Mortuary Monuments and Burial Grounds of the Historic Period

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Springer Science & Business Media, 2004 - 274 pages
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For too long graveyard studies have been seen as an eccentric byway rather than a specialist subject area with as much to contribute as the study of ceramics, building types or faunal remains. As a category of material evidence with variety of form, decoration and text, it is suitable for many forms of analysis. Graveyard memorials form a rich seam of archaeological evidence, but publication is often in a local format. The situating of mortuary studies within the local is both valuable and stimulating, but it can mean that valuable studies of interest to others are not discovered. This practical volume focuses on the study of historic burial ground monuments but also covers some below ground archaeology, as some projects will involve the study of both. The linking between above and below ground data has rarely been achieved, and the integration of graveyard data within settlement and landscape archaeology has also been likewise rarely attempted. Some areas covered are: -A brief history and theoretical approached to historic mortuary archaeology; -Attitudes to death, the body and remembrance; -How to carry out a study; -Conservation, education, and display. Mortuary Monuments and Burial Grounds of the Historic Period will be an incomparable source for academic archaeologists, cultural resource and heritage management archaeologists, government heritage agencies, and upper-level undergraduate and graduate students of archaeology focused on the historic or post-medieval period, as well as forensic researchers and anthropologists.

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Contents

Introduction
1
1 A BRIEF HISTORY OF HISTORICAL MORTUARY ARCHAEOLOGY
2
121 Memorials and Carving Traditions
3
123 Maturing Memorial Research
4
2 THEORETICAL APPROACHES
5
22 Functionalist Approaches
7
23 Structuralist Approaches
8
25 Symbolic Studies
9
42 Distribution of Carvers Products
119
5 CONCLUSIONS
120
Social Structures
121
2 STATUS
122
3 FAMILY STRUCTURES
124
32 Male Roles
127
33 Female Roles
128
35 Family Relationships
129

26 Other Recently Developed Approaches
10
3 SUMMARY
11
Folk Traditions and High Culture Funerary and Commemorative Practice to the Early 18th Century
13
11 The Good Death
14
21 Mourning Dress and Funeral Expenditure
15
31 Location
17
312 North American Burial Grounds
18
32 Spatial Arrangement
19
322 North American Burial Patterns
20
33 Burial
21
4 INTERNAL MEMORIALS
22
41 Materials
23
5 EXTERNAL MEMORIALS
24
51 Materials
25
522 Posts Posts and Rails and Grave Boards
26
524 Additional Elements
29
526 Tombs
30
527 Pedestal Monuments
31
53 Decoration and Symbols
32
533 Folk Art Motifs
33
A Maturing Industry The Mid18th Century to Early 20th Century
35
1 THE FUNERAL
36
12 Increasing Commercialization
39
13 Popular Fears Regarding Burial
40
22 Other Mourning Material Culture
41
4 BURIAL GROUNDS AND CEMETERIES
42
412 Rural Locations in Colonial Contexts
43
413 War Cemeteries
44
414 Urban Locations
45
42 Intrasite Spatial Arrangement
47
422 North American Rural Burial Grounds
48
423 Urban Churchyards and Cemeteries
49
5 INTERNAL MEMORIALS
54
51 Materials
55
52 Form and Style
56
6 EXTERNAL MEMORIALS
58
611 Wood
60
613 Ceramics
62
621 External Mural Monuments
63
623 Raised Platform
64
624 Headstones
65
625 Crosses
66
626 Pedestal Monuments
68
627 Tombs
69
628 Ledgers
71
6211 Mausolea
72
6272 Loculi
73
6213 War Memorials
74
7 DECORATION AND SYMBOLS
75
8 TEXT
80
9 CONCLUSIONS
81
A Marginalized Activity From After World War I
83
1 THE FUNERAL
84
12 Changes in Organization
85
13 Coffins and Caskets
86
2 MOURNING
87
4 BURIAL GROUNDS AND CEMETERIES
89
5 INTERNAL MEMORIALS
93
61 Materials
94
62 Forms
95
627 Headstones
96
622 Flat Monuments
97
624 Kerbs
98
626 Loculi
99
63 Decoration and Symbols
100
64 Text
101
7 CONCLUSIONS
102
Production and Consumption
105
12 Mourning Paraphernalia
107
22 Production and the Role of Carvers
110
221 Identifying Specific Carvers
111
23 Commissioning and Production of Monuments
113
3 TEMPORAL CHANGE
116
4 SPATIAL CHANGE
117
4 INSTITUTIONAL STRUCTURES
131
6 SOCIAL HIERARCHIES
132
62 Pauper Burial
133
8 EMULATION
134
9 CONCLUSIONS
135
Identities
137
1 RELIGIOUS AFFILIATION
138
11 Christian Denominations
139
112 Orthodox
140
113 Protestant
141
12 Other Religions
142
123 Other NonChristian Groups
143
13 Combined Burial Grounds
144
2 ETHNICITY
145
3 LINGUISTIC GROUP
147
4 VOCATIONAL IDENTITY
148
41 Religious Leaders
150
42 Military
151
43 Other Identities
153
434 Achievement
154
5 CONCLUSIONS
155
Attitudes toward Death the Body and Remembrance
157
1 THE MANNER OF DEATH
158
2 ATTITUDES TOWARD THE BODY
159
21 Interment
160
212 Postdepositional Movement
162
213 Body Theft
163
214 Ossuaries
164
23 The Unburied Body
165
25 Symbolism and Epitaphs
168
252 Warning Epitaphs
171
254 Salvation Texts
172
255 Remembrance Symbols
173
256 Remembrance Texts
174
4 CONCLUSIONS
178
Carrying Out a Study
179
11 Dating
180
112 Burial Grounds
182
113 Burials
184
122 Burial grounds
186
13 Classification of Memorials
187
132 Decoration
188
2 PROJECT FIELDWORK PLANNING
189
21 types of Study
190
221 Preliminary Assessment
191
222 Permission
192
24 Etiquette in the Burial Ground
193
3 SAMPLING
194
32 Sample Size versus Sample Detail
195
34 Excavation
196
41 Surface Mapping
197
412 Carrying out the Mapping
198
42 Geophysical Survey
200
5 RESEARCHING MEMORIALS
201
512 Reading the Inscription
202
513 Coded Information
203
521 Photography
204
522 Drawings
205
7 EXCAVATION
207
8 CONCLUSIONS
210
Conservation Education and Display
211
11 Landscape Conservation
212
12 Memorials
213
2 HISTORIC BURIAL GROUNDS IN EDUCATION
217
21 Mathematics
220
24 Social History
221
27 Literature
222
4 CONCLUSIONS
228
Examples of Recording Systems
229
Useful Addresses
233
Bibliography
235
Index
261
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