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presence of their kings. Darius was incensed | ther's rejoicings, when he was about to strip him-
scene; than which history presents nothing more
The generous forgiveness which Artaxerxes The reign of Darius is memorable in history had extended to his brother Cyrus ought for ever by the reference thereto in sacred prophecy. He to have bound the latter in the bonds of love and was the first of the four kings foretold to precede fealty to the former. But the nature of Cyrus the dissolution of the Persian empire: the pro- was not thus affected : "he had injured and phecy of the seventy weeks, pointing out the could not forgive;" his ambition remained as time of the coming of the Messiah, also com- mounting as before it had received a check ; and menced in the fourth year of his reigo, or B.C. superadded to this active principle, was one of 420. See Dan. ix. and xi.
equal fire and buoyancy—that of resentment for On his accession to the throne, Arsaces as- the disgrace he had suffered. A fierce desire of sumed the title of
revenge burned within him, and he resolved upon
the dethronement of his brother. With this view ARTAXERXES ;
he employed Clearchus, a Lacedæmonian general, and he was distinguished by the Greek writers to raise a body of Grecian troops, under the prefrom others of that name by the epithet Mnemon, tence, among others, of a war meditated against or “ memory," he being remarkable for that “in- Thrace; and, doubtless to forward the same obtellectual power,” which is one of the choicest.ject, he presented to Lysander a galley of two faculties bestowed upon man.
cubits in length, as a congratulatory compliment It has been recorded in the life of Darius upon a naval victory. This gift was subsequently Nothus, that Parysatis, his queen, had sought the consecrated to Apollo in the temple of Delphi ; kingdom for Cyrus, because, like Xerxes, he had and afterwards we find Lysander at Sardis, been born after his father's succession to the charged with rich presents from the allies to throne, and that she had been disappointed in Cyrus. her views. The monarch, influenced either by It was upon occasion of this visit that Cyrus the dictates of affection, or a sense of justice, had the celebrated conversation with Lysander, disregarded her importunities, and gave the related page 32. crown to Arsaces, bequeathing the provinces The seeming virtue which Cyrus displayed in to Cyrus.
this conversation, was only the instrument for This action of Parysatis, and perhaps her pri- forwarding evil designs. This, and all other vate conduct, kindled the flames of ambition in pretences of a similar kind, he made use of to the breast of Cyrus; and when ambition has attract the notice and win the esteem of the once engrossed the heart, there is no crime, how powerful, who were unwary, or degenerate ever foul in its nature, which man is not ready enough, to abet his unnatural rebellion. By arts of to perpetrate to advance bimself towards the a like description he won the affections of the summit of his desires, however unhallowed they barbarians under his government; and with the may be. Thus it was with Cyrus. Despairing / aid of Clearchus and others, he raised secretly, of otherwise ascending the throne of Persia, in several places, and under various pretexts, a which his too fond mother had taught him to body of Grecian troops, on whom he placed his consider as his legitimate right, he resolved upon chief reliance. Nor was this all. Influenced by the death of his brother; and, regardless of the his intrigues, several provinces of the governnear ties which united them, he decided
in- ment of Tissaphernes revolted, and placed themflicting that death with his own hand.
selves under his jurisdiction, and this incident If any circumstances could deepen the guilt of giving rise to a war between him and Tissapherthis atrocious project, it was the time at which, nes, was used as a cloak to cover his designs and the place where, the dark deed was intended upon the life of his brother, and the crown of to be performed. It was on the day of his bro- | Persia. Under the pretence of warring with
Tissaphernes, he now assembled troops from slight a purpose, he sent information of the provarious quarters ; and more speciously to amuse ceedings to the king, accompanied with an intithe court, he forwarded complaints against Tis- mation of what he believed to be the real designs saphernes to the king, and submissively implored of Cyrus. his protection.
The intelligence roused Artaxerxes from his Artaxerxes, deceived by these appearances, lethargy, and threw the whole court into alarm. reposing in imprudent and indolent security, be- Recollections of her former criminality now drew lieved that the preparations made by Cyrus were all eyes upon the mother of these belligerent directed against Tissaphernes alone. Taking brothers, and all employed in her service were advantage of this supineness, Cyrus redoubled suspected of being in league with Cyrus. The his efforts ; and, by means of emissaries, endea- two queens, the mother and the wife of Artavoured to prepare the minds of the people for xerxes, evinced on this occasion the most deadly the approaching change. These emissaries in hatred for each other. “Where," cried the latter, flamed discontent where they discovered it, and “where is now the faith which you have so often sought to create it where it was not. They pledged for the conduct of your son ? This is laboured industriously in their fiend-like avoca- our reward for listening to those ardent prayers tion, exalting the feigned merits of Cyrus, and that preserved from death a traitor against the depreciating the qualities of Artaxerxes, whom king his brother! It is your unhappy fondness they represented as a moth of peace, saying that that has kindled the flame of war, and plunged the state required such a ruler as Cyrus, one us into an abyss of evil.” who loved war, and showered favours on those Summoning a numerous force in haste, Artawho served him, a valiant king, fired with the xerxes marched in all the pomp and pride of war noble ambition of upholding and extending the to meet his brother. glories of the state.
The expedition of Cyrus is amongst the most At the same time, Cyrus was endeavouring to remarkable recorded in ancient nistory and crown the whole of his designs by obtaining suc- classical geography. It is interesting, not only cours from the Lacedæmonians, whom he had from the importance of the prize at stake-the assisted to become masters of Greece. In a diadem of Asia, but also from the circumstance letter he wrote them, he spoke of himself in of its combining together a military history and magnificent terms. He told them he had a a journal of travels. greater and more royal heart than his brother ; The first part of the march of Cyrus was from that he was better versed in the philosophy and Ephesus to Sardis, about fifty-eight miles in a knowledge of the magi, by which was meant the direct distance. He then crossed Mount Messcience of religion and government, and that he sogis, and the river Mæander, south-east of Sarcould take more wine without being intoxicated dis; and then turning north-east, came in four -a very meritorious quality amongst the barba- days' marches to Colosse, to the inhabitants of rians, but not so proper to recommend him to the which St. Paul addressed an epistle upwards of good opinion of those he addressed. Neverthe- four centuries afterwards, about eighty-five miles less, the Lacedæmonians sent orders to their fleet
From Colosse the army of Cyrus came to join that of Cyrus immediately, and to obey in three marches to Celænæ, about sixty miles the commands of Tamos, his admiral, in every north-east. From thence in two marches they particular; but without the least mention of came to Peltæ, which Rennel recognises in the Artaxerxes, or intimation of the evil designs Peloti of Edrisi, situate on the road from Tarsus of Cyrus.
to Abydos, a distance of twenty-eight miles At length, troops to the amount of 130,000 north, where the Greeks were allowed to celemen were collected, and placed under the com- brate the Arcadian festival called Lycæa.* In mand of experienced leaders. Clearchus com- two marches more, north, they came to the manded the Peloponnesian troops, except the Forum of the Kramians, the ancient Cotyæum Achæans, who were led by Socrates of Achaia. / of the Roman times, and the modern Kutahiah. The Boeotians were under Proxenus the Theban, This city stands on the road leading from Broussa and the Thessalians were headed by Menon. to Cilicia, Syria, and Cyprus through Iconium, The barbarians had Persian generals, the chief so that Cyrus would have to pass for upwards of whom was Ariæus. _ The fleet consisted of of two hundred miles through deep and extenthirty-five ships under Pythagoras, and twenty, sive valleys, lying at the northern foot of the five commanded by Tamos the Egyptian, admiral Pisidian and Cilician Taurus. The first city his of the whole fleet.
army came to was Caystrus, about eighty-five With this formidable host, Cyrus set forward, miles south-east from the Forum of the Kramians, still keeping his unholy purpose a profound se- and which answers to the modern Sakli, called cret from alī, save Clearchus the Greek. To this Ketchluk by Kinnier. From Caystrus, or Sakli, policy he was instigated by the fear that so bold in two marches they came to Thymbrium, Renan enterprise might dismay his soldiers, no less nel's modern Karatepe, and Kinnier's Akshehr, or than by the necessity of concealing his intention from the Persian court.
An Arcadian festival resembling the Roman LupercaNevertheless, the wily stratagist was baffled, and lia. It was celebrated with games, in which the conqueror his object was made known. He had given out
was generally rewarded with a suit of brazen armour.
human sacrifice was anciently offered at this festival. It that he was leading this force against the Pisi
was first observed by Lycaon, in honour of Jupiter, surdians, who had infested his province with their named Lycæus, either from Lycaon's own name, or the incursions ; but Tissaphernes saw through a
Arcadian mountain Lycæus, which the Arcadians pre
tended was the true Olympus, whence they called it "the pretext so shallow, and assured that preparations sacred hill,” because Jupiter was feigned to have received could never be made on so mighty a scale for so
his education there.
the White City, a distance of twenty-eight miles. These tidings were ill-received at first; but inIn the same distance they came to Tyriæum, duced by the promise of a considerable gratuity, considered by Kinnier to be the modern Eilgoun, as well as encouraged by an artifice of Menon's, but which Rennel thinks lies twelve geographi- they passed from thence over the Euphrates : cal miles farther east. In three marches more, thus devoting themselves to the service of Cyrus. or fifty-six miles, they came to Iconium, the an- After having passed the Euphrates, in ninecient capital of the Aladinian sultans, and stand- teen marches further, Cyrus reached the Araxes, ing in the ancient Lycaonia* mentioned in the the modern Khabour, about two hundred and Acts of the Apostles (chap. xiv. 6, 11.) From this eighty miles distant, which is about fifteen miles city the march continued five days almost due per diem. On crossing the Araxes, Cyrus entered east through Lycaonia, and terminated a little to the desert of Arabia, now called the Desert of the south of Erekli
, anciently Heraclea, a few Sinjar. This vast tract he crossed by forced miles from the northern foot of Mount Taurus. marches to the Pylæ Babyloniæ, or “Pass out of The distance traversed in this five days' march the hills into the plains of Babylonia,” which he was eighty-five miles. At the end of it, Cyrus reached in eighteen days. The first five of these made a division of his army. With one division marches were through perfect flat, without he marched himself to the valley of Tyana, trees, and often covered with absynthum. The seventy miles distant ; whilst Menon, with the other thirteen marches were through a rugged other, took the route of Erekli, south-east, and and hilly tract, on both sides of the river Euascended the north-west face of Taurus. This phrates, extending to one hundred miles in part of Taurus is called by the Turks Ramadan breadth. At the end of the fifth march they Oglu Balakklar, and is so broad that it requires came to Corsote, a large uninhabited city, surtwenty-five hours to cross it, and there are seve- rounded by the river Masca, the modern Saccoral difficult passes in the way. That by which ras, where they stayed three days, and made their Cyrus himself entered Cilicia is denominated provisions. From Corsote they came to Carthe Northern Pass, and is on the direct road from mande, which Rennel supposes to be the modern Cesarea Mazaca, in Cappadocia, to Tarsus. Hit, about twenty geographical miles above the Rennel says that when Cyrus arrived at Tyana,t Pylæ. From the Pylæ, Cyrus marched thirty he found the pass occupied by Syennesis, king of miles across the plains of Babylonia, and then, Cilicia, and that therefore he encamped in the after reviewing his troops at midnight of the plain before it, which was since denominated from third day, he marched about ten miles farther on him, " The plain of Cyrus.” According to Xeno- the fourth day in order of battle. On the sixth phon, the army of Cyrus reached Tarsust in day he arrived at a place called Cunaxa, from four marches, the probable distance of which is whence was discerned a thick dust like a white sixty miles. At Tarsus, Cyrus halted for twenty cloud, which was succeeded first by a darkness, days, after which he marched to the Sarus, or which enveloped the entire plain, and then by modern Seihoon, twenty-eight miles in two days. the resplendent glitter of the armour, lances, and Another day's march, eastward, fourteeen miles, standards of an almost countless host. This was brought his army to the Pyramus or Jeihoon; the army of Artaxerxes, his brother, for whose and two more, forty-two miles, to Issus, where crown Cyrus had undergone so many hardships the battle was afterwards fought between Alex- in his expedition. ander and Darius. From Issus, in another day's The two armies were soon arrayed in order of march of fifteen miles, they came to the Syrian battle. On his right hand Cyrus posted a thouStrait, or gates of Cilicia and Syria; and in an- sand Paphlagonian horse, supported by the Euother of the same distance they reached Myrian- phrates, and the light armed infantry of the drus, which was a large maritime city, no traces Greeks; and next them, Clearchus, Proxenus, of which now remain. From this place Cyrus and the rest of the general officers to Menon, at made twelve marches to Thapsacus, now vi the head of their several corps. The left wing, Der.
composed of Lydians, Phrygians, and other While at Thapsacus, Cyrus declared to his Asiatic nations, was commanded by Ariæus, generals the real object of the expedition, and who had a thousand horse. Cyrus placed himdesired them to communicate it to the soldiers, self in the centre, where the chosen troops of the and to endeavour to gain their willing service. Persians and the barbarians were posted. He
had round him six hundred horsemen, armed at • Lycaonia formed part of the satrapy of Cappadocia,
all points, as were their horses with frontlets and was a steppe impregnated with salt, and containing and breastplates. a salt lake named Talta. The sole occupation of its in- The army of Artaxerxes was commanded by habitants appears to have been that of pastors or shep- Tissaphernes on the left, which division consisted + This city was at the foot of the Anti-Taurus, and it
of cavalry, armed with white cuirasses, and of gave name to the district. It was the birth-place of a light-armed infantry. In the centre was the celebrated impostor called Apollonius, who lived A.D. 90, heavy-armed foot, a great part of whom were and whose life and feigned miracles are recorded by Phi- Egyptians,* and entirely covered with wooden
bucklers. 1 Tarsus, now Tersoos, or Tarasso, was the principal and of the horse, formed the right wing. The
The rest of the light-armed infantry, city of Cilicia, situated at the mouth of the river Cydnus. In the Greek annals it is celebrated for the learning and foot were drawn up with as much depth as front,
In Scripture it excites an interest as the birth-place of St. Paul, who calls it “no mean city,” Acts xxi. 39. It was made a free colony by the • Zeune supposes that the Egyptians, here mentioned, Greeks, an honour which was conceded to it by the Ro- were the descendants of those who are spoken of as having mans also, whence St. Paul asserts his privilege as a free- been received into the favour and confidence of the elder born Roman, Acts xxii. 25.
refinement of its inhabitants.
and in that order composed square battalions. the daring efforts and final overthrow of an amThe king had posted himself in the main body, bitious spirit, whose aims were narrowed to the with the flower of the whole army, and had attainment of mere worldly power and grandeur, 6000 horse for his guard, commanded by a lesson for thine own! Happy he, the humble Artagerses. Though he was in the centre, he wayfarer, who, during his sojourn on earth, prewas beyond the left wing of the army of Cyrus, pares for an inheritance that fades not, and looks 80 much did the front of his own exceed in ex- forward to a crown that is eternal. tent that of the opposing force. A hundred and Artaxerxes, after having caused the head and fifty chariots armed with scythes were placed in right hand of his brother to be cut off, pursued the front of the army, and they were so fixed as the enemy to their camp, and there possessed to mow down all before them.
himself of great part of their baggage and proThe army of Artaxerxes, numerous as it was, visions. The Greeks had defeated the king's moved on without noise or confusion. When left wing, coinmanded by Tissaphernes; and the they had nearly reached that of Cyrus, the Greeks king's right wing, under his own command, had began to sing the hymn of battle: and drawing routed the enemy's left; and as neither knew still nearer, they shouted after their usual wont, what had occurred elsewhere, both parties imastriking their darts upon their shields to frighten gined they had gained the victory. Tissapherthe horses, and then moving onwards in a body, nes, however, acquainting the king that his men they sprang upon the barbarians, who fled at the had been put to fight by the Greeks, he immeonset.
diately rallied his troops, in order to attack The savage spirit of war was now fully ex- them. The Greeks, under the command of erted, and Cyrus exultingly beheld the advant-Clearchus, easily repulsed them, and pursued ages which were occasionally presented to his them to the neighbouring hills. forces : and these were so successfully improved As it was almost night, the Greeks now laid by the Greeks, that he was boldly though pre- down their arms to refresh themselves with rest. maturely proclaimed king by all around him. They were surprised that neither Cyrus nor any
The crown was not to adorn his brows. He one from him appeared, and imagined that either had climbed the unstable ladder of ambition to he was engaged in the pursuit of the enemy, or was be precipitated to destruction. Perceiving that making, haste to possess himself of some importArtaxerxes was wheeling his right to attack him ant place. They determined, therefore, to return in the flank, he marched directly against him to their camp, where they arrived about nightfall, with his 600 horse. With his own hand he de- and found the greatest part of their baggage stroyed Artagerses, who commanded the king's taken, with all the provisions, which obliged guard of 6000 horse, putting the entire body to them to pass the night in the camp without reflight. Then, discovering his brother, his eyes freshment. sparkled with fury as he cried," I see him !” and The next morning, the Greeks heard of the he spurred forward his horse, eager to commit death of Cyrus, and the defeat of that part of the the two-fold crime of destroying his brother and army. Upon this they sent deputies to Ariæus, his king
offering him, as conquerors, the crown of Persia. The battle now became a single combat be- Ariæus refused the offer, and acquainted them tween Artaxerxes and Cyrus; and the brothers that he intended to set out early next morning on were seen transported with the deadliest rage, his return to Ionia, advising them to join him in each endeavouring to plunge his sword into the the night. They followed his directions, and, other's heart, and thus rid himself of a rival | under the conduct of Clearchus, began their -reminding the spectators of Eteocles and Poly- march, and arrived at his camp about midnight, nices, of whom the Greek poets say, that their whence they set out on their return to Greece. ashes separated on the burning pile, as if sensible At this time, the Greeks were in the very heart of resentment, and hostile to reconciliation. of the Persian empire, surrounded by a numer
For a time, the advantage was with Cyrus, who ous and victorious army, and they had therefore succeeded in killing the horse of Artaxerxes, no way to return into Greece, but by forcing their which fell with him to the ground. The king retreat through a vast tract of the enemy's country, recovered himself, and mounted another, when Their valour and resolution, however, surmounted Cyrus again rushed upon him, inflicted a second all these difficulties, and, despite of a powerful wound, and had uplifted his arm for the infliction army, which pursued and harassed them all the of a third, when Artaxerxes, like a lion wounded way, they made good their retreat, travelling by the hunters, only the more furious from the over the space of 2325 miles, through provinces smart, sprang forward, impetuously pushing his belonging to the enemy, and reached in safety the horse against his opponent, who, running head- Greek cities on the Euxine Sea. Clearchus had long, and without regard to his person, threw the conduct of the army at first ; but he being himself into the midst of a flight of darts aimed slain by the treachery of Tissaphernes, the miliat him on all sides, and at that instant receiving tary historian Xenophon was appointed in his a wound from his brother's javelin, Cyrus fell stead, and it was chiefly owing to his valour and dead : his chief lords were slain likewise, resolv- wisdom that his countrymen surmounted their ing not to survive him.
dangers. Behold, reader, the fitting reward of indo- The retreat of the 10,000 is equally celebrated mitable courage, energy, and ability, admira- in history with the expedition of Cyrus, but that ble qualities when directed to the accomplish- more properly belongs to the history of Greece. ment of proper ends, but oniy casting additional The victory which Artaxerxes had gaired blackness on the crime when employed in the over his brother Cyrus was followed by a sucfurtherance of unworthy ones! Behold, too, incession of atrocious crimes in his court. Fearful
as the deed of shedding the blood of a brother is, of Persia. Agesilaus swept all before him, the monarch was ambitious that the action should whereupon Tissaphernes sent a messenger to inbe attributed to him alone. Mithridates, a young quire to what end he was come into Asia, and Persian nobleman, boasted that he gave the mor- why he had taken up arms. Agesilaus replied, tal wound, and he suffered the most cruel and that he was come to assist the Greeks inhabiting revolting death for his boast. A Carian soldier | Asia, and to restore them their ancient liberty. also claimed the glory, and he was delivered to Tissaphernes, unprepared for war, now had Parysatis, whose tender mercies were at all times recourse to stratagem. He assured Agesilaus, cruel, and who inflicted on him the most exqui- that Artaxerxes would grant him his demands, site torments for ten days, and then put him to a provided he committed no acts of hostility till cruel death. Masabates, by whom, at the king's the return of his couriers. Agesilaus believed order, the head of the fallen Cyrus was decapitated, him, and a truce was agreed upon ; but Tissasuffered death for the deed also, by the command phernes made no other use of it than to assemble of queen Parysatis
. Nor did she stop here. troops on all sides, and to obtain aid from ArHaving, as before stated, conceived an implaca- taxerxes. ble hatred against Statira, she was poisoned by As soon as Tissaphernes had received the aid he her command in a most refined manner. Ar- sought, he commanded Agesilaus to depart from taxerxes, being afflicted for the loss of his beloved Asia, denouncing war against him in case of reStatira, and suspecting his mother, caused all her fusal. The Lacedæmonians and their confededomestics to be put to the rack, when Gygis, one rates were alarmed: but Agesilaus heard the of her accomplices, discovered the whole. Ar: heralds of Tissaphernes with composure, and detaxerxes put the informant to death, and confined sired them to tell the wily satrap that he was bis mother to Babylon; but at length, time hav- under great obligations to him for having made ing alleviated his griefs, he allowed her to return the gods, by his perjury, enemies to Persia and to court, where, by an entire submission to his friends to "Greece. Having thus dismissed the will, she regained his favour, and bore much heralds, he made a show of invading Caria; but sway at court till her death.
finding that Tissaphernes had caused all his After the death of Cyrus, Tissaphernes being troops to march into that province, he turned sent back to his former government, and invested towards Phrygia, the greater part of which he with the same power as the fallen prince, began overran : after which, loaded with the spoils of to harass and oppress the Greek cities within that province, he marched back by the sea-coast the limits of his authority. These cities sought into Ionia, and wintered at Ephesus. the aid of the Lacedæmonians, who sent Thimbro, The next spring, Agesilaus took the field, givB.C. 399, with an army against them, which being ing out that he would march into Lydia. Tissastrengthened by the forces brought back from phernes believed that he would march directly Persia, they took the field against Tissaphernes. for Caria, and marched his troops thither for its Thimbro was, however, recalled upon some com- protection. But he was deceived. Agesilaus plaints, and sent into banishment, and the next entered Lydia, and approached Sardis. Tissayear Dercyllidas was appointed his successor. phernes hastened to its relief; but his horse
Dercyllidas was a brave general, and a famous having arrived before the infantry, Agesilaus atengineer, and his movements were attended tacked and defeated them with great slaughter, with some success. Having heard that Tissa- and enriched both himself and his army with the phernes and Pharnabazus were at variance, he spoils of the conquered Persians. made a truce with the former, and entered the In the greatest prosperity we should be mindprovince of the latter, advancing as far as Æolis. ful of a change. Hitherto, Tissaphernes had Pharnabazus was driven from city to city, and revelled in the smiles of Artaxerxes. The loss at length, fearing that the conqueror would invade of this battle forfeited the monarch’s favour. At Phrygia, the chief province of his government, the same time, Conon, arriving at the Persian he made a truce with him, leaving him in pos- court, made the breach wider by a complaint session of the cities he had captured.
he brought against him of depriving the soldiers The conqueror now turned his arms against on board Conon’s fleet of their pay, thereby disTissaphernes in Caria, where he usually resided. abling him from rendering the king any service. Tissaphernes and Pharnabazus united against The charges were aggravated by queen Parysatis
, him, and surprised him in a disadvantageous post. who was actuated by an irreconcilable hatred Pharnabazus advised an attack upon the Greeks, against all who had a share in the defeat and but Tissaphernes, who had experienced their death of Cyrus. Artaxerxes resolved upon the valour at Cunaxa, sent heralds to Dercyllidas to destruction of Tissaphernes; but, being afraid to invite him to a parley, and a truce ensued till the attack him openly, on account of the great auanswers of their respective masters should be thority he had in Asia, recourse was had to known.
treachery for the accomplishment of his designs. In the mean time, the Lacedæmonians, receiv- He charged Tithraustes, captain of the guards, ing accounts from Asia, that Artaxerxes was with this commission. He gave him two letters, equipping a powerful fleet under Conon the Athe- the one directed to Tissaphernes, empowering him nian, then an exile in Cyprus, and supposing, to pursue the war against the Greeks at his own rightly, that it was designed against them, re- discretion; the other was addressed to Ariæus, solved to send Agesilaus, one of their kings, into governor of Larissa, commanding him to assist Asia, to make a diversion.
Tithraustes with his counsel and forces in seizing Accordingly, Agesilaus set sail with a consid- Tissaphernes. The will of the kings of Persia was erable body of troops, and arrived at Ephesus law; and had this not been the case, it is to be feared before his expedition was heard of at the court that his wishes would have been too readily com