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70. "The blanks should be filled up thus: 'Hervey's,' 'Fox's,' "The Senate's.' Henry Fox (next to his brother Stephen, Lord Hervey's dearest friend), had on January 24th, 1738, moved in a highly encomiastic speech a still more highly encomiastic address on the Queen's death. . . . 'The well-whipt cream of courtly sense' belongs to Lord Hervey, whom Pope suspected of having written Fox's encomiastic speech introducing the address, which address being adopted became the Senate's, and which Lord Hervey finally embodied in the celebrated epitaph on the Queen in Latin and English."-Croker. In the Second Dialogue, Pope seems to retract the implied accusation against Fox. See lines 166-170.

75. Middleton and Bland. Dr. Conyers Middleton, who dedicated his famous Life of Cicero to Lord Hervey. Bland had been master of Eton. Pope had attacked both in his Dunciad.

78. Nation's Sense. A cant term of politics at the time, somewhat like our public opinion.

92. Immortal Selkirk, and grave Delaware. "A title given that Lord by King James II. He was of the Bedchamber to King William; he was so to King George I., he was so to King George II. This Lord was very skilful in all the forms of the House, in which he discharged himself with great_gravity."— Pope.

112. An allusion to current gossip about Lady Mary Wortley Montague and her conduct towards her sister, the Countess of Mar, and her French friend, M. Ruzemonde.

120. Japhet Crook. See Moral Essays, iii, 86.

121. Peter Walter. For Bond, see Moral Essays, iii, 100. 123. Blount. "Author of an impious and foolish book called the Oracles of Reason, who being in love with a near kinswoman of his, and rejected, gave himself a stab in the arm, as pretending to kill himself, of the consequence of which he really died."-Pope.

124. Passeran. "Author of another book of the same stamp, called A philosophical discourse on death, being a defence of suicide. He was a nobleman of Piedmont, banished from his country for his impieties, and lived in the utmost misery, yet feared to practice his own precepts."-Warburton.

125. a Printer, etc. "A Fact that happened in London a few years past. The unhappy man left behind him a paper justifying his action by the reasonings of some of these

authors."-Pope. See the account of Richard Smith in The Gentleman's Magazine, 1732, vol. ii, page 722.

129. "Alluding to the forms of prayer, composed in the times of public calamity; where the fault is generally laid upon the People."-Warburton.

130. Gin. “A spirituous liquor, the exorbitant use of which had almost destroyed the lowest rank of the People till it was restrained by an act of Parliament in 1736."-Pope.

131. Foster. A Dissenting preacher who had been attracting large crowds in London.

133. In the British Chronologist, October, 1735, it is stated that "Mrs. Drummond, a young Scottish lady, having turned Quaker, came up to London, and preached in that city, and in most of the great towns of England, particularly to the whole University of Cambridge."

151. "Modern readers may require to be reminded that in Pope's days carting, or exhibiting from a cart, was a punishment of prostitutes and procuresses."-Croker.

DIALOGUE II

I. Paxton. Solicitor to the Treasury. Pope would of course be suspicious of any member of the Walpole administration, but in this case his suspicion was later justified. In 1742 Paxton was prosecuted for malversation.

11. Ev'n Guthry. "The Ordinary of Newgate, who publishes the memoirs of the Malefactors, and is often prevailed upon to be so tender of their reputation, as to set down no more than the initials of their name."-Pope.

39. wretched Wild. “Jonathan Wild, a famous Thief, and Thief-Impeacher, who was at last caught in his own train and hanged.”—Pope. Fielding's Jonathan Wild, published in 1743, is a biography of the thief adapted to satirize Walpole.

57. "Peter had, the year before this, narrowly escaped the Pillory for forgery: and got off with a severe rebuke only from the bench."-Pope.

65. Scarb'row. "Earl of, and Knight of the Garter, whose personal attachments to the king appeared from his steady adherence to the royal interest, after his resignation of his great employment of Master of the Horse; and whose known honour and virtue made him esteemed by all parties."-Pope. 66. Esher's peaceful grove. "The house and gardens of

Esher in Surrey, belonging to the Honourable Mr. Pelham, Brother of the Duke of Newcastle. The author could not have given a more amiable idea of his Character than in comparing him to Mr. Craggs."-Pope.

71. Secker. Bishop of Bristol (1735), then of Oxford (1737), and elevated to the Primacy in 1758.

71. Rundel. Made Bishop of Derry in 1735.

72. Benson. Made Bishop of Gloucester in 1733.

73. Berk❜ley. The celebrated philosopher, Bishop of Cloyne, of whom Atterbury said that "So much understanding, so much knowledge, so much innocence, and such humility, I did not think had been the portion of any but angels, till I saw this gentleman."

77. Halifax. “A peer, no less distinguished by his love of letters than his abilities in Parliament. He was disgraced in 1710, on the change of Queen Anne's ministry."-Pope.

79. Shrewsbury. "Charles Talbot, Duke of Shrewsbury, had been Secretary of state, Embassador in France, Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, Lord Chamberlain, and Lord Treasurer. He several times quitted his employments, and was often recalled. He died in 1718."-Pope.

80. Carleton. "Hon. Boyle, Lord Carleton, (nephew of the famous Robert Boyle) who was Secretary of state under William III. and President of the council under Queen Anne." -Pope.

80. Stanhope. "James Earl Stanhope. A nobleman of equal courage, spirit, and learning. General in Spain, and Secretary of state."-Pope.

88. Wyndham. "Sir William Wyndham, Chancellor of the Exchequer under Queen Anne, made early a considerable figure; but since a much greater both by his ability and eloquence, joined with the utmost judgment and temper."-Pope. 92. "He was at this time honoured with the esteem and favour of his Royal Highness the Prince."-Warburton.

99. my Lord May'r. "Sir John Barnard, Lord Mayor in the year of the Poem, 1738. A Citizen eminent for his virtue, public Spirit, and great talents in Parliament. An excellent Man, Magistrate, and Senator. In the year 1747, the City of London, in memory of his many and signal services to his Country, erected a Statue to him. But his image had been placed long before in the heart of every good Man." -Warburton.

129. Arnall. A political writer in the service of Walpole. Pope placed him in the Dunciad, Book ii, line 315, with a note saying that for his "scurrilities” he received 11,000 pounds in four years.

130. Polwarth. "Lord Polwarth was, after Barnard, the speaker whom Walpole considered the most formidable in debate of all the Opposition, on account of his fairness and independence."-Elwin and Courthope.

158. According to Horace Walpole, the allusion both here and in line 61 is to Lord Selkirk.

159. See Imitations of Horace, Book ii, Satire i, line 82. 161. A line taken from a poem addressed to Walpole by Bubb Doddington.

164. Pope added a note: "Spoken not of any particular priest, but of many priests." Commentators insist, however, on applying it particularly to Dr. Alured Clarke, who wrote a panegyric on Queen Caroline.

166. the florid Youth. Lord Hervey, who painted himself to conceal his sickly paleness.

167. "This seems to allude to a complaint made in verse 71 of the preceding Dialogue."-Pope.

185-186. Japhet, Chartres. "See the Epistle to Lord Bathurst."-Pope.

204. "From Terence: 'Homo sum: humani nihil a me alienum puto." "-Pope.

222. Cobwebs. "Weak and slight sophistry against virtue and honour. Thin colours over vice, as unable to hide the light of Truth, as cobwebs to shade the) sun."-Pope.

228. When black Ambition, etc. "The case of Cromwell in the civil war of England; and (verse 229) of Louis XIV. in his conquest of the Low Countries."-Pope.

231. Nor Boileau turn the Feather to a Star. "See his Ode on Namur; where (to use his own words) 'il a fait un Astre de la Plume blanche que le Roy porte ordinairement à son Chapeau, et qui est en effet une espèce de Comète, fatale à nos ennemis.'"-Pope.

237. Anstis. "The chief Herald at Arms. It is the custom, at the funeral of great peers, to cast into the grave the broken staves and ensigns of honour."-Pope.

239. Stair. "John Dalrymple Earl of Stair, Knight of the Thistle; served in all the wars under the Duke of Marlborough; and afterwards as Embassador in France."-Pope.

240, 241. Hough and Digby. "Dr. John Hough, Bishop of Worcester, and the Lord Digby. The one an assertor of the Church of England in opposition to the false measures of King James II. The other as firmly attached to the cause of the King. Both acting out of principle, and equally men of honour and virtue."-Pope.

255. "This was the last poem of the kind printed by our author, with a resolution to publish no more; but to enter thus, in the most plain and solemn manner he could, a sort of PROTEST against that insuperable corruption and depravity of manners, which he had been so unhappy as to live to see. Could he have hoped to have amended any, he had continued those attacks; but bad men were grown so shameless and so powerful, that Ridicule was become as unsafe as it was ineffectual. The Poem raised him, as he knew it would, some enemies; but he had reason to be satisfied with the approbation of good men, and the testimony of his own conscience."-Pope.

APPENDIX A

CHRONOLOGICAL BIBLIOGRAPHY

There is no extensive bibliography of the literature about Pope. The present list may be supplemented by consulting the Cambridge History of English Literature, volume ix, Allibone's Dictionary of Authors, the Dictionary of National Biography, and the various indexes to periodical literature. All publications since 1920 are listed in the annual Bibliography of English Literature, prepared by the Modern Humanities Research Association, a series indispensable to any serious student of English literature. A definitive bibliography of Pope's own writings from 1709 to 1734 was published by R. H. Griffith in 1922, and future installments to complete the work are in preparation.

The list given here is designed primarily to assist the undergraduate student to some knowledge of the history of Pope's reputation, and thus to an intelligent evaluation of the more important essays on Pope as poet and artist.

1751. Works of Alexander Pope. Edited by Warburton..

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