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HINTS FOR ACCIDENTS AND POISONS AND THEIR ANTIDOTES. EMERGENCIES.

Almost always the first thing to be done in any WHEN a person sustains any severe bodily in- case of poisoning is to induce vomiting. This jury, he is apt to be faint. His clothing should may be done by tickling the throat (within) by be loosened about the neck, waist and wrists. He means of a feather; or by warm water, with a teashould have plenty of fresh air, and should be spoonful of mustard to the tumblerful, well stirred gently fanned. A strong mustard-plaster applied up. Sulphate of zinc (white vitriol) may be used to the pit of the stomach, and others to the calves in place of the mustard or powdered alum. Pow. of the legs, will do good in severe cases, and a tea- der of ipecacuanha, a teaspoonful rubbed up with spoonful of brandy, with fifteen drops of lauda- molasses, may be employed for children, Tartar num, in a little water, may be given every fifteen emetic should never be given, as it is excessively minutes till he is revived.

depressing, and uncontrollable in its effects. In cases of heat or sun-stroke, lay the person The stomach-pump can only be used by skillful in a cool, shady place. Loosen his clothing. Let hands and even then with caution. the bystanders rub the arms and legs with pieces Opium and Other Narcotics.-After vomiting of ice wrapped in towels until the excessive heat has occurred cold water should be dashed over of surface is allayed. Give twenty drops of aro- the face and head. The patient must be kept matic spirits of hartshorn in a little water every awake, walked about between two strong persons, twenty minutes or half hour. (This is far better made to grasp the handles of a galvanic battery, than brandy.). He should not be allowed to make dosed with strong coffee, and vigorously slapped. any effort to rise or walk till quite restored. Belladonna is an antidote for opium and for

When a man falls in a fit, loosen the clothing morphia, etc., its active principles; and, on the but keep the head and shoulders raised. Give other hand, the latter counteract the effects of him plenty of air: the bystanders must not be belladonna. But a knowledge of medicine is neces. allowed to crowd around him. He will soon come sary for dealing with these articles, to himself if let alone, and should then be kept Strychnia.- After emetics have been freely and quiet till he is able to go or be removed to his successfully given, the patient should be allowed home.

to breathe the vapor of sulphuric ether, poured on Burns are best treated by applying soft linen a handkerchief and held to the face, in such quan. rags thickly spread with fresh lard. (The salt and tities as to keep down the tendency to convulsions. alum in lard as sold may be readily washed out by Bromide of potassium, twenty grains at a dose, stirring it up with water.)

dissolved in syrup, may be given every hour. When a limb is broken, it should be gently Alcoholic Poisoning should be combated by drawn into shape, and a piece of board rather emetics, of which the sulphate of zinc, given as wider than the limb, and well padded with cotton, above directed, is the best. After that strong applied on either side; handkerchiefs or rags may coffee internally, and stimulation by heat exterthen be tied around the whole, so as to keep the nally, should be used. bones in place. Sometimes, when the leg or thigh Acids are sometimes swallowed by mistake. is broken, the sound limb may be made to act as Alkalies, lime-water, magnesia or common chalk a splint.

mixed with water may be freely given, and afterThe stings of insects may be relieved by apply. ward mucilaginous drinks, such as thick guming a little spirits of hartshorn, or by putting on water or flaxseed-tea. a poultice of moist clay.

Alkalies are less frequently taken in injurious The bites of animals-dogs or cats-should be strength or quantity, but sometimes children swalwashed and thoroughly sucked; then a stick of low lye by mistake. Common vinegar may be nitrate of silver (lunar caustic) should be firmly given freely, and then castor or sweet oil in full pushed down to the very bottom of each tooth- doses-a tablespoonsul at a time, repeated every print, and rubbed round in it. A red-hot nail half hour or hour. will answer if the caustic is not at hand. After- Nitrate of silver when swallowed is neutralward poultice.

ized by common table-salt freely given in solution Insects in the ear may be destroyed by pouring in water. in sweet oil, olive oil or glycerine, Syringing The salts of mercury or arsenic loften kept as will then remove them, and should be done bed-bug poison), which are powerful irritants, are early.

apt to be very quickly fatal. Milk or the whites Persons apparently drowned should be laid of eggs may be freely given, and afterward a gently down, their wet clothing quickly torn off, very thin paste of flour and water. In these and dry blankets wrapped all round them. Then cases an emetic is to be given after the poison is artificial respiration should be made, by drawing neutralized. the arms away from the sides, bringing the elbows Phosphorus paste, kept for roach-poison or in up together above the head, pushing the arms parlor-matches, is sometimes eaten by children, down again and round, so that the elbows meet and has been willfully taken for the purpose of suiover the pit of the stomach, and so on, at the rate cide. It is a powerful irritant. The first thing to of about sixteen times in a minute. As the arms be done is to give freely of magnesia and water; are brought down, gentle but firm pressure should then to give mucilaginous drinks, as flaxseed tea, be made on the stomach just below the end of the gum-water or sassafras-pith and water; and, breast-bone.

lastly, to administer finely-powdered bone-charBleeding from wounds may be checked by firmly coal cither in pill or in mixture with water. tying a handkerchief around the limb above the In no case of poisoning should there be any injured part. A stone or piece of wood or a firm avoidable delay in obtaining the advice of a bundle of rags may be first placed on the artery, physician, and, meanwhile, the friends or by. if this can be felt beating, so as to compress it. standers should endeavor to find out exactly what Such constriction should only be temporarily has been taken, so that the treatment adopted made until a surgeon's aid can be had.

may be as prompt and effective as possible.

DIPLOMATIC INTERCOURSE, 1875.

Countries.

United States Ministers abroad.

App.

Foreign Ministers to the United States.

1871 1508

Argentine Rep...... Thomas 0. Osborn, Ill.......... 1874 Señor Don RAFAEL GARCIA..
Austria...

Godiove S. Orth, Ind.. 1875 Count Ladislas Hoyos, E. E. and M.P. 15,3
Belgium
Vacant.
Maurice Delfosse....

1505 Bolivia....

Robert M. Reynolds, Ala...... 1874 No representative. Brazil

JAMES R. Partridge, Md.... 1892 COUNCILLORA. P. DeCARVALHO BORGES 1892 Central America... George Williamson, La....

1873 Vacant. Chili..

Cornelius A. Logan, Kan.... 1873 Señor DonAdolfo Ibañez, E. E and M.F. 1875 China .... Vacant.....

1874 No Representative. Denmark.

M. J. Cramer, Ky.. 1870 Mr. 7. H. de Hegermann-Lindercrene, 1873 Ecuador.. C. Wuwellber, Iowa

1875 No Representative. France.. EliHU B. WASHBURNE, III.... 1869 M. BARTHOLDI.

1874 Germany

J. C. BANCROFT Davis, N. Y. 1874 MR. KURD VON SCHOLZER, Great Britain. Robert C. SCHENCK, (..... 1870 SIR EDWARD THORNTON. Greece

J. Meredith Read, N. Y.. 1873 No Representative. Guatemala.. (See Central America)..

SEÑOR DON VICENTE DARDON Hawaiian Islands.. Henry A. Peirce, Mass. 1869 Mr. E. H. Allen

1870 Hayti Ebenezer D. Bassett, Pa.. 1869 Mr. Stephen Preston......

1573 Italy..

GEORGE P. MARSH, V... 1861 BARON ALBERT BLANC...
Japan
JOHN A. BINGHAM, O... 1873 lushie Yoshida Kiyonari.

'1074 Liberia

J. Milton Turner, Mo... 1871 No Representative. Mexico

JOHN W. FOSTER, Ind..... 1873 Señor Don IGNACIO MARISCAL... ........ Netherlands F. D. Stockbridge, Mich.. 1875 Mr. de Pestel........

1974 Peru

RICHARD GIBBS, N. Y.. 1875 Col. DON MANUEL FREYRE..
Portugal.
Benjamin Moran, Pa.... 1874 Baron de Sant Anna...

1874 Russia GEORGE H. BOKER, Pa... 1875 Mr. Nicholas Shishkin, E. E. and M.P. 1875

SEÑOR DON ANTONIO MANTILLA DE Spain...... CALEB CUSHING, Va..

1874 Sweden C. C. Andrews, Minn............ 1869 Mr. OluP STENNERSEN

1870 Switzerland.. Horace Rublee, Wis... 1869 No Representative. Turkey.. Horace Maynard, Tenn........ 1875 GREGOIRE ARISTARCHı Bey.

1873 Uruguay

John C. Caldwell, La.. 1874 No Representative.
Venezuela
Thomas Russell, Mass....... 1874 Don Juan B. Dalla Costa..

1874 Envoys Extraordinary and Ministers Plenipotentiary in SMALL CAPS; Ministers Resident is Roman; Chargés d'Affaires in Italics.

*1875

1860

1874 {SEROS R10s ....

CONTENTS.

PAGS

1

and

PAGE

PAGE Astronomical Information.etc. 2 Diplomatic Intercourse, 1875. 68 Popular Vote for President Bishops, etc., of the Various Eclipses for 1876....

6 from 1852 to 1872............... 17 Christian Denominations in Elections in 1876.

71 Population of the World...... 3 the United States............50-52 Fixed and Movable Feasts, Postage to Foreign Countries 15 Calendar for 1876.....

Fasts, etc., 1876....

4 Rank of the Principal States Calendar for January. 2 Gleanings

66 of the World

..... 19 Calendar for February....... 4 Government of Pennsylvania, Railways of the World......... 19 Calendar for March....

6
1876
....... 59 Rates of Postage....

15 Calendar for April...

8 Guide to Philadelphia........27-39 State Governments, 1876...... 65 Calendar for May

10 Hebrew Calendar for 1876...... 8 Supreme Court of Pennsyl. Calendar for June.. 12 Hints for Accidents

vania

$9 Calendar for July.. 14 Emergencies

67 Supreme Court of the United Calendar for August... 16 Marriages, Births and Deaths States... Calendar for September......... 18 in Philadelphia in 1874... 22 Telegraphs of the World....... 19 Calendar for October............ 20 Necrology of Philadelphia.... 55 Territories..... Calendar for November......... 22 Noteworthy Events, 1874-75. 53 The Declaration of IndependCalendar for December ......... 24 Oriental Calendars.....

18 ence, July 4, 1776...3, 5, 7,9,11 Churches and Religious Ser- Pennsylvania Legislature, The Ephemeris.... vices in Philadelphia ......40-50 1876-77:

-59, 60 The Ledger in 1840 and in 1875 13 Court of Commissioners of the Philadelphia Chronology for

The Storm Year.................. 54 Alabama Claims.

1874-75

21, 23, 25, 26 United States Government.... 56 Deaths in Cities in 1874...... 16 Philadelphia City Govern United States Senate ........... 57 Density of Population of the

ment ......

......60-64 / United States House of Re. Principal States and Terri. Planets..

presentatives............... 57, 58 torial Divisions of the World 19 Poisons and their Antidotes... 67 | Weather Report, 1874-75......3

12

56

......... TO

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