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plied with, base though they may have been, in the surrounding countries to supply his army order to obtain his favour. In every country, and with provisions. in all ages of the world, those have been met with Tithraustes, finding that Agesilaus was for who would readily imbrue their hands in the blood carrying on the war in Asia, sent Timocrates of of their fellow man in order to gain the favour of Rhodes into Greece, with large sums of money, their superior, utterly setting aside the rights of to corrupt the leading men in their cities, to rehumanity, and disregarding the laws of Heaven. kindle a war against the Lacedæmonians. Gold, Such an one was Ariæus. Upon the receipt of which is at all times a powerful incentive to good this letter, he desired Tissaphernes to come to or evil, had in this case the desired effect. The him, that they might confer about the operations cities of Thebes, Argos, Corinth, and others, enof the ensuing campaign. Tissaphernes went tered into a confederacy, and war raged again with a guard of 300 men; but while he was among these unhappy states, B.C. 395. bathing, according to the Persian custom, In the beginning of the next spring, Agesilaus, he was seized, and disarmed, and put into the who had already made the provinces of Upper hands of Tithraustes, who caused his head to be Asia tremble at his name, formed the design of struck off, and sent into Persia. It was given, attacking the king of Persia in the heart of his says Xenophon, by the king to Parysatis, an ac- dominions. As he was upon the point of putting ceptable present to one of her revengeful temper. his designs into execution, the Spartan EpicyWell has it been said of revenge, that it sits like didas arrived to let him know that Sparta was poison upon the stomach: it swells and convulses threatened with a furious war, and that the nature, and there is no good health to be expected Ephori recalled him for the defence of his countill it is conquered and expelled.

try. Agesilaus obeyed the summons, thereby This dark deed of Artaxerxes seems to have demonstrating the truth of what was said, “ That been considered by ancient writers as a retribu- at Sparta the laws ruled men, and not men tive act of justice; and it is certain that Tissa- the laws.” On his departure, he said,

“ That phernes looked upon probity and honour as 30,000 of the king's archers drove him out of empty names; that he made a jest of the most Asia," alluding to a species of Persian coin, the sacred oaths; and believed the whole ability and Daric, which had on one side the figure of an policy of a statesman consisted in knowing how archer, and which had been dispersed to that numto deceive others by hypocrisy, fraud, perfidy, ber in Greece, to corrupt the leading men in the and pérjury, The fact is, in these dark ages of other states. It was by these acts of deceitful the world, there was no bond of union betwixt and deceiving policy that the Greeks were led man and man. All had strayed into the paths of onward

The poet has well said: error, and none of the rulers of the earth sought

“ Unless corruption first deject the pride after that light from heaven which could alone

And guardiau vigour of the free-born soul, guide them into the paths of truth. It remained

All crude attempts of violence are vain : for revealed religion in the gospel of the Redeemer For firm within, and while at heart untouch'd, mildly beaming on the heart of man, to teach Ne'er yet by force was freedom overcome.

But soon as independence stoops the head, the world true honour, humanity, and justice.

To vice enslaved, and vice-creating wants, As a reward for the execution of the command

Then to some foul corrupting band, whose waste of Artaxerxes, Tithraustes was appointed to suc- These heightened wants with fatal bounty feeds, ceed Tissaphernes. His first act was, to send

From man to man the slackening ruin runs

Till the whole state, unnerved, in slavery sinks.” presents to Agesilaus, telling him that the cause

THOMSON. of the war being removed, nothing could prevent an accommodation ; and that Artaxerxes would On his return from the Persian court, Conon, allow the Greek cities in Asia to enjoy their having brought money to pay the soldiers and liberty, paying him the customary tribute, which mariners their arrears, and to supply the feet was all that the Lacedæmonians requiredwhen they with arms and provisions, took Pharnabazus on first commenced the war. Agesilaus replied, that board, and sailed in quest of the enemy. The he could do nothing without orders from Sparta. Persian fleet consisted of nearly 100 vessels; As he was willing, however, to give Tithraustes that of the Lacedæmonians was not so numerthe satisfaction of freedom from danger, he re- ous. They met with each other near Cnidas, moved out of his province, and marched into a maritime city of Asia Minor. Conon, who Phrygia, Tithraustes defraying the charges of had in some measure occasioned the capture of his march. On his way thither, Agesilaus received Athens, by losing the sea-fight at Ægospotamos, a letter from the magistrates of Sparta, giving him or “ The Goat's River,” determined to make an the command of the feet, as well as of the land effort to regain his lost honours. On the other forces; by which new commission he became hand, Pisander was desirous of justifying by his sole commander of all the troops in Asia. This conduct and valour the choice which Agesilaus, drew him down to the sea-coast, where he put his brother-in-law, had made in appointing the fleet in order, and appointed Pisander admi- him admiral. The struggle was a severe one ; ral, ordering him forthwith to stand out to sea. but Conon having boarded Pisander's own vessel,

Having settled the maritime affairs, Agesilaus slew him, when the rest of the fleet sought refuge renewed his design of invading Phrygia. He in flight. Conon pursued them, and took fifty of spoiled the country, and from thence marched by their ships, which destroyed the power of the the invitation of Spithridates, a noble Persian, Lacedæmonians by sea. into Paphlagonia. He concluded a league with After this victory, Conon and Pharnabazus Cotys, king of that country, and returning into sailed round the islands and coasts of Asia, Phrygia, took the strong city of Dascylium, and and reduced most of the cities which, in those wintered in the palace of Pharnabazus, obliging / parts, were subject to the Lacedæmonians. The consequence of the victory was, the revolt of which agreed to this treaty, against the refracalmost all the allies of Sparta, several of whom tory, by which clause the treaty was enforced declared for the Athenians, and the rest resumed upon all. their ancient liberty.

Such was the fruit of the jealousy and divisions The Lacedæmonians saw with concern this which armed the Grecian cities against each other. great revolution ; and finding themselves unable By this treaty, the articles of the former Athenian to maintain a war with men of equal bravery peace of B.c. 449 were rescinded, and the parawith themselves, they despatched Antalcidas, one mount influence of Persia in Greece established. of their citizens, to Tiribazus, governor of Sar- | By it, all the various states were rendered indedis, entreating him to conclude a peace with pendent of each other, and those powerful confedeArtaxerxes upon the best terms he could. The racies which had so long harassed and endangered other cities of Greece in alliance with the Athe- the Persian empire, demolished; while the last nians sent at the same time their deputies, with clause of enforcing the peace “ with ships and Conon at their head. The terms which Antal- money,” proved a fresh source of discord, and cidas proposed were, that the king should possess enabled Sparta to tyrannize afresh over the states all the Greek cities in Asia; but that the islands that refused obedience to her authority, and inand other cities in Greece should enjoy their volved her in a ruinous war with the Theliberty, and be governed by their own laws. bans under Epaminondas. Thus when Sparta The Athenian deputies were unanimous in re- shook the astonished Artaxerxes on his throne, jecting these proposals. Setting aside the inter- from her division with the other states, in the ests of the Greeks in Asia, they saw themselves language of the poet, she gave up, exposed by this treaty : the Athenians to the loss of the isles of Lemnos, Imbros, and Scyros; the

fair-spread o'er Asia's sunny shore, Thebans to the cities of Bæotia; and the Argives Their kindred cities to perpetual chains. to Corinth, with the loss of Argos in prospect.

What could so base, so infamous a thought

In Spartan hearts inspire ? Jealous, they saw The deputies therefore withdrew without con

Respiring Athens rear again her walls : cluding anything.

And the pale fury fired them, once again Tiribazus, however, was resolved to carry into

To crush this rival city to the dust.

For now no more the noble social soul effect so desirable a treaty. The first thing he

Of Liberty my families combined; resolved upon was, the ruin of Conon, who was But by short views, and selfish passions, broke, the great barrier in the way of its accomplish- Dire as when friends are rankled into foes, ment. In this he was aided by the Lacedæmo

They mixed severe, and waged eternal war:

Nor felt they, furious, their exhausted force; nians. Revenge for this brave man's success

Nor with false glory, discord, madness blind, in the restoration of Athens dictated to them a Saw how the blackening storm from Thracia came. line of policy which reflects the greatest disgrace

Long years rolled on, by many a battle stain'd

blush and boast of fame! where courage, art, upon the Spartan character of this period. An

And military glory shone supreme: talcidas was charged by them to accuse Conon of But let detesting ages from the scene purloining the king's money for the re-establish- Of Greece self-mangled, turn the sickening eye." ment of the Athenian state, in which accusation

THOMSON. there was not the shadow of truth. But Tiribazus grasped at it, and imprisoned Conon, by Artaxerxes being now delivered from all fear which act he was assured that there would be no of his long dreaded opponent, Greece, turned his further opposition on his part. This done, Tiri- whole power against Evagoras, king of Cyprus, bazus next secretly aided the Lacedæmonians who had refused to agree to the peace, and he with large sums of money for the purpose of reduced the whole island, B.C. 385. fitting out affeet, that they might be able to oppose During the next year, Artaxerxes engaged in the other states of Greece. After this, he went another war against the Cardusians, who probably to the Court of Persia, to give Artaxerxes an ac- had revolted from him. This people inhabited count of the negociation. Artaxerxes was pleased the mountains between the Euxine and Caspian with the terms, and urged their adoption. At the Seas, in the north of Media, and being inured same time, Tiribazus laid before the king the from their infancy to a laborious life, were acaccusations which the Lacedæmonians had counted a warlike people. Artaxerxes marched brought against Conon ; and some authors, ac- against them with an army of 300,000 foot, cording to Cornelius Nepos, have affirmed, that and 20,000 horse: but the country, by reason he was executed at Susa by the order of Ar- of its barrenness, not affording provisions suffitaxerxes. Notwithstanding the silence of Xeno-cient to maintain so numerous an army, they phon on this subject, the statement may be cor- were soon reduced to the extremity of feeding rect; for it has ever been the policy of despotic upon their beasts of burden. Their provisions rulers to put to death all those who were able to became so scarce, that an ass's head was sold for oppose their wishes and designs.

sixty drachmas, about thirty-five pounds sterling, Upon the return of Tiribazus, B.C. 387, he The king's provisions began to fail

, and only a summoned the deputies of the Grecian states to few horses remained. In this critical juncture, be present at the reading of the treaty, which Tiribazus contrived a stratagem which saved the read thus : “1. That all the Grecian cities in army from destruction. The Cardusians had Asia Minor, with the important isles of Cyprus two kings, who were encamped apart from each and Clazomenæ, should be subject to Persia : and, other. Tiribazus found that there was a division 2. That all the cities of Greece, both small and between them, and that jealousy prevented their great, should be free, and governed by their acting in concert. Acting upon this, he advised own laws.” Artaxerxes engaged to assist by the king to enter into a treaty with them, which sea and land, with ships and money, the states being adopted, both princes were brought sepa

rately to submit to Artaxerxes, and thus saved check the ambition of Ochus, who had shown his army from impending ruin.

a towering disposition, he declared Darius, the At this time, Tiribazus stood accused by a eldest, his successor, and allowed him to wear jealous rival, Orontes, of forming designs against the royal tiara. But Tiribazus, whom ArArtaxerxes, and of secretly corresponding with taxerxes had provoked by successively promising the Lacedæmonians. On the king's return to him two of his daughters in marriage, and afterSasa, the service which Tiribazus had rendered wards disappointing him by marrying them him, inclined him to have his cause examined, himself, drew Darius and fifty of his brothers and to grant him a fair hearing. Three commis- into a conspiracy against the life of their father. sioners of distinguished probity were appointed The day was fixed for the execution of their defor the purpose, and the result was, that he was signs, when an eunuch, who was privy to the restored to the king's favour, and Orontes ban- plot, discovered it to the king, and the conspiraished the court in disgrace.

tors were seized as they were entering the palace,

and put to death. “ From thirst of rule, what dire disasters flow!

A contest now arose between Ariaspes and How flames that guilt which pride has taught to glow!

Ochus, the legitimate sons, and Arsames, a faWish gains on wish, desire surmounts desire, vourite natural son of the king, about the sucHope fans the blaze, and envy feeds the fire.

cession. Ochus, however, contrived the death From crime to crime aspires the furious soul, Nor laws, nor oaths, nor fears, its rage control.

of both his brothers, and by these atrocious Till Heaven, at length, awakes, supremely just, acts secured for himself the possession of the And levels all its haughty schemes in dust."

throne. He soon ascended it, for these domestic SMOLLET.

tragedies broke the old king's heart, in the ninety

fourth year of his age, and the forty-sixth of his Artaxerxes had long meditated the invasion of reign. Egypt; but the foregoing events had prevented Artaxerxes was a mild and generous prince, him from carrying this design into operation. and governed with great wisdom, clemency, and At length, in the first year of the reign of Necta- justice ; whence he was honoured, and his authornebis, B.C. 374, a powerful army of Persians was ity respected throughout his empire. The folsent thither, under the command of Pharnabazus, lowing anecdotes, says Dr. Hales, as recorded by which was augmented by Grecian mercenaries Plutarch, seem to mark his character, and to under Iphicrates. The war was to begin with the confirm the treason of Cyrus, his brother, before siege of Pelusium, but Nectanebis having had his open rebellion. sufficient time to provide for the defence of that “ At first,” says Plutarch, “ Artaxerxes Mneplace, the approach to it was found to be impracti- mon seemed entirely to imitate the mildness of cable, either by sea or land. The fleet, therefore, the first Artaxerxes, whose name he bore, by instead of making a descent there, sailed to the behaving affably to all who addressed him, and Mendesian mouth of the Nile, which not being so by distributing honours and rewards to persons well fortified as the Pelusian, where the enemy of merit with a lavish hand. He took care that was expected, they carried the fortress that punishments should never be embittered with guarded it, and put all the Egyptians that were insult. If he received presents, he appeared as found in it to the sword. After this action, Iphi- well pleased as those who offered them, or rather crates advised the embarkation of the troops, and as those who received favours from him; and in the attack of Memphis; but the main body of the conferring favours, he always kept a countenance army not being yet arrived, Pharnabazus would of benignity and pleasure. There was not any not undertake any affair of moment. This pro- thing, however trifling, brought to him by way bably saved Egypt, for the delay gave the Egyp- of present, which he did not receive kindly. tians time to recover their courage, and to pre- Even when one Omisus brought him a pomepare for the conflict. The expedition was vir- granate of uncommon size, he said, “By the tually at an end; and the only effect that it light of Mithra, this man, if he were made produced was, a mutual enmity between the two governor of a small city, would make it a great generals: for Pharnabazus, to excuse himself, laïd one. When he was once upon a journey, and the whole blame of the failure upon Iphicrates, people presented him with a variety of things by and he, with more reason, on Pharnabazus. the way, a labouring man, having nothing else Pharnabazus, however, was the strongest at to present to him, ran to the river, and brought court, of wbich Iphicrates was well assured, and, him some water in his hands. Artaxerxes, knowing the Persian character, he privately hired pleased with the act, showed his humour by a ship, and returned to Athens.

sending the man a gold cup and 1000 darics. Twelve years after, Artaxerxes resumed his When Euclidas, the Lacedæmonian, said many designs of subjecting Egypt to his rule. Tachus, insolent things to him, he contented himself with who had succeeded Nectanebis, drew together ordering the captain of his guard to give him his forces to repel the invader ; but having this reply, “You may say what you please to the marched out of Egypt into Phenicia, in order to king ; but the king would bave you to know that attack the Persians there, the Egyptians revolted he can not only say, but do.'” These anecdotes in his absence, and placed his cousin Nectanebus denote the merciful prince: nevertheless there on the throne. (See the History of the Egyptians.) were moments, as we have seen, when the king

The close of the reign of Artaxerxes was paid little respect to the rights of humanity, embittered by domestic broils. The monarch when bent on revenge. Yet Ărtaxerxes may be had three legitimate sons, Darius, Ariaspes, said to have been one of the best of the monarchs and Ochus, and 115 that were spurious. To of the ancient empire of Persia ; and it is strange prevent contentions about the crown, and to that his reign is omitted by Persian historians.

and joined the Egyptians, who still maintained DARIUS OCHUS, OR DARAB I.

their independence. At first, Ochus sent his The death of Ariaspes and Arsames had alien- generals against them; but these having failed ated the minds of the nobles and people from to reduce them, Ochus himself took the command Ochus : and fearing this public odium, he con- of the expedition. He besieged Sidon, which cealed the death of his father for ten months, was betrayed to him by Mentor, the Rhodian, and conducted the administration of affairs in and Tennes, the king of that place. The Sihis name, until he deemed his own authority donians set fire to the city, and destroyed men, sufficiently established. By one of his decrees, women, and children, with all their treasures. he caused himself to be proclaimed king through- Ochus sold the ashes, which contained great out the whole of the empire, as though by his quantities of melted gold and silver, for a high father's order. At length, however, he openly price, and rewarded Tennes, the traitor, with ascended the throne, taking the name of Ar-death. The fate of Sidon terrified the rest of taxerxes. He is known in history chiefly by his the Phenicians. into submission, among whom proper name, Ochus.

the Jews may be included, who seem to have No sooner was the death of Artaxerxes made joined the common cause. known, than all Asia Minor, Syria, Phenicia, After this, Ochus invaded Egypt, B. C. 350, in and many other provinces, revolted. By this the ninth year of his reign, which he reduced general insurrection, half the revenues of the chiefly by the assistance of Mentor, the Rhodian, crown were diverted into different channels, and and his Greek mercenaries. See the History of the remainder would not have been sufficient to the Egyptians. carry on the war against so many mal-contents, All the revolted princes being reduced, and had they acted in concert. But this formidable peace established throughout the empire, Ochus revolt, which menaced the destruction of the gave himself up to ease and luxury, leaving the Persian empire, came to nought, through the administration of public affairs to his ministers. treachery and corruption of the leading partisans, The chief of these were Bagoas, the Egyptian especially of Orontes and Rheomitres, chiefs of eunuch, who was a great favourite, and Mentor, Asia Minor, who delivered up their forces into the Rhodian; the former of whom governed the the monarch's hands. Datames alone, governor provinces of Upper Asia, and the latter those of of Cappadocia, gave him much trouble, and Lower Asia. according to Cornelius Nepos, he was assassinated About B. C. 344, alarmed by the greatness of by Mithridates, one of his intimates, who had Philip, king of Macedon, Ochus sent some of his been suborned to the act by Ochus.

trustiest ministers on an embassy to Philip, under Ochus was the most cruel and wicked monarch pretence of offering him his friendship and alliof this race of the princes of Persia. To pre- ance, but in reality to discover his strength, vent future disturbances at home and abroad, he resources, and designs. The young Alexander, cut off in one day all the royal family, without then about twelve years old, entertained the amany regard to consanguinity, age, or sex. Ocha, bassadors in the absence of his father, and gained his own sister and mother-in-law, (for he had their affections by his politeness and good sense. married her daughter,) was buried alive; and he Even at this early age, he exhibited signs of caused his archers to slay with their arrows one approaching greatness. The ambassadors were of his uncles, and 100 of his children and grand surprised at his questions, which related to their children. This uncle appears to have been the monarch and their kingdom, and the geography father of Sisigambis, who was mother of Darius of their country. They counted the famed Codomannus ; for Q. Curtius relates, that Ochus shrewdness of Philip as nothing compared with caused eighty of her brothers to be massacred in the vivacity and enterprizing genius of his son, one day. All the nobility who were suspected and said to each other, “ This boy, indeed, will of disaffection throughout the empire, shared the be a great king; ours is a rich one;" an observsame fate as the relatives of Ochus. The sorrows ation which remarkably accords with the Scripof mankind seem to have been his sport.

ture characters of both kings, of the goat and But the cruelties that Ochus practised had the the ram, Dan. viii. 5—7; xi, 2, 3. reverse effect of that which he intended. If a It has been recorded in the history of the monarch desires the fidelity of his subjects, he Egyptians in what a cruel manner Ochus acted must gain it by a spirit of love; severity and, towards that people; trampling alike upon their still more, cruelty only estrange their affections religion, laws, and liberties, and filling the whole from the throne. In the fifth year of his reign, country with dismay. In revenge for his counArtabazus, governor of one of the western pro- try's wrongs, Bagoas, who had long waited for vinces, revolted, and, by the assistance of Chares an opportunity to rid his country of its oppressor, and an Athenian force, defeated 70,000 of the at length, in B. c. 338, poisoned Ochus, and placed king's troops. Ochus threatened to make war Arses, his youngest son, upon the throne, allowon the Athenians, and they recalled Chares. ing him the name of king, while he himself reAfterwards, however, Artabazus procured as- tained all the authority. sistance from the Thebans, and defeated the armies of Ochus in two engagements; but the king having bribed the Thebans, Artabazus was Arses did not long enjoy his shadow of power; again left single-handed, and after three years' for in his third year Bagoas, finding that his resistance, he was forced to flee and take refuge treasons were likely to be punished by the young with Philip of Macedon.

monarch, anticipated his intention, and put him This rebellion was no sooner quelled, than the and his whole family to death, in the third year Sidonians, Phenicians, and Cyprians revolted, I of his reign, B. c. 335.


DARIUS CODOMANNUS, OR DARAB II. and the fourth shall be far richer than they all : This prince was a collateral branch of this and by his strength through his riches he shall dynasty. His grandfather was brother to Darius stir up all against the realm of Grecia,” Dan. Nothus, one of whose sons only, Ostanes, escaped xi. 2. the ruthless massacre of the family by Ochus.

Darius did not confine himself to such underOstanes married Sisigambis, his own sister, by hand measures : he raised a powerful army, whom he had Codomannus.

collected a large fleet, and engaged able officers During the reign of Ochus, this prince lived in to command both, among whom may be menobscurity, and supported himself as an astanda, tioned Memnon the Rhodian. or courier, by carrying the royal despatches. At

Darius Codomannus; therefore, in the beginlength, however, he signalized himself in killing ning of his reign, involved himself in a war with a Cadusian champion, who had defied the Persian this mighty monarch, of whom the voice of proarmy to single combat in the same manner as phecy had said, “ And a mighty king shall stand Goliath defied the armies of Israel. For this up, that shall rule with great dominion, and do exploit Darius Codomannus was rewarded by according to his will,” Þan. xi. 3; which reOchus with the important government of Arme- ceived a remarkable accomplishment in the event nia, from whence he was advanced to the throne,

we are about to narrate, and others that will be upon the murder of Arses and his family by found in the history of the Macedonians. Bagoas.

It was early in the spring of the year B.C. On the accession of Darius Codomannus to 334, that Alexander set out on his expedition. the throne, he had no competitors ; for the royal His army consisted of 30,000 foot, and 5000 family and the principal nobility had been de

horse. With these he arrived in twenty days at stroyed by Ochus and Bagoas. The latter, how. Sestos, on the Hellespont, over which he had ever, caused him some fear for his life. Finding them conveyed to Asia by a fleet of 160 galleys, that Codomannus was not to be entirely governed, besides transports. No army opposed his landing: Bagoas resolved to remove him as he had done

Before he set out, Alexander assembled his his predecessor, by poison. The attempt was dis- army at Dios, in Macedonia, where he exhibited covered, and Bagoas was compelled to drink games and sacrifices in all the pomp of Greciar the fatal potion himself

. The empire was now, superstition. It was on this occasion that he therefore, fully established, and Codomannus was

had a remarkable dream, or vision, in which, as “far richer” than “ the last three kings” of he related himself, while he was considering how Persia, because he was possessed of the vast

to subdue Asia, a person in the dress of the additional treasures procured by the plunders of Jewish high priest appeared to him, and enOchus, after the reduction of Egypt and the couraged him not to delay, but to pass over with other revolted provinces. His personal bravery confidence; for that he himself would head his gained him universal respect and admiration army, and give him the Persian empire. throughout the empire.

This circumstance, which is related by JoDarius ascended the throne shortly before the sephus, has been questioned, because it is not assassination of Philip of Macedon, which event

noticed by any heathen historians; but their took place near the end of the same year; and, silence is not sufficient to invalidate his positive as Alexander complained, by Persian instigation, testimony. As these questioners belong to the and bribery of the assassins. This was alleged number of those who doubt the verity of the as one of his public grievances ; and Bagoas, who supernatural details of the sacred history itself, then governed the Persian empire, would not it is impossible not to see that the principle of have scrupled to remove a foe by such a mode, their objection here is the same. There are five especially as Philip had been elected captain- cogent reasons, however, which demand our belief general of the Grecian states, for the purpose of of this statement. 1. Because Alexander had been invading Persia. Codomannus himself set the a clear and conspicuous object of prophecy, and price of 10,000 talents upon the head of Alex- that an operation upon his mind by dream, or viander, with which Alexander also openly re

sion, was as likely as the cases of Nebuchadnezzar proached him by letter. The assassin employed and Belshazzar, and similar to them. 2. Because it was Alexander, son of Æropus, commander of

seems to be as necessary that the Almighty should the Thessalian cavalry ; but the plot was dis- have been made known to him as the bestower of covered by Parmenio.

empires, as to the other great conquerors, all of In his letter, Alexander complained of the whom had been brought to avow it. 3. Because underhand aggressions of Darius, and charged

an operation upon the mind of Alexander, showhim with sending “improper letters” through all ing him in what position he stood, was a necesparts of Greece to excite them to make war on

sary sequel to the operations upon the minds of him, and with sending money to the Lacedæmo- those former conquerors. 4. Becau the imnians and others, to corrupt his friends and break pression described as being made by this dream the peace. This accords in a remarkable manner

upon Alexander, and the conduct which resulted with Scripture, which represents Darius as the from it, is in unison with his character and confirst aggressor in the war that ensued. “And now

duct as described by other historians. 5. Bewill I show thee the truth. Behold, there shall

cause the Jews enjoyed the privileges which are stand up yet three kings in Persia, [Darius No- described as the result of this transaction, and thus, Artaxerxes Mnemon, and Darius Ochus ;*] which it would not otherwise be easy to account

for, or to refer to any other origin. • The short reign of Arses, which was merely nominal, is omitted both by Justin and Scripture. In chronology,

The spirit in which Alexander invaded Asia it is sometimes added to that of Ochus, as in that of Dr.

may be learned from the following circumstances. Hale's Analysis.

Before he left home, he disposed of almost all

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