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to hear him had to pay $100 each. This made free thought expensive. Toward a few Quakers, who ventured into the colony, Stuyvesant was horribly cruel. The authorities in Holland rebuked him, and ordered that every man should be permitted to worship God in his own house in his own way; but the governor managed to do as he liked.

Aside from these tyrannical measures, Peter Stuyvesant was a good ruler. He made numerous improvements in the “city” of New Amsterdam-a "city" that in 1656 had a population of only a thousand, many of whom were negro slaves. In order to better defend the place he had a high and strong palisade built on the north of the town. It extended entirely across the island from river to river. Such was the origin of Wall Street, which to-day is the great money centre of America.

From an early period the population of the town was a mixed one, made up of Dutch, French, and English. The laws had on this account to be published in three languages. Even then New Amsterdam was beginning to represent all nationalities. The Dutch saw that the place had a future, and predicted that the time would come when its “ships would ride on every sea.” Today the miles of wharves on the East and North Rivers, lined with vessels under every flag, and hailing from all the ports of the globe, show how far their judgment was correct. But England, too, understood the value of the Hudson and the harbor. She was determined to get possession of it, first, because of its commercial advantages; next, because, so long as the Dutch held it, Virginia and New England were both in danger.

In fact, Stuyvesant had made attempts to seize the country on the Connecticut River, where English settlers had come in, and he had furthermore succeeded in getting possession of what is now Delaware and New Jersey.

The English king, Charles II., claimed the whole country on the ground that the Cabots had discovered the coast and planted the English flag on it in 1497. For this reason Charles now gave it to his brother James, Duke of York. England and Holland were then at peace; but, suddenly, one day in 1664, a British fleet appeared off New Amsterdam, and demanded its surrender. Governor Stuyvesant was furious. He swore that he would never surrender “ as long as he had a leg to stand on or an arm to fight with "; but finding that the citizens positively refused to uphold him he had to submit. The English promised full protection of life and liberty to the inhabitants. Furthermore, they agreed to grant religious liberty, freedom of trade, and a representative government.

The result was that the Dutch flag on the fort was hauled down, the English colors were run up, and thereafter the province of New Netherland became, in honor of James, Duke of York, the British province of New York. In like manner the quiet Dutch “ city" of New Amsterdam became “his majesty's town of New York." I

Ex-Governor Stuyvesant went back to Holland, but soon returned to spend the rest of his days on his "great bowery," or farm which was on the east side of the island, just outside the city limits. The street now called the Bowery recalls the “bowery lane” which once led to the stern old soldier's home.

65. Summary.- Henry Hudson, in 1609, sailed up the river named for him. The Dutch took possession of the country, and called it New Netherland; on Manhattan Island they founded the city of New Amsterdam. England and France were both jealous of the colony. In 1664 England took possession of the country, and named it New York, in honor of James, Duke of York.

III. New JERSEY (1617). 66. The Dutch claim the Country between the Hudson and the Delaware; New Jersey.-In 1617 the Dutch, crossing over from Manhattan Island, built a small fort at Bergen, on

1 In 1673 New York was captured by the Dutch during war between Holland and England, but was given up to the English again when peace was made, seven months later. From that time until the Revolution it remained subject to England.

2 See Paragraph 62. 3 Bergen : pronounced Ber'gen, 8 hard. See Map, page IIO.

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the west bank of the Hudson. Later they built a second fort nearly opposite where Philadelphia now stands. The whole country between these forts they claimed as part of New Netherland, though the English maintained that as the Cabots had discovered the coast, it belonged by right to them.

In 1664, after the English had conquered the Dutch colony of New Netherland, the Duke of York gave the whole territory between the Delaware River and the Hudson to his friends Lord Berkeley and Sir George Carteret. Sir George had been governor of the island of Jersey in the English Channel. During the Civil War he had gallantly defended that island in behalf of Charles I., the Duke of York's father. For this reason the Duke named the country which he granted to him and to Lord Berkeley, New Jersey. An English settlement was made that year at a place which the emigrants called Elizabethtown,“ in honor of Lady Elizabeth Carteret, wife of Sir George. Very liberal terms were granted to settlers by the proprietors

of this province, and the people had a direct part in the government.







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67. The Friends, or Quakers, buy New Jersey; Treaty with the Indians; Prosperity of the Country; New Jersey becomes a Royal Colony. — In 1674 some English Friends, or Quakers, bought Lord Berkeley's share, or West Jersey, and later William Penn and other members of the Society of Friends bought the other half, or East

Jersey, from the heirs of Sir George Car100

teret. The Friends made a treaty with the Indians at Burlington which was so satisfactory to the savages that they declared that if they 1 See Paragraph 61.

2 See Paragraph 14. 8 John, Lord Berkeley, and not Governor Berkeley of Virginia. Now, Elizabeth.





found an Englishman sleeping in the path, they would not molest him, but would say, "He is an Englishman; he is asleep; let him alone.” In the same spirit of good will the Friends granted selfgovernment to the colonists. The people levied their own taxes, made their own laws, and all settlers enjoyed religious liberty. The commerce of the Jerseys increased, and iron manufacture was begun. But eventually trouble arose about titles to land, and the proprietors thought it best (1702) to put the two colonies directly into the hands of the English government. They were united under the jurisdiction of the governor of New York; till in 1738 New Jersey became a separate province. From this time until the Revolution it was ruled by a governor of its own appointed by the king of England. The last of the royal governors was William Franklin, son of Benjamin Franklin.

68. Summary. - The Dutch first claimed possession of what is now New Jersey. The English Duke of York seized the country and gave it to two of his friends, naming the province from the British island of Jersey.

A company of English Quakers then bought the land, granting to the settlers most of the privileges of self-government. In 1702, the Quaker proprietors surrendered their rights to the English sovereign, and New Jersey became a royal colony until the Revolution.


69. Former Lack of Religious Liberty in England; Catholics; Puritans; Separatists. — When the English began to settle in America (1607), no country in Europe had that entire freedom of worship which every civilized nation enjoys to-day. In England the law required every one to attend the Protestant Episcopal Church established by the government. Furthermore, all persons had to pay taxes for the support of that church.

Three classes of good and loyal citizens objected to that law.

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They were, first, the Catholics, who protested against the injustice of being obliged to aid in maintaining a creed they did not accept; secondly, the Puritans, who thoroughly believed in the principle and also in the doctrines of the national Protestant Church, but decidedly objected to some of its ceremonies; lastly, the Separatists, who, like the Puritans, accepted the religious teachings of the Church of England, but did not approve of its forms, and were resolved to separate from it and set up independent congregations of their own.

70. Emigration of those who sought Religious Liberty; the Separatists go to Holland. - Not being able to obtain the freedom they desired in England, many emigrants, representing the Catholics, the Puritans, and the Separatists, came to America. Here, they hoped that they might be able to worship God without molestation, according to the dictates of their consciences.

The first who thus emigrated were the Separatists. In 1607 a congregation of these people held religious services in the little English village of Scrooby.Finding that they could have no peace, but were, as they said, “hunted," "persecuted," and “clapped up in prison,” they fled to Holland, where, they had heard, there " was freedom of religion for all men.”

71. The Separatists, or Pilgrims, resolve to go to America; their Reasons. — In 1620 a part of the Separatists, or Pilgrims, as they now with good reason called themselves, — for they had no fixed home, - resolved to emigrate to America.

Aside from the prospect of a terrible religious war between Spain and Holland, three chief reasons induced the Pilgrims to

1 See Paragraph 55.

2 In the East of England, in the extreme north of Nottinghamshire, at a point where that county joins Lincolnshire and Yorkshire. See Map, page 76.

8 "So they left that goodly and pleasant city (Leyden, Holland; see Map, p. 76] which had been their resting-place near twelve years; but they knew they were PILGRIMS (see Hebrews xi. 13] and looked not much on those things; but lifted up their eyes to the heavens, their dearest country, and quieted their spirits." – BRADFORD'S History of Plymouth, 1607-1646.

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