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ship was frequently called Lower Dublin to dis- (wine, flax and cloth). Sometimes, to distinguish tinguish it from another Dublin township, for- Germantown from the upper portion of German merly in Philadelphia county, but now in Mont- township, outside of the borough, the township gomery county, and there called Upper Dublin. portion was called Upper Germantown. This township was one of the first created in Kensington, that part of the township of the Philadelphia county, but the date is not known. Northern Liberties which lay between Cohock

Frankford, situate on Tacony-since called sink Creek and Gunner's Run, in the neighborhood Frankford-Creek, in the lower part of the town- of the road to Frankford, and between that road ship of Oxford. It must have been founded at and the Delaware River. It was originally known a very early date-almost as soon as the village as Shakamaxon, an Indian village which is called of Germantown. Its name is mentioned in a dis- on Lindstrom's map Kackamensi, and in old cussion before the provincial council in 1687, be- deeds Sachamexin. It was a tract of land lying tween Thomas Fairman and Robert Jeffs, con- on the river Delaware above Hartsfield, subsecerning a piece of property. The name of the vil. quently a part of Northern Liberties. Shaka. lage was undoubtedly derived from the title of maxon was known as a town before Nov. 12, the Franckfort Company, which took up ground 1678, when Lawrence Cock made a grant of 300 there. This village was incorporated into a acres there. In the deed it is stated that the borough by act of March 2, 1800. By act of

whole tract of land surveyed at Shakamaxon was April 4, 1831, the boundaries of the borough were 1800 acres, of which Lawrence Cock, Moens extended.

Cock, Gunner Rambo and Michael Neilson German township, afterward called German. were owners. Henry says that Shakamaxon town township, was laid out by virtue of three means “ a place of eels." It began to grow into warrants : eighth month, Oct. 12, 1683, for 6000 a settlement soon after the village of the Northacres, to Francis Daniel Pastorius, for the Ger- ern Liberties felt an increase of population. man and Dutch purchasers; twelfth month, Feb. Kensington was a straggling, scattered region of 13, 1683-84, to Francis Daniel Pastorius for 200 streets running parallel with the Delaware from acres; second month, April 25, 1634, to Jurian south-west to north-east, and crossed by others Hartsfelder, for 150 acres. The first purchasers from south-east to north-west. It was inhabof Frankford in Germany were Jacobus van der ited principally by fishermen and ship-carpenWalle, Johan Jacob Schutz, Johan Wilhelm ters. On March (6, 1820, the Legislature creUberfeld, Daniel Behagel, George Strauss, Jan ated a new corporation, called the “commisLeureiss, Abram Hasevoet. Among them were sioners and inhabitants of the Kensington disdivided 2675 acres. The same quantity was

trict of the Northern Liberties." Their jurisdicdivided among the first purchasers of Crefelt in tion extended over the ground which commenced Germany, namely : Jacob Telner, Jan Strepers, at the mouth of Cohocksink Creek and the Dirk Sipman, Ganert Reniks, Lenard Artes, Northern Liberties line, along the river DelaJacob Isaacs, The township was divided into ware to the south line of Gibson's land, and settlements, called Germantown, Cresheim, Som thence along that line to Gunner's Creek, and merhausen and Crefelt. These Germans were from across to the south line of the land of the Norris the palatinates of Cresheim and Crefelt, many estate ; then along the same, crossing Frankford of them having become Friends through the road, to the Germantown road, down the eastpreaching of William Penn in Germany. The wardly side of the latter to the middle of Sixth greatest length of the German township was 52 st., and then along said street to the line of the miles; the greatest breadth, 2 miles; area, 7040 Northern Liberties, which touched Sixth st. at acres. This township was bounded on the north- Cohocksink Creek, and then along that creek to west and north-east by Springfield township, the place of beginning. The name is derived Montgomery county: on the north-east and east from Kensington, town and parish of Middlesex, partly by Bristol township; on the south-east England, and a western suburb of the city of by Penn township and Roxborough. Within the London. German township were the settlements known as kingsessing, a township in the extreme southGermantown, Cresheim (afterward Mount Airy), western portion of the city, bounded on the north Sommerhausen (called at a later period Chestnut by. Blockley: on the east by Mill Creek and Hill) and Crefelt, a rural section north of Chest. Schuylkill River; on the south by Delaware nut Hill.

River and Bow Creek; and on the west by Germantown, a settlement in the German town. Darby Creek and Cobb's Creek; shaped irregship, which was commenced by Pastorius, Oct. ularly. It embraced the site of the old village 21, 1685. On Aug. 12, 1689, William Penn at of Kingsessing, but no settlement of any size exLondon signed a charter constituting some of the cept Maylandville. It was traversed principally inhabitants a corporation by the name of "the by the Darby road and the road to the Lazaretto. bailiff, burgesses and commonalty of German Its greatest length, 5 miles; greatest breadth, 21% townc, in the county of Philadelphia, in the miles; area, 6800 acres. This was the oldest province of Pennsylvania." Francis Daniel settled portion of the county of Philadelphia. Pastorius was the first bailiff, Jacob Telner, --Kingsessing, or Chinsessing, was the name of Dirck Isaacs Opdegraaf, Herman Isaacs Opde a place lying on the west side of the Schuylkill graaf and Tennis Coender were burgesses, be- River, below the western abutment of Penrose sides six committee-men. They had authority Ferry bridge, and not far distant therefrom. to hold “the general court of the corporation of Acrelius says Chinsessing was “a place on the Germantown,” to make laws for the government Schuylkill where five families of freemen dwelt of the settlement, and to hold a court of record. together in houses two stories high, built of This court went into operation in 1699, and con- white nut tree (hickory), which was at that time tinued its sessions for sixteen years. The seal of regarded as the best material for building houses, the court bore the impression of a trefoil, with but in later times was altogether disapproved of the motto, "Vinum, linuon et textrinum for such purposes." Kingsessing became the

(1880.

Third Month,)

MARCH.
MOON'S PHASES, Philadelphia.
d. A. m.

d. h. m.
(Last Quarter 3 6 6 P.M. » First Quarter 18 7 35 P.M.

New Moon... 10 7 47 P.M. O Full Moon..... 26 8 23 A.M.

PHENOMENA.

Day of the Year. | Day of the Month. | Day of the Week.

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THE SUN, THE MOON,

THE TIDES,
Philadelphia. Philadelphia.

Philadelphia.
Rises Souths Sets Rises. Souths Sets | High Tide. Low Tide. (Per., 2d. 1h.P.M.
A.M. P.M. P.M.P.M. A.M. A.M A.M.

P.M.A.M P.M.

(Apo., 17d. Sh.A.M. m.m.m. s. h.m. h. m. h. m. h..d.k. ". A. m k. m. h. n.

Per., 29d. 4h.A.M. 611 1 M 6 32 12 23 5 52 11 38 3 34 8 35 20 4 42 5 8

1

5.02 A.M. P rises, 62 2 Tu 6 31 12 10 5 53 A.M.

4 30 9 17 21

o 271 o 536.3 5.25 A.M. in 2. 63 3W 6 29 11 575 54

5 30 10
6 29 6 591 i 19

1 4816.0

3:48 A.M. 06, o Scorp. 64 4 Th 6 28 11 44 555

I 541 630 11 7123 7 31 8 7 2 18 2 505.71 1.41 P.M. HS. 65 5F 6 26 11 305 57

2 51 7 31 O 13 24 8 47 9 24 3 264 65.4 5.36 P.M. S. 66 6s 6 25 11 16 5 58 3 39 8 29 I 23:25 9 57 10 29 4 43

5 165.3 7.00 P.M. 8 in Per. 67 78 6 23 11

4 19 9 23 2 3526(11
1 11 30 5 48 6 20 5.5

6.26 P.M. 4 sets. 68 8 M 6 22 10 46 6 0 4 53 10 14 3 44 2711 57

6 49 16 5.8 6.4 A.M. Ở ? 4. 69

9
Tu 6 20 10 31 6 1 5 22 II

O 22 O 44 7 41 8 3 5.9 7-33 P.M. sets. 70 10 W 6 18 10 15 6 2 5 49 11 48 5 58 291 I 4 I 23 8 23 8 42 6.1 6.00 P.M. 6 gr. el. L 21 11 Th 6 17 9 59 6 6 14 O 33 7 2

1
1 41 19

7.19 A.M. O 2 <.
6 151 943
6 40 1 18 8 6

2 2 22 2 41 9 41 10 0 6.4 11.25 P.M. Óhe. 6 14 9 26 6 76 2 3 9 9 3 3 1 3 21 10 20 10 40 6.5 7.50 P.M. h sets. 74 14 S

9 9
6

7 36 2 49 10 10 4 341 4 111 0 11 20 6.5 9.17 P.M. Ó (. 75 15 M 6 1

52
8 9 3 36 11 10 5 4 22 4 44'11 41

6.5 3.00 P.M. O 4 0. 76 16 Tu6 8

35 8 47 4 25 A.M. 5 6 29 0 3 o 25 6.4 4.59 A.M. rises. 77:17 W 6 8 8 17

9 30 5 14 o 7
50! 6 O 48

6.27 P.M. SC. 78 18 Th 6 6 7 59 6 1010 19 6 4

o 59
6 38 3 I 33

0.49 A.M. dsets. 79 19 F 6 5 7 41 6 1111 14

I 401 917 30

O 2 22

2 49 5.7 5.00 A.M. S stat. 80 20 S 6

3 7 23 6 12 0 14 7 43 2 28 10 8 30 9 2 3 19 3 49 5.5 0.00 A.M. Spring com. 81 21 S 16 2

75

6
13 I 16

4 II

9 31 Io 4 21 4 50 5.3 10.02 P.M. Reg. sets. 82 22 M 6 0 6 47 6 14 2 20 9 18 3 36 12 10 28 10 56 5 19

5 47 5.4 9.19 P.M, sets. 8323 Tu 5 59 6 28 6 15 3 26 10 5 4 513 11 22 11 47 6 15 41 5.611.21 P.M. Aldeb. sets,

W
5 57 6 10 6 16
4 34 10 52 4 33 14

O 12 7

31 5.8 7.22 A.M. OH (. 85 25 Th 5 56 5 51 6 17 5 43 11 40 5015 0 34 O 551 753

14 6.1 7.18 P.M. Procy. S. 86 26 F 5 54 533 6 18

6 54 A.M.

5 27 16 I 16 I 368 35 8 55 6.2 10.50 P.M. 7 * set. 87 27 S 5 52 5 14 6 19

8 8
O 31 5 59 17

1 59

2 241 9 18 9 43 6.4 7.28 p.m. Spi, rises. 88.28 S 5 514 56 6 20 9 23 I 25 6 33 18 2 47 3 12 10 6 10 31 6.5

7.00 P.M. O ŠO.inf. 89 29 M

5 49 4 37 6 21 10 37 2 22 7 15 19 3 37 4 4'10 56 11 23 6.5 10.12 P.M. Rig. sets. 90 30 Tu 5 47 4 19 6 22 11 46 3 22 8 420 4 31 4 59 II 50 6.4 5.26 A.M. 4 rises. 91:31 W 5 45 4 1 6 23|| A.M. 4 249 2 2111 5 28 5 56 o 18

O 47 6.2

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Visible gener

ECLIPSES IN 1880.

1880, invisible in Philadelphia. It will be vis. four of the Sun and two of the Moon, occurring 1880, visible about sunrise in Philadelphia. The In the year 1880 there will be six Eclipsesible in Asia and in the Pacific Ocean.

Sixth: A Partial Eclipse of the Sun, Dec. 31, in Philadelphia civil time as follows: First: A Total Eclipse of the Sun, Jan. 11,

Sun will rise eclipsed, presenting a phenomenon 1880, invisible in Philadelphia. This Eclipse will be obscured, and it will rise partly eclipsed

of rare interest. About three-fourths of the Sun will be visible, about sunset, over the western portion of North America, and a small portion Canada. It will also be visible in England,

in all the eastern States of the Union and in of the Sun will also be eclipsed in the northern

Western Europe, a small portion of Africa, and part of Australia about sunrise. ally in the North Pacific Ocean.

generally in the North Atlantic. Second: A Total Eclipse of the Moon, June 22, 1880, invisible in Philadelphia. This Eclipse

MARCH. will be visible in Australia, and in the Pacific Ocean generally.

(9) VENUS near the old Moon before sunrise Third : An Annular Eclipse of the Sun, July of the 8th. 7, 1880, invisible in Philadelphia. It will be ( ) Mars very near the Moon in the evening visible at the Cape of Good Hope, over about

of the 17th. two-thirds of South America, and in the South Atlantic Ocean.

A LIST of the coincidences between comets Fourth: A Partial Eclipse of the Sun, Dec. and meteor-showers is given in the Monthly 1, 1880, invisible in Philadelphia. A very small Notices R. A. S., May, 1878. portion of the Sun's surface will be eclipsed in A NEW small observatory has been built by the extreme South Atlantic; not visible on either Mr. George A. Seagrove in Providence, R. I. continent.

The principal instrument is a refractor of eight Fifth: A Total Eclipse of the Moon, Dec, 16, ) inches' apertura

name of the township in which the original | kill Sixth (Seventeenth st.) and South st. over to Indian and Swedish village stood. The King the Passyunk road, and down the same to the sessing settlement was called a town by the Buck road, and over to the Delaware below the Swedes, and was the first village entitled to built parts of Southwark.

In 1816 the greatest that appellation made by white men within the length of Moyamensing was estimated to be 3 territory of Philadelphia. The situation was miles ; the greatest breadth, 2 miles : area, 2560 probably near the present enclosure known as acres. By act of March 24, 1812, the inhabitants Suffolk Park. The iownship of Kingsessing was of Moyamensing were incorporated by the style created at a very early date after the settlement of “the commissioners and inhabitants of the by William Penn. According to Mr. Henry, township of Moyamensing.” By act of April this name is derived from the Indian Ching- 4, 1831, the township was divided into Fast sessing, "a place where there is a meadow," or and West Moyamensing. The name MoyaChin-sessing, “ bog meadow."

mensing is said by Acrelius to signify "an Manayunk, an Indian name which means, ac- unclean place", or " dung-heap," which was cording to Henry,“ our place of drinking,' and adopted from the fact that at one time great has been applied to the Schuylkill River, was a flocks of pigeons had their roost in the forest borough situate near the Schuylkill, north of and made the place unclean for the Indians, the Wissahickon. The original name was Flat from which circumstance it received its name. Rock, from a peculiar flat rock lying on the The township was one of the earliest created after lower side of the bridge, which was subse- the settlement of Pennsylvania. quently called Flat Rock Bridge. The settle- Northern Liberties township. The Liberties ment had its origin from the construction of the was a term or name applied by William Penn to dam, canal and locks there by the Schuylkill a certain tract of land lying north and west of Navigation Company. These works were fin- the city. It contained what was called "the libished about the end of the year 1818, and, the erty land or free lots,” because the proprietaries water-power being extensive, the Navigation gave to the first purchasers of ground in the colCompany sought for lessees of the power for use ony, according to the extent of their purchase, a in mills and factories. Capt. John Towers was portion of the land within those limits free of price. the first lessee of the water-power, one hundred The original idea of Penn was to lay out a great inches, April 10, 1819, and he built a mill at Flat

town of 10,000 acres; but when the commissionRock About the same time Silas Levering built ers came to survey this space of ground it was the first hotel in the place. In 1820, Charles V. found somewhat difficult, and when Penn arrived Hagner was the second person who bought a water- in 1682 he determined to divide the great town right and erected an oil-mill. After that purchases into iwo parts, one to be called the city and the of water-power and the erection of mills and other the Liberties. The city contained about factories increased greatly, and the place became 1820 acres. The Liberties extended north of famous as a manufacturing village. After a time Vine st. to the mouth of Cohoquinoque Creek or the inhabitants became dissatisfied with the name Pegg's Run, and up the same so as to go round Flat Rock, and held meetings on the subject. On the lands of Jurian Hartsfelder, which had such an occasion, some time in May or June, already been granted away before Penn came 1824, it was resolved to adopt for the place one to the colony. There were also Swedish, Dutch of the names of the river Schuylkill, and from and English grants of land made before Penn that time the village was known as Manayunk. came to be the proprietary that had to be reThe borough of Manayunk was incorporated spected, so that the liberty lands were very irregJune II, 1840.

ular in their boundaries, and ran by various Moreland, a manor of 9815 acres, on a branch courses along the Cohocksink, Wissanoming, Taof Poquessing Creek, granted by William Penn, cony, Wingohocking and other streams, and Gerby warrant of eleventh month, fifth day, 1682-83, mantown and Bristol townships, to the Schuylkill, and patent of August, 1684, to Nicholas More. It and over the same and out to Cobb's Creek, and was in the most northern portion of the county down the same and along the west side of the of Philadelphia, in the neighborhood of the Del- Schuylkill to a point opposite Vine st. at the north aware, and lay to the west of Byberry township. city line, and along the same to the place of It extended over into Bucks county, and was beginning. This survey was made in 1682, divided into two townships, one in each county, and the Liberties contained, on the east side and each called Morcland. The size of More- of the Schuylkill, 9161 acres 3 q. 3 p. ; west land township in Philadelphia county was 5 side, 7074 acres 2 q. 17 p ; total, 16,236 acres 1 q. miles, its greatest length; 2 miles its greatest 20 p. These liberty lands on the east side of the width; area, 3720 acres. The principal village Schuylkill became a township nearly from the was Smithfield or Pleasantville, afterward called time of survey, and were called the Northern Somerton, which was partly in Moreland and Liberties, while the western Liberties, beyond the partly in Byberry.

Schuylkill, became a portion of the township of Moyamensing, originally a tract of ground on Blockley. The territory between the Delaware the fast land of the Neck, lying between Pas- and Schuylkill was subsequently divided; the syunk and Wicaco. It was granted by the western part was called Penn township, and the Dutch governor Alexander d'Hinoyossa, on eastern part was sometimes called the Unincorfourth month, third day, 1664, to Martin Clen- porated Northern Liberties. Whenever so spoken smith, William Stille and Lawrence Andries. of, the reference was to tha! portion of the townThe title was confirmed in 1684 by William Penn ship which had not been taken up by the formato Lassey Andrews, William Stille, Andrew tion of districts, and by the time of consolidation Bankson and John Matson. Moyamensing the area of the township was very small, the distownship included this ground and Wicaco, ex- tricts of Northern Liberties, Spring Garden, Kencept such parts of the latter as were included in sington, Penn, Richmond, and the township of Southwark. It extended from about Schuyl- i Penn and the boroughs of 'Aramingo and Brides(1880.

Fourth Month,]

APRIL. MOON'S PHASES, Philadelphia. . . .

d. ). m. (Last Quarter 2 I 13 A.M.

) First Quarter17

2 14 P.M. New Moon... 9 10

6 Full Moon....24 5 50 P.M.

7 A.M.

Day of tho Yoar.
Day of the Month,
Day of the Week.

PHENOMENA.

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THE SUN, THE MOON,

THE TIDES,
Philadelphia. Philadelphia.

Philadelphia.
Rises Souths Sets Rises. Souths Sets.

High fide.
Low fide.

(Apo.,14d. 2h. A.M.
A.M. P.M. P.M. A.M.A.M. A.M. A.M P.M. A.M.P.M.
h.m. m. S. m. n. m. 4. m. h. m. 1. A. m. H. h. m A. :

Per., 26d. 5h. A.M. 92 1 TᏂ 3 43

3 43 6 24 046 5 25 10 7.22 6 251 6 54 1 15 I 44 6.0 | 4.47 A.M. Prises. 5 42 3 25 6 25

1 37 6 24 11 16 23 7 24 7 57 2 13 2 43 5.7 11.58 P.M. Sir. sets. 941 3S 5 40 3

7.6 26
2 20 7 19

3 51 5.5 1.00 P.M. & in Aph. 95 5 39 2 49 6 27 2 541 8 u

I 35 25
9 3710 5 4 24

8.47 P.M. Yega risas. SM 5 37 2 32 6 28 3 24 8 59 2 42 26 10 33 11 5 24

0.24 A.M. sets. 6 Tu 5 35

2 15 6 29 3 52 945 3 47 27 11 20 11 496 19 6 45 5.710.07 P.M. 7* set. 98

7
W
15 34 I 58 6 30
4 17 10 29

O 12 7 8 7 31 5.8 1.06 A.M. Ó C. 99 8. Th 5 32 I 41 6 31 4 42 11 13 5 54 29

O 531 7 52

8 12 6.0

0.00 A. M. d • 100 9 F 5 30 1 24 6 32 5 811 57 6 56 1 12 I 30 8 31 8 49 6.1 1.2; P.M.Sh 101 ro S 5 29 1 8 6 33

5 37 0 43 7 58. I I 50 2 10 9 9 9 29 6.3 9.11 P.M. HS 102 11 S 5 27 0 52 6 34 6 8

8

2 52 9 49 10 11 6.4 6.35 A.M. OV 103 12 M 5 26 0 37 6 35 6 44 2 18 9 56 3 3 13 3 34 10 32 10 53 6.5 4.43 A.M. 4 rises, 104 13

Tu
5 24 O 21

6
36

7 26 3 7 10 514 3 55 4 17 11 14 11 36 6.51 9.58 P.M. Aldeb sots. 105 14 W 5 23 8 13 3 57 11 40 5 4 40 5 3 11 59

16.4 11.44 P.M. Spica S. 106 15 Th 5 21 A.N. 8 6 38 9 6 4 46 A.M. 6 5 26 5 48 o 22 O 45 0.3 1.00 A.M. c.

o 23 6 39 10 5 35 0 23 6 II 6 34 17 I 30 6.1 4:32 A.M. P rises. 108 17 S o 37 6 40 11 2

6 22

1
o 8 6 58 7 23

1 53 2 17 5.9 10.10 P.M. Antar. risas. 5 17 o 50

6
42 o 4 7 9 1 34 9 7 50

18

2 42 3 95.0 4.00 A.M. Ó 4 110 19 M 5 15 4

6
43
2 3 10

3 37 4 7 5.2 7.00 P.M. in Aph. 111 26 Tu 5 14 2 13 8 41 2 31 II 9 44 IO II

4 36 5 3 5.3 3.51 P.M. OH. 112 21 W 5 13 1 29 6 45

2 58 12 10 40 II 6 5 30 5 59 5.5 11.59 P.M. dsets. 511 1 416 46 4 30 10 17 3 25 13 11 33

6 25

7.13 P.M. V sets, 114 23 F I 526 47 43 II IO 3 54 14

o 25 7 19 7 44 5.9 4.06 A.M. 2 rises, 115.24 S 5

8
3 6 48 6 59 A.M 4 28 15

I 14 8 9 8 33 6.1 11.56 P.M. Arctur. S. 116 25 8 5 7 2 14 6 49

8 15 6 5 7.16

1 37

4 8 569 23 6.3 4.15 A.M. rises. 5 5 2 24 6 50 9 29 7 5 54 17 2 31 2 59 9 50 10 18 6.4 5.00 A.M. gr. el. W. 118 27 Tu 5 4 2 33 51 10 36 2 II

6 50 18 3 28 3 56 10 47 11 15 6.5 4.12 A.M. rises. 119 28 W 5

3 2 42 6 52 11 32 3 15 7 55 19 4 25 4 53 11 44 6.5 10.43 P.M. Alt, rises. Th 5 1 2 51 6 53 A.M. 4 17 9 5 20 5 21 5 48 0 12

0 40 6.4

8.10 P.M. Rig, sets. 121 30 F 5 0 2 59 6 54 o 18 5 14' 10 17 21 6 15 6 41

71 I 34 6.1 4.22 A.M. h rises.

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HEBREW CALENDAR FOR 1880.

Tishri 10 Sept. 15 Yom Kippur [Day of

Atonement *). 5640. 1880.

15 20 ist Day of Succoth.. Tebeth 19 Jan. 3 Sabbath.

26 Hoshaana Rabba, Shebat 14 New Moon.

27 Shemini Azereth. 15 28 Chamisha Assar.

Cheshvan

1 Oct.

6 New Moon. Adar i Feb. 13 New Moon.

Kislev

1 Nov. 4 New Moon. 13 25 Fast of Esther.

25 28 Sabbath and Chanuccah 14 26 Purim i Feast of Esther.)

[Feast of Dedication). Nissan i Mar. 13 Sabbath and New Moon. Tebeth 1 Dec. 3 New Moon. 15 27 Sab.; ist day Passover. *

12 Fast of Tebeth. 21 Apr. 2 7th day of Passover.* Iyar 12 New Moon.

APRIL. 18 29 Lag B'Omer.

(9) VENUS near the old Moon before sunrise Sivan 1 May 11 New Moon.

of the 7th. 6 16 Shabuoth (Feast of

144) Jupiter and ( ) Mercury will be about a Tamuz 1 June ro New Moon.

(Weeks). degree apart before sunrise of the 18th, and both 18 27 Fast of Tamuz.

about two degrees from (P) Venus. Ab

1 July 9 New Moon.

18 Fast of Ab (Destruction

of the Temple); Mouchot, in Paris, has been experimenting Elul

1 Aug. 8 Sabbath and New Moon. with the solar heat as a means of raising steam 5641.

and working a steam-pump.

With a mirror Tishri 1 Sept. 6 Rosh Hashanah (New about 15 ft. in diameter he succeeded in raising

Year *

fifteen or sixteen gallons of water to the boiling3

8 Fast of G'daliah. point.

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burg, having been carved out of it. In 1854 the 1000 acres, was originally given by Queen township or Unincorporated Northern Liberties Christina, August 20, 1653. to Lieut. Swen was the space of land north of Kensington, west Schute, and to his wife and to his heirs, in conof Richmond and Aramingo, and a portion of sideration of good and important services renFrankford, south of a portion of Oxford and dered to the king of Sweden by the said gal. Bristol townships, and east of Penn township. lant lieutenant. On Jan. 1, 1667-68, Gov. RichA part of it was west of the Frankford road, ard Nichols of New York granted Passyunk to and all of it was east of the Germantown road. Robert Ashman, John Ashman, Thomas Jacob,

Northern Liberties district, a portion of the Dunkin Williams, Francis Walker, Thomas township of the Northern Liberties, was first the Hewelin, Frederick Anderson, Joshua Jacob and object of particular care by act of Assembly of Thomas Jacob, at a quit-rent of ten bushels of March 9, 1771, which provided for the appoint wheat per year. Passyunk was the first tract of ment of persons to regulate streets, direction of land above the marsh-land in the Neck, which buildings, etc. By act of March 30, 1791, the in- latter has since become fast land. It fronted on habitants of that portion of the Northern Lib- the Schuylkill River from about Point Breeze up erties between Vine st. and Pegg's Run and the to a little stream called Pinney's Creek, or Piney middle of Fourth st. and the Delaware River Creek, which Mr. Henry says mcans, in the Delwere empowered to elect three commissioners to aware language, "a place to sleep." From about lay taxes for the purpose of lighting, watching the head of "Pinney's Creek the boundary of and establishing pumps within those bounds. On Passyunk tract extended in a straight line toMarch 28, 1803, the legislature passed an act to ward the south-east, to a point which formed the incorporate that part of the lownship of the boundary of Moyamensing, thence south by west Northern Liberties lying between the west side to the limit of the fast land, and over in irregular of Sixth st. and the river Delaware and between shape to the Schuylkill. The north-eastern Vine st. and Cohocksink Creek. In 1819, the boundary was about on the parallel of Twelfth st. boundary was changed to the middle of Sixth st., Passyunk occupied something more than a full and the northern boundary was fixed at the mid- quarter of the fast land south of the city. It be. dle of Cohocksink Creek. By the same act the came a township at a very early period. The corporation was created by the name, style and linit of the township was extended from the uitle of “the Commissioners and Inhabitants of South st. city line along the Schuylkill and the the incorporated district of the Northern Lib- Delaware and Back Channel to a point beyond erties." Under the Consolidation law this district the eastern end of League Island, whence it ran ceased to exist in 1854, and became a part of north by west and struck the city line at South Philadelphia. The Northern Liberties was prin- st. between Schuylkill Fifth (Eighteenth) and cipally composed of a tract of land originally Sixth (Seventeenth) sts. The township was escalled Hartsfield. This was a title given in a timated to be in its greatest length 34 miles ; patent and some maps to the ground granted greatest breadth, 3 miles; area, 5110 acres. PasMarch 25, 1676, to Jurian Hartsfelder. It in- syunk, according to Henry, means

"a level cluded all the ground bounded by the Delaware place, a place below the hills.". There were between Coakquenauque (Pegg's Run) and the no villages in this township, but it was at one Cohocksink creeks, and extended westward about time a favorite place for country-seats. It was as far as the line of Ridge road. In the tract traversed by the Federal road, afterward called was nearly the whole of the ground afterward the Federal st., from the Delaware to Gray's Ferry, Northern Liberties, and a portion of Spring Gar- by a portion of Moyamensing road across to de and Penn districts. Hartsfelder sold a por- Greenwich Island, Passyunk road, Long lane tion of this property in 1679-80 to Hannah Salter, and the Irish Tract lane. and another portion to Daniel Pegg in 1683-89, Penn district, that portion of the township of he having previously bought Hannah Salter's Penn which lay north of the north boundary. interest William Penn patented the whole line of Spring Garden, between Delaware Sixth Hartsfield tract to Daniel Pegg in 1689. st. and the river Schuylkill, and between a line

Oxford, a township running from the county parallel with Hickory lane (now Fairmount av.), line in a south-east direction to the Delaware west of Sixth st, as far as Broad st., and then River, and along the same south-west to Frank- due west to the Schuylkill, and along the same ford Creek, and up the same north-westwardly to to a line parallel with, and at a distance of one Tacony Creek, which it followed until it reached hundred feet north of, Susquehanna av., and the county-line near where the north-western thence to the middle of Sixth st. It was cre. boundary joined it. Frankford, White Hall, Fox ated a district by act of Feb. 26, 1844, as "the Chase, Cedar Grove and Volunteer Town were Commissioners and Inhabitants of the district of in this township, and it also took in the former Penn." township of Tacony. Greatest length, 3 miles ; Penn township was formed from the western greatest breadth, four miles ; area, 7630 acres, It portion of the iownship of the Northern Libwas one of the earliest townships established. The erties by order of the Court of Quarter Sessions name is supposed to have been derived from the in the year 1807. It was north of Vine st., city of Oxford in England. The township was bounded on the east by Sixth st. to the intersurrounded by the waters of the Delaware and section of the road to Germantown; thence by Frankford Creek on two sides, and was traversed the same north by west to the foot of Logan's by the Little Tacony and Sissamocksink (Wissa- Hill; south-west to the Township-line road ; noming) or Little Wahank creeks,

along the same to a point a short distance above Passyunk, spelled in old deeds, maps and Manheim lane; then over in a south-west direcrecords Perslajongh, Passayunk, Passyonck, Pas- tion to the Schuylkill, and down the same to sajon, Passajungh, Passurning, on Lindstrom's

Vine st.

Its greatest length was 4 miles; its map Paisajungh, the name of an Indian village, greatest width. 3 miles ; area, 7630 acres. The

afterward of a tract of land computed at districts of Spring Garden and Penn were created

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