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remained in their posts for ten days, encamped | sacred purposes, was given to Pausanias, and the on each side of the river Asopus. Mardonius, others were rewarded each according to his who was of an impatient temper, grew uneasy at merit. so long a delay. Famine, also, was menacing Diodorus Siculus says, that the battle of Plahim, for he had only a few days' provisions for tæa was fought in the second year of the seventyhis army. Accordingly, he held a council of fifth Olympiad, when Xanthippus was archon of war, and, contrary to the wise counsel of Arta- Athens, B.C. 479, and on the third or fourth day bazus, who advised Mardonius to retire under of the month Boedromion, corresponding to the the walls of Thebes, where they would be able 28th or 29th of August, nearly a twelvemonth to obtain forage and provisions, and eventually after the battle of Salamis. to prevail on some of the confederates by bribes The day on which the Greeks gained the to desert the common cause, a battle was decided victory at Platæa is memorable for another upon the next day.
gained by their fleet over that of the Persians, at The attack was to be made by surprise ; but Mycale, in Ionia, wherein most of the Persians Alexander of Macedon came secretly about mid- were put to the sword, their ships burned, and night to their camp, and informed Aristides of an immense booty captured. This battle was all that had passed; an event to which Glover fought in the evening, and that of Platæa in the alludes in his “ Athenaid :"
morning. They were each decisive in their
nature. By them the great designs of Xerxes
Aristides hastes : To whom the stranger:-Bulwark of this camp!
were frustrated, and the liberties of Greece and Hear, credit, weigh the tidings which I bear:
of Ionia (colonized from Greece) restored and Mardonius, press'd by fear of threatening want,
secured. Nor were the benefits resulting from At night's fourth watch the fatal stream will pass, these contests of a momentary nature. They Inflexibly determined, though forbid By each diviner, to assail your host
freed Europe for ages from Asiatic invasion, With all his numbers. I, against surprise,
during the subsistence of the Persian monarchy, Am come to warn you: thee alone I trust,
and even till the erection of the fanatical emMy name revealing.
pires of the Saracens and Turks, of whom the I who thus hazard both my realm and life, Am Alexander, Macedonian friend
one subverted the Constantinopolitan empire, Of Athens. Kindly, on a future day,
and the other penetrated through Africa into Remember me."
Spain. Acting upon this timely information, the
The Persian invasion, says Dr. Hales, furGreek generals ordered their officers to prepare free states to dispute their liberties to the last,
nishes a salutary and awakening lesson to all for battle. The next day, however, passed without any decisive engagement, and night coming them be ever so numerous and formidable. It
and never to compromise with the enemy, let on, numbers of the Greeks deserted from the affords, also, a striking comment upon the words confederate army, in order to escape
the enemys of the psalmist : cavalry, which had annoyed them greatly; and, retiring about twenty stadia towards Platæa,
“ There is no king saved by the multitude of an host: they encamped near the temple of Juno, opposite A mighty man is not delivered by much strength.” to the city.
Psa. xxxiii. 16. The movement of these deserters brought on Victory belongs unto God alone ; and none a general engagement on the ensuing day. can read the account of this struggle for liberty, Mardonius, imagining that the foe fled before
without observing his overruling providence in him, led on his army, shouting as though they the result. A little band of patriots, inflexibly were sure of their prey. As soon, however, as determined to conquer or die in their country's they had passed the Asopus, they encountered
cause, to preserve their religion, their laws, and the Lacedæmonians, Athenians, and Tegeans, to their liberty, triumphed over the mightiest host the number of 53,000 men, which led to a gene- that was ever assembled for the purposes of deral engagement, in which the Persians were
solation. Who gave success ? Not Jove, or completely defeated, chiefly by the determined Juno, or Mercury, or Ceres, or Bacchus, or valour of the Lacedæmonians and Athenians.
any of the fabled gods of Greece, but Him in Mardonius himself was slain, and of the Persian whom are “ the issues of life and death," and who host, according to the Greek historians, not more overrules all events on earth for his own glory. than
3000 escaped, except a select body of What, though both the armies of the Persians 40,000 men, under the command of Artabazus, and Grecians were pagans, He ruled over them ; who marched with all expedition towards the and though they were unmindful of Him, the one Hellespont, whence he transported the remnant
was exalted, and the other humbled by his al(for many of these were slain by the Thracians, mighty hand. To ourselves, the patriotism of or died with fatigue and hunger on the way) from the Greeks reads an important lesson. If they Byzantium, or Constantinople, to Asia. The loss fought so nobly, and struggled so ardently, for of the Grecians, according to Plutarch, amounted their religion, laws, and liberty, which were all only to 1360 men. The spoils taken from the founded on the principles of paganism, surely, we Persians were immense, consisting of vast sums ought to prize our own, which are established of money, gold and silver cups, vessels, tables, upon the enlightened and broad foundations of bracelets, and all kinds of furniture. The tenth Christianity, and to contend for their maintenof these, after devoting a certain portion to ance against the host of infidel foes with which
we are surrounded. Our weapons, it must be fortunate ; if the liver was bad, they inspected
no farther, remembered, and that with thankfulness, are not, Thus, it may be seen, that their replies depended solely upon the choice of the animal.
at the present day, those of life-destroying steel ;
we need only use " the sword of the Spirit, which , annihilation of the whole of the royal family.
“Or own the soul immortal, or invert
upon the throne, in exclusion of Hystaspes, the The defeat of the Persians at Mycale, in the second son, who was governor of the province neighbourhood of Sardis, drove Xerxes from of Bactria, in which he had succeeded Masistes, that city, where he had resided since he retired intending to put him away in his turn. But his from Greece. He was driven with disgrace and
career of wickedness was brief. Artaxerxes dismay to Susa, his capital. His route thither anticipated his treason, and cut off Artabanus was marked by plunder and devastation through and his family before his plans were ripe for Asia. He pillaged and destroyed all the Grecian execution. . Thus the mischief that he designed temples in his way;* nor did he respect even
for, and which he had brought upon others, rethe ancient and venerated temple of Belus at
turned upon his own head. Babylon. He carried off from thence a statue
After this, Artaxerxes was called upon to susa of solid gold, twelve cubits high, probably the tain a war with his brother Hystaspes, who work of Nebuchadnezzar, as mentioned Dan. iii. claimed the throne. The unballowed conflict 1, and slew the high priest, who endeavoured continued for two years, when Hystaspes was to prevent conduct which he deemed sacrilege. defeated, and Artaxerxes secured to himself the Perhaps the desire of making himself amends quiet possession of the empire. To prevent furfor the expenses incurred in his Grecian expe
ther disturbances, he placed governors in every dition, might be a prevailing motive for such province, on whose fidelity he could dependo; proceedings ; for it is certain he found immense after which he applied himself to the reform of treasures in the temples, which had been amassed abuses in the government. through the superstition of princes and people
Artaxerxes Longimanus is celebrated as the during a long series of ages, or been deposited Ahasuerus of the book of Esther, and some other there for safety.
parts of Scripture. In the third year of his The remainder of the reign of this “
son of reign, Ahasuerus gave a sumptuous entertainviolence," as he was described by the Grecian ment, and sent for his queen Vashti to grace the oracles, was clouded by the most horrid and un
banquet. This mandate was contrary to oriental natural crimes, raging through, and ravaging his notions, and the queen refused to obey; but the own household and his own family. The atro
monarch being inflamed with wine, was enraged cious and complicated injuries which he com
at her refusal, and consulted with his sycophant mitted upon the family of Masistes, his brother,
council what steps he should take to punish her and over which we draw a veil, so roused the for her disobedience. They represented that her indignation of that prince, that he fled with his disobedience to her husband was likely to have sons and some attendants towards Bactria, of the worst effects upon society at large, and which he was governor, intending to rouse the advised, as a prevention, that she should be diswarlike Sacæ to revolt. Xerxes apprehending
carded from his presence. Their advice was this, intercepted him on the way, and put him, listened to; he deposed her for her contumacy: his sons, and his adherents to death. To crown
upon which it has been said, the horrid measures of his cruelties, in a transport
“ Severe the punishment for so slight a fault, of rage, he slew his own mother Atossa, the
If it was indeed a fault." daughter of Cyrus, to whose influence he owed the crown.
These atrocities at length, however, After a probation of four years, he chose drew down vengeance upon his head. His | Esther, an orphan Jewess, who possessed peculiar chamberlain, Mithridates, introduced into his gracefulness and beauty, to be his queen, in prebed-chamber at night Artabanus, the captain of ference to all the virgins who were candidates his guards, who assassinated him while he slept, for that dignity. B. C. 464.
In the fifth year of the reign of Artaxerxes,
B. C. 459, the Egyptians revolted, and chose “O joyless power, that stands by lawless force! Curses are his dire portion, scorn, and hate,
Inarus, a Libyan prince, for their king. The Internal darkness, and unquiet breath;
Egyptians called in the Athenians to their asAnd if old judgments keep their sacred course, sistance, who having a fleet of forty sail lying off Him from that height shall Heaven precipitate the island of Cyprus, considered it a favourable By violent and ignominious death."—WORDSWORTH.
opportunity of weakening the Persian power, It was wisely said by the psalmist, that
and sailed to Egypt for that purpose. [The
particulars of this revolt_will be found in the « Evil shall hunt the violent man to overthrow him." History of the Egyptians.]
Psa. cxl. 11.
In the seventh year of his reign, B. C. 457,
Artaxerxes issued a decree, empowering Ezra, After the murder of Xerxes, Artabanus meditated securing the crown for himself, by the the scribe of the law of the God of heaven, to
go to Judea, to restore and enforce the law of * Xerxes spared only two temples in the Grecian war;
Moses, to appoint magistrates and judges throughthose of Apollo at Delos, and of Diana at Ephesus.
out the land, and to punish all transgressors of
the law with confiscation of goods, banishment, as well as Amyrtæus, who fought for the Egyptian or death, Ezra vii. 1—26.
In the year B.C. 450, however, the The Jews, however, were in great danger of Athenians exerted themselves to send another extirpation by the edicts of this monarch in the feet of 200 sail to Cyprus, .under the command fourteenth year of his reign, B. C. 450. Haman, of Cimon, the son of Miltiades, whence he sent the Amalekite, an inveterate foe of the Jewish sixty sail to the assistance of Amyrtæus, in the nation, and a lineal descendant of Agag, the king fens. Artabazus, the Persian admiral, being of the Amalekites, in the days of the prophet then off the island of Cyprus, with a fleet of 300 Samuel, (1 Sam. xv. 33,) was at this date prime ships, Cimon attacked and defeated him, and took minister of Persia. Haman, who was an am- the third part of his ships, and destroyed many bitious and revengeful man, had an undue as- He pursued the rest to Cilicia, and landcendancy over the mind of the monarch, which ing his men by stratagem, as if Persians, he he failed not to use for his own unhallowed pur- surprised and defeated Megabyzus at Eurymeposes. On one occasion, he obtained a royal don, whose army consisted of 300,000 men, and edict for all persons to do him homage. The returned to Cyprus with a double triumph. servile multitude respected this edict; but Mor- Artaxerxes, acting upon the advice of his decai, the kinsman of Esther, doubtless from council, now sought an accommodation with the some scruple of conscience, refused to bow the Athenians. His proposals were listened to ; and knee to the Amalekite. Haman's haughty spirit accordingly they sent ambassadors to Susa, could not brook such a slight, and he resolved to amongst whom was Callias; and the Persians take revenge of the most ample, unjust, and san- on their side sent Artabanes and Megabyzus guinary nature. For this one man's offence he to Athens. The conditions of peace were very sought the destruction of the Jewish race; thus humiliating to the Persian monarch. They were displaying the ancient enmity of the Amalekite as follows:-1. That all the Greek cities in Asia towards Israel, as well as his own personal re- Minor should be free, and governed by their own venge. Haman proposed this measure to the laws. 2. That no Persian governor of the proking, alleging that the Jews were dangerous to vinces should march an army within three days' the state; and Artaxerxes, in a moment of weak- journey of the coast. 3. That no Persian ship ness, passed a royal decree for their public proof war should sail between the Cyanean rocks, scription and massacre throughout the Persian at the northern extremity of the Thracian Bosdominions. After much deliberation of the con- porus, and the Chelidonian Isles, near the southspirators, in selecting the most lucky days, it was ern promontory of Lycia; thus excluding the determined that the tragical event should take Persians from the entire Ægean Sea, and that place on the thirteenth day of the twelfth month part of the Mediterranean bordering upon Asia Adar.
Minor. 4. That the Athenians should not inIn the meantime this dreadful plot was defeated vade any part of the dominions of the king of by the piety and address of Esther the queen, Persia. and turned upon Haman himself, who was de- This peace, so advantageous to the Athenian stroyed, with all his family. Thus did this states, established the independence of the Grecian wicked man fall into the spare which he had laid colonies on the Asiatic coast. It was concluded for others, and his name stands in the page of B. C. 449, in the fifteenth year of Artaxerxes, history as a warning to mankind of every gene- thirty years after the victories of Platæa and ration not to encourage those evil passions inci- Mycale, and forty years after the first Persian dent to human nature from the fall—ambition invasion of Greece. The loss of life was imand revenge. See Esther iii.viii. Thus, also, mense during this period, and the blood that was did God exhibit his providential care over his shed in the various conflicts must stain the people, from whence the Christian may take memory of all those at whose instigation it was courage in his pilgrimage on earth. If Israel undertaken throughout all generations. according to the flesh was tenderly watched over by the great Father of mankind, how much more “Ye monarchs, whom the lure of honour draws, shall the spiritual Israel share in his Divine and Who write in blood the merits of your cause, watchful care !
Who strike the blow, then plead your own defence,
Glory your aim, but justice your pretence; On this occasion was displayed the mischievous Behold in Ætna's emblematic fires effect of that law of the Medes and Persians, The mischiefs your ambitious pride inspires ! which set forth that the king's decree, when signed by him, and sealed with his seal, could The trumpet sounds, your legions swarm abroad; not be revoked. Artaxerxes was obliged to
Through the ripe harvest lies their destined road:
At every step beneath their feet they tread issue a counter decree, empowering the Jews to The life of multitudes, a nation's bread! arm themselves in self-defence, and to slay all Earth seems a garden in its loveliest dress those who might attack them. The result of
Before them, and behind a wilderness. this was, the slaughter of 75,000 men, among
Famine and pestilence, her first-born sons,
Attend to finish what the sword begun; whom were the ten sons of Haman. See Esther
And echoing praises, such as fiends might earn, ix.
And folly pays, resound at your return. The Greeks, who sailed to the rescue of Egypt
A calm succeeds--but plenty, with her train
Of heartfelt joys, succeeds not soon again; under the command of Inarus, as related in that
And years of pining indigence must show history, defeated the Persians in the first battle, What scourges are the gods that rule below."-COWPER. and slew their leader Achæmenes. Afterwards, the Persian monarch having assembled an over- In the twentieth year of the reign of Artawhelming force, re-established his authority in xerxes, B. c. 444, he granted to the Jews that Egypt, and expelled the Greeks from that country, | permission which he had long refused, to rebuild
the walls of Jerusalem. This favour was granted it till his death. To Megabyzus the king of at the instance of Nehemiah, whom he appointed Persia owed both his life and crown, when he tirshatha, or governor of Judea. Nehemiah ascended the throne, which makes his conduct was empowered to repair the wall, and set up the appear in a more unfavourable light: it may gates, to build a palace for himself
, and after- be, that the monarch envied the renown of wards to rebuild the city; and, in conjunction the valour and wisdom of Megabyzus, for he with Ezra, the priest and scribe, to establish was the best counsellor and greatest general of the civil and ecclesiastical polity of the nation, the Persian empire. all which he accomplished—notwithstanding he In the thirty-fourth year of the reign of Artmet with great opposition from Sanballat the axerxes, the oppressive system of the AtheSamaritan and his army, Tobiah the Ammonite, nian policy armed the confederates against that the Arabians, and the Åshdodites—in the course state in the Peloponnesian war, which lasted of his administration of twelve years. See twenty-seven years, ending in the overthrow of Nehemiah ii.-iv. ; vi. 15 ; vii. 1-4; and xi. 1,2. the Athenian dominion. The assistance of Art
This change in the conduct of Artaxerxes axerxes was sought by both parties, but he respecting the Jews, says Dr. Hales, may be ac- wisely declined to assist either. The Athenians counted for upon sound political principles, and sent another embassy, but when they reached not merely from regard to the solicitations of Ephesus they received news of the death of Nehemiah, or the influence of his queen ; and Artaxerxes. the humiliating conditions of the treaty with the Athenians corroborates this opinion. Thus
“Put not your trust in princes,
Nor in the son of man, in whom there is no help. excluded from the whole line of sea coast,
His breath goeth forth, he returneth to his earth; Dr. Hales adds, and precluded from keeping In that very day his thoughts perish."-Psa. cxlvi. 3, 4. garrisons in any of the maritime towns, it became a matter both of prudence and necessity By Persian writers, Artaxerxes was surnamed to conciliate the Jews, to attach them to the Bahaman, signifying “ kind,” or “ beneficent.” Persian interest, and detach them from the According to Thucydides, his favourite maxim Grecian, by further privileges, that the Persians was, that “the gates of a king should never be might have the benefit of a friendly, fortified shut.” He carried this noble maxim into practice town like Jerusalem, within three days' journey with Themistocles, who had done so much of the sea, and a most important pass, to keep mischief to Persia, and for whose head he had open the communication between Persia and offered a reward of 200 talents, (nearly 40,0001.,) Egypt. To confirm this conjecture, it may be on his accession to the throne. When banished remarked, that in all the ensuing Egyptian wars from Greece and every part of Europe by the the Jews remained faithful to the Persians, and inveterate persecution of his countrymen, he even after the Macedonian invasion ; and it may threw himself upon the mercy of Artaxerxes, reasonably be supposed, that Artaxerxes had who, as we have seen in the history of the polity some such argument as this to oppose to the of Persia, made a princely provision for him. jealousy and displeasure this measure excited in Themistocles used to say to his children, in referthe neighbouring provinces hostile to the Jews, ence to this treatment, “ We should have been whose remonstrances had so much weight with undone if we had not been undone;" and the him in former days.
strongest inducement afterwards held out by any In the engagement in which the Greeks had Persian to a Greek was, that “he should live been driven from Egypt, Inarus, and a body of with him, as Themistocles did with Artaxerxes." his auxiliaries, had surrendered themselves to The chief praise due to Artaxerxes is the the Persian monarch, after obtaining a promise regard he had for the temple of Jehovah, as disof pardon from Megabyzus. The queen-mother, played in these verses : And I, even I Artaa haughty and cruel princess, enraged at the loss xerxes the king, do make a decree to all the of her son Achæmenes, entreated Artaxerxes to treasurers which are beyond the river, that whatviolate the capitulation granted to Inarus by soever Ezra the priest, the scribe of the law of Megabyzus, and to deliver the prisoners taken at the God of heaven, shall require of you, it be Byblus to her revenge. He resisted the proposal done speedily, unto an hundred talents of silver, for five years, but was at length wearied into and to an hundred measures of wheat, and to an compliance, and the unhappy captives perished hundred baths of wine, and to an hundred baths by cruel tortures. Indignant at such conduct, of oil, and salt without prescribing how much. Megabyzus revolted, (B. C. 447,) and being sup- Whatsoever is commanded by the God of heaven, ported by the Syrians, repeatedly defeated the let it be diligently done for the house of the God royal forces. He was at length allowed to dictate of heaven : for why should there be wrath his own terms, and he returned to court. Shortly against the realm of the king and his sons ? after, however, he was perfidiously seized for the Also we certify you, that touching any of the slight offence of shooting a lion at a royal hunt priests and Levites, singers, porters, Nethinims, before the king had discharged his arrow, and or ministers of this house of God, it shall not be he was condemned to perpetual exile at Cyrta, lawful to impose toll, tribute, or custom, upon a city standing on the Red Sea. This cruelty them. And thou, Ezra, after the wisdom of thy provoked afresh the hostility of the sons and God, that is in thine hand, set magistrates and friends of Megabyzus, whose turbulence again judges, which may judge all the people that are disturbed the state ; but after five years' banish- beyond the river, all such as know the laws of ment, he secretly returned to Susa, when, by the thy God; and teach ye them that know them intercession of his wife and mother-in-law, he not. And whosoever will not do the law of thy was reinstated in the king's favour, and enjoyed God, and the law of the king, let judgment be
executed speedily upon him, whether it be unto pleasures and amusements, to engross the whole death, or to banishment, or to confiscation of authority to himself. Under the name and progoods, or to imprisonment,” Ezra vii. 21—26. tection of queen Parysatis, indeed, to whose will This decree shows that Artaxerxes was ac- and pleasure he was devoted, he disposed of all quainted with the true religion ; and Dr. Hales the affairs of the empire. The name only of rightly observes, that “ he was happy in two such king was wanting, and, to obtain this, he formed master-counsellors as Ezra and Nehemiah.” a design to rid himself of Darius, and ascend the
On the death of Artaxerxes, B. C. 423, his only throne. The plot, however, was discovered, and legitimate son,
he was seized and delivered up to Parysatis, by XERXES II.,
whom he was put to a cruel and ignominious
death. ascended the throne. Within forty-five days,
By this it will be perceived, that eunuchs had however, Xerxes was murdered by his natural
at this date acquired considerable power in the brother
court of Persia : at a later period they governed SOGDIANUS,
absolutely in it, to the great danger of the who usurped the throne, but was quickly deposed* princes. Some idea may be formed of their by another illegitimate prince, Ochus, 'who, on character by the picture which Dioclesian, after his accession, took the name of
he had resigned the empire, and reduced himself
to a private station of life, drew of the freedmen DARIUS II.,
who had gained a like ascendancy over the but who is usually called Nothus, that is, “ ille- Roman emperors. “ Four or five persons,” says gitimate,” to distinguish him from the other he,“ who are closely united, and resolutely deterprinces of the same title.
mined to impose on a prince, may do it very The reign of Darius Nothus was turbulent easily. They never show things to him but in and unfortunate. His own brother Arsites, born such a light as they are sure will please. They of the same mother, seeing in what manner conceal whatever would contribute to enlighten Sogdianus had supplanted Xerxes, and had been him; and as they alone beset him continually, he afterwards driven from the throne by Ochus, cannot be informed of any thing but through their first rebelled against him, but he was decoyed channel, and knows nothing but what they think into a surrender, and smothered in ashes, a death fit to suggest to him. Hence it is that he bestows Sogdianus had previously suffered. Arsites was employments on those whom he ought to exclude assisted in his rebellion by Artyphius, son of from them; and, on the other side, removes from Megabyzus, who shared a similar fate.
offices such persons as are most worthy of filling One of the most dangerous rebellions Darius them. In a word, the best prince is often sold by Nothus had to encounter occurred in Lydia. these men, though he be ever so vigilant, and in Pisuthnes, governor of that province, was am- despite of bis suspicion of them.” bitious of making himself king, for which pur- The greatest misfortune which happened to pose he enlisted in his service a body of Grecian Darius during the whole course of his reign was troops, under the command of Lycon the Athen- the revolt of the Egyptians, the particulars of ian. Darius. sent Tissaphernes against this which are related in that history, (page 60.) After opponent, giving him, at the same time, the com- this, the Medes rebelled, but were defeated, and mission of governor of Lydia, of which he was reduced to their ancient allegiance. To punish to dispossess Pisuthnes. By bribes
and promises, them for their revolt, their yoke, which hitherto Tissaphernes brought over the Greeks to his had been light, was made burdensome : a fate side, and Pisuthnes, thus weakened, was com- rebellious subjects generally experience when pelled to surrender. A promise of pardon was they are subdued. held out to him, but the instant he was brought Åbout B. C. 407, Darius gave Cyrus, the before the king he was doomed to undergo the youngest of his sons, the supreme command of same cruel death as Sogdianus and Arsites. The all the provinces of Asia Minor : an important death of Pisuthnes, however, did not put an end commission, by which he made all the provincial to all danger in this quarter. Amorgas, his son, governors of that part of the empire dependent with the remainder of his army, withstood Tis- upon him. saphernes, and for two years laid waste the The hatred which Darius possessed against the maritime provinces of Asia Minor, till at length | Athenians, led him to deviate from his father's he was taken by the Greeks of Peloponnesus in policy respecting the Grecian states. Artaxerxes Iasus, a city of Ionia, who delivered him up to assisted the weaker against the stronger, and so Tissaphernes, by whom he was put to death. balanced matters between them, that they con
A plot within the precincts of his own court tinued to harass each other, and thereby were had nearly proved fatal to Darius. Three prevented from uniting against the Persians. On eunuchs had usurped all power therein, but one the contrary, Darius commissioned Cyrus to assist of these three presided over and governed the the Lacedæmonians with large subsidies against rest. This man, whose name was Artoxares, the Athenians, which enabled Lysander, their had wormed himself into the confidence of general, to finish the Peloponnesian war with Darius. He had studied all his passions, in order the overthrow of the Athenians, and demolition to indulge them, and govern the monarch by of their fortifications, about B. C. 404. their means. He plunged him continually in Shortly after the appointment of Cyrus to
the government of the provinces of Asia Minor, • The two brief reigns of Xerxes and Sogdianus, he put to death two of the nephews of Darius, amounting only to eight months, are omitted in Ptolemy's
because they had not folded their hands in their canon, but their amount is included in the last year of Artaxerxes, according to his usage.
sleeves, as was customary among the Persians in