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SUMMARY OF THE THIRD YEAR OF THE WAR.

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come from Virginia to take a hand in the fight, and, under Grant, Sherman, Thomas, and Hooker, drove the enemy from the mountains in three battles (November 23–25), - one “the battle above the clouds.”l The Confederates now retreated to Dalton, Georgia.

In February, 1864, General Sherman made a raid? across Mississippi, and effectually destroyed the railroads centering at Meridian, by ripping up the rails, burning bridges, machine-shops, and locomotives. So little was left of the place that one of the inhabitants said, “Sherman didn't simply smash things, but he just carried the town off with him.” This rendered the Confederates in that quarter helpless to attack him at Chattanooga. Shortly after this (March 3, 1864), Grant was made general-in-chief of the Union armies. At last the right man has been found, and there will be no more changes. He will advance on Richmond, and Sherman will soon begin his famous march from Chattanooga to Atlanta, and from Atlanta to the sea.

344. Summary of the Third Year of the War, April, 1863, to April, 1864. — At the East the Confederates had gained the battle of Chancellorsville, but lost “Stonewall” Jackson. Lee's second invasion of the North had ended in his defeat at Gettysburg; at the same time Grant and Sherman were taking Vicksburg. Port Hudson surrendered a few days later, and the Mississippi was open through its entire length. In the Southwest, the Union forces, after severe battles at Chickamauga, Missionary Ridge, and Lookout Mountain, were successful. Grant was now made general-inchief of the Union forces; he went East to manage the war there, and left Sherman in charge of the West.

FOURTH AND LAST YEAR OF THE WAR, APRIL, 1864, TO APRIL, 1865.

345. Grant and Sherman agree on a “Hammering Campaign." - Early in

Early in the spring of 1864, Grant and Sherman met

1 That of Lookout Mountain. Union forces, 80,000; Confederate, 55,000. Union loss, 6000; Confederate, 10,000. 2 From Vicksburg, destroying the roads on the way.

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and decided on a plan of action. The Confederates had been driven from the Mississippi ; they now had two chief centres of power left. Lee, with an army of about sixty thousand, held the southern banks of the Rapidan and the Rappahannock, thus guarding Richmond, and all the country south of it. Johnston, with

about seventy-five

thousand, held

A Ρ Ε Ν

Dalton, Georgia (a town a short distance below

Chattanooga, TenBluff,

nessee), and all the Fishes

country south and east of it. Grant and Sherman

agreed to divide Rappanannock R.

their work: the first, with one hundred and twenty thousand men, was to move

on Lee and compel him to surrender Richmond; the sec

ond, then at Chat

А Struthers & Cah N.Y.

tanooga with

army of one hun100

dred thousand, was to march the same day on Johnston, beat him, and then push his way through to the sea.

This was “ the famous hammering campaign.” Grant and Sherman agreed “to hammer” together, " to hammer" with all their might, and never to leave off “hammering," until they had given the finishing blow, and permanently established peace, union, and freedom for the whole country.

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