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“That saith of Cyrus, He is my shepherd,
ever unseasonably engages, renders himself acAnd shall perform all my pleasure.”—Isa. xliv. 28.
countable for all the blood that is shed, all the The comparison of a king to a shepherd was,
misery that ensues. In the beginning of his however, in oriental writings, very common.
wars, Cyrus founded all his hopes of success on The figure is, indeed, frequently met with in
the justice of his cause, and represented to his Scripture to denote the good king.
soldiers, in order inspire them with courage According to Cicero, and other ancient writers, and confidence, that they were not the aggresthe temperance of Cyrus was very remarkable.
sors; that it was the enemy that attacked them ; From this cause, they record that he enjoyed a
and that they were entitled to the protection of vigorous state of health to the close of a long the gods, who seemed themselves to have put life.* By temperance, indeed, he was enabled
arms into their hands, that they might fight in
defence of their friends and allies, who were to seize the opportunities of conquest, and to perfect his character. It has been well observed Cyrus had the same principle of justice on their
unjustly oppressed. The succeeding victories of by Socrates, that that man bears the greatest side. Both the king of Lydia and the king of resemblance to the Deity who contents himself
The truth is, with the fewest and most simple necessaries of Babylon were the aggressors. life. Temperance keeps the senses clear and Cyrus was a conqueror under the immediate unembarrassed, and makes them seize the object guidance of God, who made use of him as an they desire with greater satisfaction. It appears The results of his conquests have been seen in
instrument in effecting his merciful purposes. with life in the face, and decorum in the per. all ages of the world, from the period at which son; gives you the command of your senses; they occurred. secures your health ; and preserves you in a
And very glorious are the reproper condition for your affairs both as regards the Jews were released from their captivity in
sults which have been witnessed. Through him time and eternity.
Babylon, and through them the Gentile world “Fly drunkenness, whose vile incontinence
has been offered deliverance from the captivity Takes both away thy reason and thy sense,
of sin, and death, and hell. This fact is one of Till with Circæan cups thy mind possess'd,
those links in the chain of Divine love which Leaves to be man, and wholly turns to beast. Think, while thou swallowest the capacious bowl,
cannot be sufficiently admired. In the language Thou lett'st in seas to wreck and drown thy soul; of the apostle Paul alone, can we give due utterThat hell is open, to remembrance call,
ance to our feelings: “O the depth of the riches And think how subject drunkards are to fall."
both of the wisdom and knowledge of God!
how unsearchable are his judgments, and his Another favourable trait in the character of ways past finding out!” Rom. xi. 33. Cyrus was, his clemency Herodotus, it is true, represents him as the reverse of a merciful con
CAMBYSES, OR LOHORASP. queror. By his strong prejudices against Cyrus, On the death of Cyrus the Great, B.C. 529, his that historian has depreciated the fair fame of son, Cambyses, to whom, on his dying bed, he one of the wisest, best, and greatest princes that bequeathed the bulk of his dominions, ascended ever swayed a sceptre; one who was beloved the throne of Persia. by his subjects, honoured with the friendship Cambyses appears to have been the reverse of of the prophet Daniel, blessed with the favour the character of Cyrus. The actions of his reign and protection of Heaven, and pre-ordained to prove that he was neither actuated by reason nor perform all God's pleasure. No one, says Xe- justice in his enterprizes. In the fourth year of nophon, was better qualified to conciliate uni- his reign, he invaded Egypt, and with what wild versal love than Cyrus, who spent most of his fury he ravaged that country, the reader may time in procuring some pleasure and good to all, gather from the History of the Egyptians. See and ill to none.
His merciful disposition was exhibited in beautiful colours in his conduct
Various and improbable accounts are given of towards Cræsus, as related in the life of that this invasion by Herodotus. The true one apprince.
pears to be, that Amasis, who had submitted to Ancient conquerors generally acknowledged Cyrus, refused, upon the death of that conqueror, no right but that of force; looked upon the to pay his successor the same homage and tricommon rules of justice as laws which only bute. This account is, indeed, confirmed by the private persons were obliged to observe, and de- Persian historians, who state, that Lohorasp, rogatory to the majesty of kings; set no other while he was regulating the eastern provinces bounds to their designs and pretensions, than of Iran, sent his general, Gudarz, or Raham, their incapacity of carrying them to an equal with an army, to recover the western provinces extent with their wishes ; sacrificed the lives of of Syria, etc. Gudarz conquered Syria as far as millions to their ambition; made their glory Damascus and Palestine, including the famous consist in spreading desolation and destruction; city of Jerusalem, called by the Persians, "the and, to borrow an idea from Seneca, reigned as Holy City.' bears and lions would have done, had they been
To secure a safe passage through the desert,
between Palestine and Egypt, Cambyses, by the The character of Cyrus seems to have been advice of Phanes, a Greek refugee from Amasis, the reverse of this. He might have been actuated made a treaty with the king of Arabia, to furnish by ambition, but he reverenced the laws, and his army with water, which he did by means of knew that there are unjust wars, in which who the skins of camels. On arriving at the Pelusiac,
or eastern branch of the Nile, Cambyses found * Lucan says he lived upwards of one hundred years.
Psammenitus, the son and successor of Amasis,
(who was dead before the Persians arrived,) en- temple of Jupiter Ammon, built on an oasis, in
After the conquest of Egypt, Cambyses re- the beasts which carried the baggage, which
This appalling action seemed to alarm even the The ambassadors of Cambyses carried pre- mad Cambyses himself. Alarmed, says Herosents along with them, which they delivered to dotus, at the idea of his troops devouring one the king of Ethiopia with this address: “ Cam- another, he abandoned his design upon the Ethibyses, sovereign of Persia, from his anxious de- opians, and returned to Thebes. From Thebes sire of becoming your friend and ally, has sent he proceeded to Memphis, from whence he perus to communicate with you, and to desire your mitted the Greeks to embark. acceptance of these presents, from the use of The fate of the expedition of the Ammonians which he himself derives the greatest pleasure.” was still more disastrous. There was no road Their designs were suspected, and the Ethiopian nor tract through the sandy waste that the inprince dismissed them with this reply: The vaders had to traverse; no hill nor tree which king of Persia has not sent you with these pre- might serve to guide them onward in their sents from any desire of obtaining my alliance;
The army, moreover, was placed at the neither do you speak the truth, who, to facilitate mercy of Egyptian guides, whose minds were the unjust designs of your master, are come to galled by their country's wrongs, and who felt a examine the state of my dominions. If he were fraternal affection for the Ammonians. The influenced by principles of integrity, he would result was, that the Persians were deserted by be satisfied with his own, and not covet the pos- these guides, $ and they wandered about in indesessions of another; nor would he attempt to scribable confusiva. The greater part of them reduce those to servitude from whom he has re- were, according to the Ammonians, finally overceived no injury. Give him, therefore, this bow, whelmed by the moving sands that winds someand in my name speak to him thus: The king of times raise in the desert. This fearful catasEthiopia sends this counsel to the king of Persia, trophe has been thus described by the pott:-When his subjects shall be able to bend this bow with the same ease that I do, then, with a supe
" Now o'er their heads the whizzing whirlwinds breathe,
And the lone desert pants and heaves beneath; riority of numbers, he may venture to attack the
Tinged by the crimson sun, vast columns rise Macrobian Ethiopians. In the mean time, let Of eddying sand, and war amid the skies, him be thankful to the gods that the Ethiopians In red arcades the billowy plain surround, have not been inspired with the same ambitious
And whirling turrets stalk along the ground. views of extending their possessions."
When Cambyses received this message, he on the north, and the great Libyan desert on the south. was enraged, and commanded his army to begin lt included, consequently, the desert that contains the their march immediately, without providing, says
Wahs or Oasis, dependent on Egypt. The term means
an insulated fertile spot, like an island in the midst of an Herodotus, for their necessary sustenance, or re- expanse of sand or desert, surrounded commonly by flecting that he was about to visit the extremities higher lands. It was in one of these, (the Libyan Oasis) of the earth. He left the Grecians behind him that the Ammonians lived, and the temple and oracle of
Jupiter Ammon was placed. This Oasis was visited by a in his newly conquered country, to keep it in
traveller in 1798, who has described both it and the ruins subjection during his absence.
of the ancient temple. It is now called the Oasis of On his arrival at Thebes, Cambyses selected
Serwah, from his army about 50,000 men, whom he or- I From this it appears that Cambyses never penetrated dered to make an incursion against the Ammo- beyond the desert of Selima, that is, says Rennell, on the nians,t and to plunder the Ammonium, or great
supposition that he set out from Thebes, and that Senaar was the entrance into the country of the Macrobian Ethi
opians. The desert alluded to was that in which Bruce * It is impossible to determine what particular nation suffered such dreadful hardships, namely, that above is meant under this appellation. Rennell thinks they Syene. were the Abyssinians; and Bruce imagines that they were the Guabas and Gangas, who inhabit two small provinces
$ Savary says, that the route of the army makes it plain or districts of Abyssinia. Whoever they were, they must that the guides, who detested the Persians, led them have been a considerable nation, since their monarch
astray amidst the deserts ; for they should have departed sent a message of defiance to Cambyses.
from the lake Mareotis to the temple of Ammon, or from
the environs of Memphis. The Egyptians, intending the + The Ammonians, in the days of Herodotus, occupied destruction of their enemies, led them from Thebes to the a considerable space in Libya, between Upper Egypt on great Oasis, three days' journey from Abydos, and having the east, and the desert of Barca on the west, and between brought them into the vast solitudes of Libya, they dethe Nomadic tribes, along the coast of the Mediterranean, livered them over to death.
Long ranks in vain their shining blades extend; found it was Ecbatana, an obscure town in Syria,
where the Egyptian oracle of Butos warned him And now they fly, and now they front the air;
he should die ; but which he mistook for EcbaPierce the deaf tempest with lamenting cries
tana the capital of Media, and the depôt of his From their parched lips, and close their bloodshot eyes. treasures. Gnomes ! o'er the waste you led your myriad
powers, bitterly lamented his error in destroying his
Upon this it is recorded, that he Climb'd on the whirls, and arm'd the flinty showers ! Onward resistless rolls the infuriate surge;
brother Smerdis; “ for," he said, “it was SmerClouds follow clouds, and mountains mountains urge; dis Magus whom the deity foretold in vision Wave over wave the driving desert swims,
should rise up against me.” That Cambysés felt Bursts o’er their head, inhumes their struggling limbs; Man mounts ou man; on camels camels rush:
compunction for his guilt when death stared him Hosts march o'er hosts; and nations nations crush; in the face can be readily believed ; for guilt Wheeling in air, the winged islands fall,
sooner or later brings misery, and his was guilt And one great earthy ocean covers all. Then ceased the storm. Night bow'd her Ethiop brow
of no ordinary nature. Reader, the life of CamTo earth, and listened to the graves below;
byses shows what a monster man may become if Grim Horror shook: awhile the living hill
left to himself; if his actions have not a restraint Heaved with convulsive throes, and all was still."
put upon them by power from on high. It
should teach us to pray with the psalmist, The remainder of the reign of Cambyses was a tissue of the most extravagant cruelties and
Keep back thy servant also from presumptuous sins;
Let them not have dominion over me: excesses of every kind, committed against the Then shall I be upright, Egyptians, the Persians, and his own family. And I shall be innocent from the great for much] transAccording to Herodotus, he slew the magistrates gression.”—Psa. xix. 13. of Memphis at his return for suffering public
SMERDIS MAGUS. rejoicing on the occasion of finding their new divinity Apis, wounded their calf god in the
As soon as Smerdis the Magian ascended the thigh, and commanded the priests to be scourged. throne of Persia, in order to secure himself He grew jealous of his brother Smerdis, because thereon, he sought to gain the affections of his he was the only Persian able to bend the Ethio- subjects. His first act was to grant them an pian bow, sent him home to Persia, and soon exemption from taxes and from all military after, on account of a dream portending that service for three years. But his reign was brief. Smerdis would be advanced to the throne, had His gross imposture was discovered, and he was him put to death. He married two of his own slain with his brother in a conspiracy formed by sisters, and killed the younger for lamenting the seven Persian nobles of the first rank and consedeath of her brother Smerdis. He shot the son
quence in the state, at the end of seven months. of Prexaspes, one of his principal officers, through It is probable that Smerdis was raised to the the heart with an arrow, by way of proving that throne by a conspiracy of the priestly caste, who he was neither drunk nor mad. He violated the were desirous of restoring their own supremacy, tombs of the Egyptians, to examine the mummies. and that of their allies, the Medes. The result He insulted the pigmy statue of their chief god of the attempt was very calamitous to them. Vulcan, and burned those of the Cabiri. Finally, | When the head of the false Smerdis was shown when Crosus ventured, as his father's friend, to to the people, and the imposture explained, they remonstrate on the enormities he was committing, were so enraged, that they fell upon the magi, and to set before him the probable consequences, and put to death as many as could be discovered. he snatched his bow to shoot him with an arrow. The day on which this transaction occurred Cræsus escaped by a precipitate flight, and he thenceforward became an annual festival among was instantly ordered to be put to death. His the Persians, by whom it was celebrated with officers delayed the execution till the next day, great rejoicings. It was called “ The slaughter which gave him apparent satisfaction, but he of the magi," and none of that sect would ordered them to be put to death for disobedience venture to appear in public upon that festival. of orders.
Herodotus gives a romantic account of the It was about this time, B. c. 523, that Orastes, adoption of a monarch by the conspirators after one of the satrapæ of Cambyses, who had the the tumult had subsided. He says that he gained government of Sardis, brought about the death the crown from his competitors by the stratagem of Polycrates, tyrant of Samos, to which refer- of his groom procuring the first neighing of his ence has been made in the history of the horse, as recorded by a public monument : Egyptians, page 57.
“ Darius, son of Hystaspes, gained the kingdom In the beginning of the eighth year of the of the Persians by the merit of his horse and of reign of Cambyses, he left Egypt in order to his groom Ebares.” The account which Æsreturn into Persia. On his way thither, he dis- chylus gives of the transaction is more probable, covered that Smerdis Magus, who personated his and more consistent with the after character of brother whom he had slain, had been proclaimed Darius Hystaspes. According to this ancient king at Susa. This aroused him from his writer, the seven conspirators agreed to reign in lethargy. He instantly prepared to lead his rotation. The first that governed was Maraphis, army thither, in order to crush the rebellion. who is not found in the list of Herodotus ; the But his days were numbered. As he hastily next was Artaphrenes, whom Herodotus calls mounted his horse to set out, his sword fell from Intaphernes ; and the next Darius. This last the scabbard, and wounded him mortally in the nobleman was possessed of superior abilities and thigh.
a spirit of enterprize ; he was also of the AchaHerodotus says, that when the accident occurred, menian or royal line, and his father, Hystaspes, he anxiously inquired the name of the place, and was governor of Persia, the first province of the
empire. Upon these accounts, therefore, when wishing to leave behind him some monument the government came to his turn, he contrived to which should exceed the efforts of his predecesretain the possession of it for himself, and to sors, struck off a coin of the purest gold, the transmit it to his family. That he was the most Daric, which retained its name down to the formidable competitor for the crown, appears Macedonian dynasty. The impression on this even from the pages of Herodotus ; for he relates, famous coin, was Darius the king, crowned, in that his merit excited the jealousy of Cyrus him- the attitude of an archer, with a bent bow, self, who expressed his suspicions to Hystaspes, and kneeling on the right side, to take aim at the father, that Darius, then a youth, was engaged in some treasonable designs. Herodotus After the death of Smerdis Magus, and the also represents him as possessing greater enter- establishment of Darius on the throne, it was prize than the rest of the conspirators, by com- agreed that the Persian noblemen who had conpelling them to a prompt execution of their plan, spired against him should, besides several marks under a threat of informing against them if they of distinction, have the liberty of free access to delayed.
the king's presence at all times, except when the
queen was with him. Intaphernes, one of these DARIUS HYSTASPES, OR GUSHTASP.
noblemen, being refused admittance under these Darius Hystaspes commenced his reign B.C. circumstances, attacked the officers of the palace, 521. He appears to have been the first who used inflicting on them severe wounds with his scythe old title of royalty, Darawesh, or Darius, as mitar. Darius, enraged at this insult, caused a proper name.
him, with his children and kindred, to be appre. Before Darius obtained the kingdom, he had hended, and condemned them to death, conmarried the daughter of Gobryas, whose name founding thereby the innocent with the guilty. is unknown. When seated on the throne, in Through the importunities of his wife, however, order to secure bimself thereon, he married two her brother was first saved from destruction, and of the daughters of Cyrus, Atossa, formerly the eventually the eldest of her children : the rest wife of Cambyses, and Artistona. He likewise perished. married Parmys, daughter of the true Smerdis, It has been seen, in the life of Cambyses, that thereby freeing himself from all fear of a com- the perfidious Orastes, one of the king's governpetitor for the crown.
ors in Asia Minor, brought about the death of One of the first acts of Darius was to regulate Polycrates, tyrant of Samos, by treachery. His the state of the provinces, and the finances of the crime did not go unpunished. Darius, discoverempire. Before his era, Cyrus and Cambyses ing that Orastes abused his power, by sporting had contented themselves with receiving from with the lives of those persons who displeased the conquered nations such free gifts only as him, sent an order to his troops at Sardis to put they offered, and with requiring a certain num- him to death, which order was executed without ber of troops when they were needed. Darius delay. All his effects were confiscated to the perceived that it was impossible for him to pre- king, and all the persons belonging to his family serve all the nations subject to him in peace and and household were removed to Susa. security, without an establishment of regular In the second year of the reign of Darius, the forces; and that it was also impossible to main building of the temple at Jerusalem was retain these forces without a revenue. In order, sumed, chiefly by the exhortations of the protherefore, to effect these objects, he divided the phets Haggai and Zechariah. Zerubbabel, the whole empire into twenty districts or govern- governor, and Joshua, the high priest, made apments, each of which was to pay annually a cer- plication to the Persian court, and obtained a tain sum to the satrap appointed for that purpose, renewal of the original decree of Cyrus concernas before recorded. The natural subjects, that ing its erection. With so much alacrity did they is, the Persians, were exempt from all im- now carry on their work, that the top-stone was posts.
raised in joy within four years and a quarter Plutarch observes, that Darius, in imposing from its recommencement, that is, in the sixth these tributes, showed great wisdom and mode- year of the reign of Darius. See Ezra v. and vi. ration. He sent for the principal inhabitants of 1-15; Hag. ii. 1—18. every province, such as were best acquainted When Darius served in Egypt, under Camwith the condition and ability of their country, byses, he had received favours at the hands of and were interested in giving him a true and Syloson, brother to Polycrates, tyrant of Samos. impartial account. When they arrived, he asked About this time, B.c. 516, Syloson repaired to them if such sums which he proposed to each ex- the Persian court at Susa to solicit his aid in ceeded what they were able to pay; his intention the regaining of Samos from the person who had being, as he said, not to oppress his subjects, but usurped the government since the death of his to require of them such aid as was proportioned brother. Darius acknowledged him as his beto their incomes, and required by the exigencies nefactor, and granted him the aid he sought. of the state. They replied, that the propositions He sent an expedition, under the command of were reasonable, and such as would not be bur- Otanes, one of the principal lords of his court, densome to the people ; but Darius reduced the who performed it with success. proposed sums to one-half, choosing rather to During this Samian expedition, the Babylokeep within bounds, than to risk a possibility of nians, who had taken advantage of the confusion exceeding them.
of the times during the magian usurpation, to Concerning these imposts, it may be here men- provide against a siege, revolted. In order to tioned, however, that the coinage of money was prevent famine, they took the strange and unnot known in Persia till about this time. Darius, natural resolution of strangling all their women
and children, except their mothers, and one great preparations for the invasion of Scythia, * female to bake their bread: thus fulfilling the under the pretence of retaliation for their invasion prediction of the prophet:
of the Medes, nearly one hundred and twenty
years before. His real motive was, the extension “Therefore hear now this, thou that art given to plea- of his conquests and empire.
Darius crossed the Ister, or Lower Danube, That dwellest carelessly, That sayest in thine heart,
over a bridge of boats, at the place where it first I am, and none else beside me;
begins to branch off to form the different chanI shall not sit as a widow,
nels by which it enters the Euxine, a little above Neither shall I know the loss of children: But these two things shall come to thee in a moment
the fortress of Ismail, in Bessarabia. The Persian in one day,
army is said by Herodotus and Justin to have conThe loss of children, and widowhood :
sisted of seven hundred thousand men; it is proThey shall come upon thee in their perfection
bable that the real number was seventy thousand. For the multitude of thy sorceries, And for the great abundance of thine enchantments." When Darius had passed the Danube, he resolved
Isa. xlvii. 8, 9. upon having the bridge broken down, that his
army might not be weakened by leaving the Darius besieged Babylon, and was derided by detachment necessary for its protection. In this, the insolence, and baffled by the vigilance of the however, he was overruled by one of his officers, enemy for a year and seven months. At the end who represented to him, that, should the war of that time, as he was beginning to despair of prove unfortunate, they would not be able to success, it was put into his hands by a refined escape from the enemy. stratagem of Zopyrus, son of Megabyzus. This After crossing the Danube, it would appear nobleman, who was one of the seven counsellors, that Darius marched eastward to the Tanais, or voluntarily mutilated himself, and then deserted Don. After crossing the Tanais, he entered the to the Babylonians, gained their confidence by a territories of the Sauromatæ, extending northpiteous tale of the cruelty of Darius, and after a east to the main branch of the Don itself, which few preconcerted successes over some devoted he may be supposed to have crossed below the detachments of the Persian army, he was ap
mouth of the Medweditza, or Lycus of Herodotus. pointed commander in chief of the Babylonian From thence Darius entered the country of the troops, and intrusted with the care of the city, Budians, which having also traversed, he finally which, on the first favourable opportunity, he entered a great desert that separated them from delivered to Darius.
the Thyssagetæ, where he halted, and erected No sooner was Darius in possession of Babylon, eight fortresses on the banks of the Oarus, prothan he ordered its one hundred brazen gates to bably the Wolga. be pulled down, and the walls of that proud city In the mean time, the Scythians hovered round to be demolished, that its inhabitants might never his army, laying waste the country, stopping up have another opportunity of rebelling against the wells, intercepting convoys, cutting off stragbim. Besides this, he impaled about three thou- glers, and keeping the army on the alert by insand of its inhabitants ; after which, he obliged cessant skirmishes, without running the hazard the neighbouring provinces to furnish fifty thou- of a general engagement. The whole of the Persand women, to supply wives for the remaining sian army was eventually, indeed, reduced to so citizens, from whom the race of Babylonians deplorable a condition, that they had nothing beliving in the time of Herodotus were descended. fore their eyes but inevitable ruin. Darius saw
This siege had been predicted by the prophet his danger, and began to think of a retreat. AcZechariah two years before, who warned the cordingly, in the dead of the night, the Persians, Jews to flee from thence.
leaving the sick behind them in the camp, re
traced their steps toward the Danube. The Scy“ Ho! ho! come forth,
thians did not discover that they had retreated And
flee from the land of the north, saith the Lord : before the next morning, when they sent a conFor I have spread you abroad
siderable detachment to the Danube, in order to As the four winds of the heaven, saith the Lord. Deliver thyself, O Zion,
persuade the Ionians, who had the charge of the That dwellest with the daughter of Babylon.
bridge, to break it down and return home. For thus saith the Lord of hosts ;
The Ionians consulted among themselves wheAfter the glory hath he sent me Unto the nations which spoiled you :
ther they should comply with the request of the For he that toucheth you
Scythians. Miltiades, prince of the Chersonesus Toucheth the apple of his eye."-Zech. ii. 6–8. of Thrace, having the public interest at heart,
was for embracing this opportunity of shaking Dr. Hales remarks: “It is truly remarkable, off the Persian yoke, and all the other comthat the Persian kings who punished the Babylo- manders agreed with him, except Hystiæus, nians, patronized the Jews. The first capture of prince of Miletus, who represented to the Ionian Babylon was followed by the decree of Cyrus for chiefs that their power was linked to that of liberating the Jews from captivity; when the
* The ancients divided Scythia into two large portions, Lord stirred up the spirit of Cyrus' to make it, European and Asiatic; the former extending along the Ezra i. 1. And the second capture by Darius was north of the Danube and the Euxine, and the other befollowed by the finishing of the second temple, yond the Caspian and the Jaxartes, now Sihon. The
latter was again subdivided into two parts by the chain in the seventh year of his reign ; when the Lord
of Imaus, or the Beloor Tagh, a branch projecting north turned the heart of Darius unto them, from the Indian Caucasus, now the Hindoo Kho, or weststrengthen their hands in the work of the house ern part of the Himalaya; which subdivisions were de
nominated Scytlia intra and extra Imaum, or Scythia on of God, the God of Israel,'” Ezra vi. 1—22.
this side and beyond Imaus. It was the European Scythia After the reduction of Babylon, Darius made which the monarch of Persia invaded.