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power can only influence us to outward practice; by outward practice only, is the good which civil Society aims at, immediately effected; therefore is coercive power peculiarly fit for civil Society. But the good, which religious Society aims at, cannot be effected by outward practice; therefore coercive power is altogether unfit for this Society.

Having thus by a diligent enquiry found,

I. First, That the care of the civil Society extends only to the body, and its concerns; and the care of the religious Society only to the soul : it necessarily follows, that the civil Magistrate, if he will improve this natural influence of Religion by human art and contrivance, must seek some UNION Or ALLIANCE with the Church. For his office not extending to the care of souls, he hath not, in himself, power to enforce the influence of religion: and the Church's province not extending to the body, and consequently being without coactive power, she has not, in herself alone, a power of applying that influence to civil purposes. The conclusion is, that their joint powers niust co-operate thus to apply and inforce the influence of religion. But they can never act conjointly but in union and alliance.

II. Secondly, having found that each society is sovereign, and independent on the other, it as necessarily follows, that such union can be produced only by FREE CONVENTION AND MUTUAL COMPACT: because, whatever is sovereign and independent, can be brought to no act without its own consent: but nothing can give birth to a free convention, but a sense of mutual wants, which may be supplied ; or a view of mutual benefits, which may be gained by it.


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Such then is the nature of that Union which produceth a RELIGION BY LAW ESTABLISHED: and which is, indeed, no other than a public league and alliance for mutual support and defence. For the State not having the care of souls, cannot inforce the influence of religion; and therefore seeks the concurring aid of the Church: and the Church having no coercive power (the consequence of its care's not extending to bodies) as naturally flies for protection to the State: this being of that kind of Alliance which Grotius calls F(EDUS INÆQUALE Inæquale fædus (say she) “ hic intelligo quod ex ipsa vi pactionis manentem

prælationem quandam alteri donat: hoc est, ubi quis tenetur alterius imperium ac majestatem conservare UT POTENTIORI PLUS HONORIS, INFIRMIORI PLUS AUXILII DEFERATUR *.”

An Alliance, then, by free convention, being in its nature such that each party must have its motives for contracting; our next enquiry will be,

I. What those motives were, which the State had for seeking, and the Church for accepting, the offers of an union : And,

II. The mutual benefits and advantages thereby arising

The motives the Magistrate had to seek this alliance, were these:

1. To preserve the essence and purity of religion ;

II. To improve its usefulness, and apply its influence in the best manner;

III. To prevent the mischief which, in its natural independent state, it might occasion to civil society.

De Jure Belli et Pac: I, I. c. 3. & 27.

I. The Magistrate was induced to seek it, 1. As the necessary means of preserving the being of religion. For though (as hath been shown in the treatise of the Alliance *) religion constitutes a Society; and though this Society will indeed, for some time, support the existence of religion, which, without it, would soon vanish from amongst men; yet, if we consider that religious Society is made up of the same individuals which compose the civil; and destitute likewise of all coercive power; we must needs see, that a Society, abandoned to its own fortune, without support or protection, would, in no long time, be swallowed up and lost. Of this opinion was a very able writer, whose knowledge of human nature will not be disputed:

“ Were it not, says he, for that sense of virtue, “ which is principally preserved, so far as it is pre

served, BY NATIONAL FORMS AND HABITS OF RELIGION, men would soon lose it all, run wild, prey upon one another, and do what else the worst of

savages dot." 2. But of whatever use an Alliance may be thought, for preserving the being of religion, the necessity of it, for preserving its purity, is most evident: for if truth, and public utility coincide, the nearer any religion approacheth to the truth of things, the fitter that religion is for the service of the State. That they do coincide, that is, that truth is productive of utility, and utility indicative of truth, may be proved on any principles, but the atheistic; and therefore we think it needless,

* Book I. Chap. V. + Wollaston's Religion of Nature delineated, p. 124. Quarto

Edit. 17:25.




in this place, to draw out the argument in form* : Let us then consider the danger religion runs of deviating from truth, when left, in its natural state, to itself. In those circumstances, the men of highest.

edit, are such as are famed for greatest sanctity.. This sanctity hath been generally understood to be then most perfect, when most estranged from the worlds. and all ito habits and relations. But this being only to be acquired by secession and retirement from affairs; and that secession rendering man ignorant of civil Society, and of its rights and interests; in place of which will succeed, according to bis natural temper, the destructive follies either of superstition or fanaticism, we must needs conclude, that religion, under such directors and reformers, (and God knows these are generally its lot) will deviate from truth; and consequently from a capacity, in proportion, of serving civil Society. I wish I could not say, we have too many examples to support this observation.

The truth is, we have seen, and yet do see religious Societies, some grown up, and continuing unsupported by, and ununited with the State; others, that, when supported and united, have by strange arts brought the State into subjection, and become its tyrants and usurpers; and thereby defeated all the good which can arise from this Alliance; such Societies, I say, we have seen, whose religious doctrines are so little serviceable to civil Government, that they can prosper only on the ruin and destruction of it. Such are those which teach the holiness of celibacy and asceticism, the sinfulness of defensive war, of capital punishments, and even of civil magistracy itself.

• Sce Book III. $ 6.


On the other hand, when religion is in Alliance with the State, as it then comes under the Magistrate's direction, those holy leaders having now neither credit nor power. to do mischief, its purity must needs be reasonably well supported and preserved; for truth and public utility coinciding, the civil Magistrate, as such, will see it for his interest to seek after, and promote truth in religion : and, by means of public utility, which his office enables him so well to understand, he will never be at a loss, where such truth is to be found : so that it is impossible, under this civil influence, for religion ever to deviate far from truth; always supposing (for on such supposition this whole theory proceeds) a LEGITIMATE Government, or civil policy, established on the principles of the natural rights and liberties of man: for an unequal and unjust Government, which seeks its own, not public utility, will always have occasion for error: and so, must corrupt religion both in principle and practice, to promote its own wrong interests.

II. Secondly, the Magistrate was induced to seek this Alliance, as the necessary means to improve the usefulness, and to apply in the best manner the influence of religion for his service. And this an Alliance does by several ways.

1. By bestowing additional reverence and venerdtion on the person of the civil MAGISTRATE, and on the laws of the State. For, in this alliance, where the religious Society is taken into the protection of the State, the supreme Magistrate, as will be shewn hereafter, is acknowledged HEAD of the religion. Now nothing can be imagined of more efficacy for securing the obedience of the people. Those two great mas

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