. During his whole reign, the that, after his return, he was very successful in happiness of his subjects was his sole object, his some incursions into the Arabian and Roman persecution of the Christians excepted. Illterritories, carrying his arms into the latter, al- timed zeal on the part of Abdas led him into the most to the gates of Constantinople. In this lat- crime, and overwhelmed the Christians with sorter assertion, however, their flattery has misled A good man's zeal should be ever on the them, as the reader will perceive from the fol- wing; but it should be united with discernment lowing account of the war, as derived from Greek and prudence, or it will be blind and extravagant, historians.
and injure the cause it intends to advance. To The cause of the war between Baharàm and be genuine, zeal must be free from a persecuting Theodosius was twofold.
spirit. 1. Abdas, the Persian prelate, with an unwar- Baharam was succeeded by his son rantable zeal, had burned a fire temple to the ground. Baharam, who had a great respect for
VARANES VI., OR JEZDEGERD BEN BAHARAM. him, gently reproved him, and commanded him Varanes vi. is represented as a wise and brave to rebuild it. This he refused to do; and at the prince, who took the best means of ensuring the instigation of the magi, the king put him to prosperity of his empire, by retaining the favourdeath, demolished the churches, and confiscated ite ministers and officers of his father, while he the estates of the nobles who would not recant. himself carefully attended to business. Varanes
was particularly strict in the administration of the Persian forces, and he therefore retreated as equal and impartial justice. He restored the an- they advanced; but he was soon enabled, by the cient regulations that had fallen into disuse, and devotion of one of his chief officers, not only to framed new laws by the advice of his council. preserve his country, but to destroy his foes. He likewise kept up discipline in his army with- This officer, after communicating the plan he out severity, and never punished but with reluct- had formed, entreated his prince to order the ance, whence he was called Siphadost.“ a lover mutilation of his body, and then to cast him in of his soldiers.”
the route of the Persian soldiers.
This was According to the Persian historians, Varanes done; and he was taken up, and carried to Pebroke the peace, and waged war with the Ro. roses, who asked him who had reduced him to mans; but this is not probable, for the Greek this sad condition. “ That cruel tyrant, Khooshannals make no further mention of him than that Nuaz,” was the answer; and being interrogated he was contemporary with Theodosius II. and his for what the deed was done, he replied, “ Because successor Martianus.
I took the liberty of an old and faithful servant, By some Persian writers the character of Va
to represent the consequences of his bad governranes is represented as unchaste, avaricious, and ment, and to tell him how unequal he was to cruel : they style him Aitam, which has refer- meet the troops of Persia, conducted by such a ence to violation, pillage, and massacre. This hero as Peroses. But I will be revenged,” he may have arisen from their displeasure at his added, as he writhed with pain; “I will lead you countenancing Christianity, which, by the preach- by a short route, where you shall, in a few days, ing of Manetha, bishop of Diarbekr, in Mesopo- | intercept the tyrant's retreat, defeat his army, tamia, and his coadjutors, made great progress in and rid the world of a monster.” Peroses behis dominions during his reign.
lieved the tale, and the Persian army marched Varanes died A.D. 459, and he was succeeded according to his directions. It was not till they in his kingdom by his son
had been several days without water, and famine
was raging among their ranks, and they saw PEROSES, OR FIROUZ.
themselves surrounded by enemies from whom Varanes had two sons, Firouz and Hormouz. they had no hopes of escape, that they discovered His wish was, that Hormouz, the younger, should they had been led to ruin, and that the conquest succeed him; and for this purpose he sent away over them had been effected by one, who had Peroses to be governor of Nimrouz,* including courted death to obtain the title of “ The preSigistan and Makran. Accordingly, upon his server of his country.”. father's death, Hormouz assumed the throne, and The greatest part of the Persian army perished was supported by the nobility ; but Firouz en- in this desert, and Peroses was only permitted to gaged the Haiathelites, or White Huns, an Indo- return with the survivors through the clemency Scythian tribe, who bordered on his provinces, of Khoosh-Nuaz, to whom he sent to solicit peace, to assist him in the recovery of his right, pro- and with whom he entered into a solemn covemising their king, Khoosh-Nuaz, the province nant never to invade his territories again. of Nimrouz, as a recompense. With these aux- But Peroses was tormented by the thought of iliaries, and some of the Persians who espoused the degradation he had suffered. The generosity his cause, Peroses invaded Persia, defeated his
of his enemy was also hateful, as it made his brother Hormouz, and put him to death.
own conduct appear more base and inexcusable. In the beginning of the reign of Peroses, there Hence, no sooner was he extricated from his difwas a dreadful drought of six years' continuance, ficulties, than, in violation of his oath, he colwhich was interpreted, in that superstitious age, lected an army, delivered over his kingdom to a as a punishment from Heaven for the crime of regent, (who, the Greeks say, was his brother,) acting contrary to the will of the virtuous Va- and once more crossed the Oxus, resolved to ranes. According to the Tubree, this drought conquer or perish. was so excessive, that not even the appearance Peroses perished. The Haiathelites having of moisture was left in the beds of the Oxus and timely notice of his intention, prepared to meet Jaxartes.
him. Concealing their forces behind some In the seventh year, plenty was restored ; and mountains, they issued forth suddenly on all the first act of Peroses, after this national sides of the Persian army, and totally routed it.t scourge, was to invade the country of the Haia- Almost all the soldiers of which it was composed thelites, his benefactors. The great object of his were either slain or taken prisoners, and Peroses life, indeed, appears to have been to destroy the himself perished, after he had worn the Persian power of the generous monarch to whom he diadem for twenty years. Such was the reward owed his throne. He pretended to discover, from of ingratitude, a vice never mentioned by any the evidence of some Tartar exiles, that their heathen writer but with particular marks of deking was a tyrant; and with the pretext of re- testation ; among Christians it should be doubly lieving his subjects from his yoke, he invaded abhorred. Tartary. Khoosh-Nuaz was too weak to oppose The faithless Peroses was succeeded by his son
• Nimrouz is part of the modern Seistan. The Per. sians, says Malcolm, have a tradition that this country was formerly covered with a lake, which was drained by some genii in half a day, whence the name of Nimrouz, or halfday; but as Nimrouz means also mid-day, it is probably used metaphorically in the Persian, as in French, German, and several other languages. to designate the south; and this province lies directly south of Bulkh, the ancient capital of Persia.
+ Some of the oriental writers say, that the army was taken by a stratagem. They dug, say they, a large dyke in the middle of a plain, and after having covered it over, they entrapped the Persian army into it. But this must be looked upon as romance; for to have dug a pit of sufficient dimensions for such a purpose, they must have reared up a mountain with the earth, which would have told the tale, and have made the Persians look well to their feet.
mander, they were almost entirely destroyed. VALENS, OR BALASCH BEN FIROUZ, The only execution they did, was the destruction who proved to be an excellent prince, tender, of a detachment of Haiathelites, whom they found compassionate, and just, and desirous of lessen alone on the banks of a river, the streams of ing the misery of his country, which, at the which were dyed with their blood.
Cobad had scarcely gained his second victory death of Pe ses, was rendered tributary to
over the Romans, when he was informed that the Khoosh-Nuaz. He paid the tribute for two years,
Huns had broken into the northern provinces and waged war with the Haiathelites two more,
of his empire; upon which he was compelled when, worn out with cares, he died. He was succeeded by his brother
to return into Persia, whence he expelled the
invaders. CAVADES, OR COBAD,
After the departure of Cobad, the Romans, in
several bodies, surrounded Amida, in order to who was of a martial and enterprizing disposi- prevent the garrison from receiving provisions. tion; ready to undertake any thing for the extension of his kingdom, and jealous to the last They also devised means to betray Glones, the
Persian commander, into an ambuscade, in which degree of his authority, and the glory of the he perished, with 200 of his forces. The garrison Persian name.
was eventually compelled to capitulate; and some In the tenth year of the reign of Cobad, Maz
time after, a truce for seven years was concluded dak, an impostor, appeared in the desert, who between the Romans and Persians, and hostages set up for a prophet, and pretended to introduce
on both sides were given for its due observance. a purer religion than had hitherto been revealed
A lasting peace was afterwards negotiated in the to mankind. * Cobad sanctioned the impostor days of Justin, but this failed ; and in the days and his enormities, which struck at the root of of Justinian, a new war broke out between the chastity and property. This produced an insur
two empires, in which the Persian army, under rection, in which the Persian nobles dethroned Peroses, was defeated by Belisarius in MesopoCobad, and imprisoned him, appointing Giam- tamia; and Mermores, who commanded the Perasp, a person of great wisdom and integrity, king sian forces in Armenia, was twice defeated hy in his stead. Some time after, however, Cobad Doritheus. Two castles, with the dependencies, contrived to escape from prison, to the king of fell also under the power of the Romans. But the Haiathelites, with whom it would appear he Cobad still kept the field. He raised new armies, had made peace in the days of his prosperity, which defeated Belisarius, and invested the city who assisted him with an army to recover his of Martyropolis, a place of the last importance to kingdom, which he accomplished : he deposed' the Roman empire. The city was saved by inGiamasp, and put out his eyes.
trigue, and a truce was soon afterwards concluded As soon as Cobad was restored to the throne, between the two empires. he embarked in a war with the Romans, to repay
During the last years of his life, Cobad also the king of the Haiathelites large sums of money carried on a war with the Haiathelites, with which he had borrowed, and for the charges varied success. He died, A.D. 532, after a long of the expedition to restore him. He marched and diversified reign of forty-nine years, includrapidly into Armenia, raised excessive contribu- ing the period in which he was imprisoned, for tions from the inbabitants, and then laid siege to which Dr. Hales allows eight years. Amida, the principal fortress in those quarters. Cobad left several sons; but he always apAs the province had for many years enjoyed pro- pears to have shown a decided preference for found peace, the city was unprepared for the at- Chosroes, or Nouschirvan, who seems in every tack; the citizens, however, refused to open their respect to have been worthy of his father's favour. gates, and prepared to make an obstinate defence. At his death, Cobad bequeathed his kingdom to He took it after eighty days, and the citizens Chosroes, and the testament was committed to were only saved from destruction by a well-timed the principal mobud, or high priest, by whom it though flattering compliment, from one of their
was read to the assembled nobles of the empire. number. Cobad having asked him why they These declared their cheerful submission to the treated him as an enemy? “ Because,” said the will of the deceased monarch; but Chosroes recitizen, “ it was the will of God to deliver Amida fused the proffered diadem, on the ground of his not to your power, but to your valour.". Pleased inability to reform the great abuses of the governwith this reply, Cobad spared their lives, and “ All the principal offices.” he exclaimed, some time afterwards he restored their privileges, are filled by worthless and despicable men; and directed the walls and public buildings to be and who, in such days, would make a vain atrepaired. He left therein Glones, a Persian no
tempt to govern this kingdom according to prinbleman, with a garrison of 1000 men, and treated ciples of wisdom and justice? If I do my duty, I it rather as a benefactor than a conqueror. must make great changes, the result of which
The tidings of these proceedings at length may be bloodshed; my sentiments toward many reached Rome, and an army was immediately of you would perhaps alter; and families, which marched to the frontiers, under the command of I now regard, would be ruined. I have no desire Ariobindus. Greek writers say, that there never to be engaged in such scenes of strife and ruin ; were better forces sent against the Persians than they are neither suited to my inclination nor my these, or men of greater reputation. In two bat- character, and I must avoid them.” The assemtles, however, through the neglect of the com- bly assented to the justice of these observations ;
and convinced, for the moment, that a reform • Mazdak attempted to revive the system of Mani, with was requisite, they took an oath to support him some additions of his own, very far from tending to purity in his measures, to obey his directions implicitly
and to devote their persons and property to his | lations were introduced for the management of service and that of their country; upon which he these governments, and every check established ascended the throne.
that could prevent abuse of power in the officers
appointed for their administration. CHOSROES, OR NOUSCHIRVAN.
In all these regulations Chosroes was ably asWhen Chosroes ascended the throne, he as- sisted by his prime vizier, called Buzurge Mihir, sembled his court, and addressed them as follows: “ the well beloved,” who was raised from the “ The authority which I derive from my office lowest station to the first rank in the kingdom ; is established over your persons, not over your and the minister's virtues and talents have shed hearts : God alone can penetrate into the secret
a lustre even on those of the great monarch who, thoughts of men. I desire that you should un- by his penetration, called them into action. The derstand from this, that my vigilance and con
wisdom of Buzurge is greatly celebrated by Pertrol can extend only over your actions, not over
sian writers, of whom they relate the following your consciences : my judgments shall always be anecdotes, which prove it. One day, in council, founded on the principles of justice, not on the
when others had spoken at great length, Chosroes dictates of will or caprice: and when, by such a asked why he remained silent? “ Because,” said proceeding, I shall have remedied the evils which he,“ a statesman ought to give advice, as a phyhave crept into the state, the empire will be sician medicines, only when there is occasion.” powerful, and I shall merit the applause of pos
At another time, at one of the assemblies of the terity.
sages, the king proposed as a subject of debate, Acting upon this spirit of toleration, it is said “ What is misery in the extreme?” A Greek that, in the commencement of his reign, he tem- philosopher, looking only to the present life, anporized with the followers of Mazdak. At length, swered, “ Poverty in old age;" in the same spihowever, he caused that licentious and false pro- rit, an Indian replied, “ Great pain, with dejecphet to be apprehended, and sentenced to death; tion of mind;" but Buzurge, looking beyond the declaring his determined resolution to extirpate grave, (for it is said that he was privately a Christhe followers of this pestilent heresy, the fun- tian,) answered, “ A late repentance at the close damental principle of which was, the annihilation of life;" to which a universal assent was given. of property, and its result, anarchy.
And truly Buzurge was right. Bitter indeed is There are several reasons given for this act of that man's cup, who, at the close of his earthly severity. The most probable, because most con- career, looks back upon a life of sin and shame, sonant with the character of the monarch, is, that and forward to a just and an avenging God. one of his subjects complained to him of his wife Hope, that solace of life, he can hardly dare venhaving been taken from him by a disciple of ture to entertain ; he doubts if his repentance be Mazdak. The king desired the false prophet to
sincere; he cannot adopt the promises of mercy as command his follower to restore the woman; but his own; and the darkness of despair thickens the mandate of the earthly inonarch was treated
around him. We will not attempt to limit the with scorn and contempt, when its effect was Holy One of Israel, or discourage a true penicontrary to what was deemed a sacred precept. tent; but surely it is highly improper, and may Chosroes, enraged at this opposition to his au- be fatal, to neglect the Saviour in the time of thority, ordered the execution of Mazdak, which health, and trust to a late repentance. was followed by the destruction of many of his how many thousands are there who build on followers, and the proscription of his delusive and that their hopes for eternity! abominable tenets. Chosroes was indefatigable in his endeavour to
“ All promise is poor dilatory man,
And that through every stage: when young, indeed, promote the prosperity of his dominions. One
In full content, we sometimes nobly rest, of his first acts was, to disgrace the public officers Unanxious for ourselves, and only wish, who had been obnoxious to the people in the last As duteous sons, our fathers were more wise; reign. All bridges which had fallen into decay
At thirty, man suspects himself a fool;
Knows it at forty, and reforms his plan; he ordered to be repaired, and he directed many At fifty, chides his infamous delay, new edifices to be built. He also founded schools Pushes his prudent purpose to resolve; and colleges; and gave such encouragement to
In all the magnanimity of thought,
Resolves, and re-resolves—then dies the same." learned men, that philosophers resorted to his
YOUNG. court from Greece. For the general instruction of his people, he circulated the admirable“ Rules Chosroes early engaged in a war with the for living well,” written by Ardshir, and required Romans, and throughout the whole course of his every family in Persia to possess a copy. For his long reign, he maintained this war, at intervals, own instruction, he procured a work of the fa- with the Emperors Justinian, Justin, and Timous Pilpay, from India, entitled Homaioun Na-berius; notwithstanding the former had purmeh, “ The Royal Manual,” or fables on the art chased a disgraceful peace in the beginning of of governing, which, by his direction, was trans- his reign. Four times he invaded the Roman lated into Persic.
territories successfully. He captured Sura and Chosroes divided his kingdom into four great Antioch, reduced all Syria, conquered Colchis governments. The first of these governments and Iberia, and established his power on the comprised Khorassan, Seistan, and Kerman; the banks of the Phasis, and on the shores of the şecond, the lands dependent upon the cities of Euxine. During these invasions, he levied great Ispahan and Koom, the provinces of Ghelan, contributions in the Roman territories, dismantled Aderbigan, and Armenia; the third, Fars and their cities, and plundered the rich offerings in Ahway; and the fourth, Irak, which extended to the churches. After he had captured Antioch, the frontier of the Roman empire. Wise regu- ' and transplanted the inhabitants into Persia, Jus