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believing its own the true, strives to advance itself on the ruins of the rest. If this doth not succeed by dint of argument, these partisans are apt to have recourse to the coercive power of the State : which is done by introducing a party into the public administration. And they have always had art enough to make the State believe that its interests were much concerned in the success of their religious quarrels. What persecutions, rebellions, revolutions, loss of civil and religious liberty, these intestine struggles between sects have occasioned, is well known to such as are acquainted with the history of mankind. To prevent these mischiefs was, as hath been shewn, one great motive for the State's seeking Alliance with the Church: for the obvious remedy was the establishing one church, and giving a free toleration to the rest. Butoif, in administering this cure, the State should stop short, and not proceed to exclude the tolerated religions from entering into the public administration, such imperfect application of the remedy would infinitely heighten the distemper: for, before the Alliance, it was only a mistaken aim in propagating truth, which occasioned these disorders : but now, the zeal for opinions would be out of measure inflamed by envy and emulation ; which the temporal advantages, enjoyed by the established church, exclusive of the rest, will always occasion : And what mischiefs this would produce, had every sect a free entry into the administration, the reader may easily conceive. If it be said, that, would men content themselves, as in reason they ought, with en-. joying their own opinions, without obtruding them upon others, these evils, which require the remedy of a test-law, would never happen. This is very

true: and so, would men but observe the rule of justice in

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general, there would be no need to have recourse to civil Society, to rectify the violations of it.

In a word, an ESTABLISHED RELIGION WITH A TEST-LAW is the universal voice of Nature. The most savage nations have employed it to civilize their manners; and the politest knew no other

way to prevent their return to barbarity and violence.

Thus the city of ATHENS, so humane and free, exacted an oath of all their youth for the security of the established religion : for, Athens being a democracy, every

citizen had a constant share in the administration. A copy of this oath, the strongest of all tests, is preserved by Stobæus, who transcribed it from the writings of the Pythagoreans, the great school of ancient politics. It is conceived in these words: “I will not “ dishonour the sacred arms *, nor desert my comrade “ in battle: I will DEFEND AND PROTECT MY

COUNTRY AND MY RELIGION, whether alone or in

conjunction with others : I will not leave the public “ in a worse condition than I found it, but in a better ; “ I will be always ready to obey the supreme magis

trate, with prudence; and to submit to the established “ laws, and to all such as shall be hereafter established

by full consent of the people : and I will never “ comive at any other who shall presume to despise

or disobey them ; but will revenge all such attempts on the sanctity of the republic, either alone or in conjunction with the people: and lastly, I will CONFORM TO THE NATIONAL RELIGION. So

OTAQ Tà ixpd, the sacred arms, by what follows, seems to mean those which the lovers presented to their favourite youths. Concerning this institution, see what is said in the explanaa tion of Tirgil's episode of Nisus and Euryalus, in sect. iv. of this book.

help help me those Gods who are the




jury *.»

Here we see, that after each man had sworn, to defend and protect the religion of his country, in consequence of the obligation the State lies under to protect the established worship, he concludes, I will conform to it; the directest and strongest of all tests.

But a test of conformity to the established worship, was not only required of 'those who bore a share in the civil administration, but of those too who were chosen to preside in their religious rites. Demosthenes hath recorded the oath wbich the priestesses of Bacchus, called repaspai, took on entering into their Office. “ I observe a religious chastity, and am clean and pure “ from all other defilements, and from conversation 56 with man: AND I CELEBRATE THE THEOINEIA



Nor were the ROMANS less watchful for the support of the established religion, as may be seen by a speech of the consul Posthumius in Livy, occasioned

• Oύ καλαισχυνώ όπλα τα ιερά, εδ' εγκαταλείψω τον σαραγάτης ότω αν τοιχήσω" ΑΜΥΝΩ ΔΕ ΚΑΙ ΥΠΕΡ ΙΕΡΩΝ, και υπέρ οσίων και μόνΘ-, και μετά πολλών, την παλρίδα δε υκ ελάσσω παραδώσω, σλείω δε και αρείω, ώσης αν παραδέξομαι και ευηκοήσω των αει κρινόλων έμφρόνως, και τους θεσμούς τους ιδρυμένους σείσωμαν, και ός τινας αν άλλες το αληθιδρύσηίαι ομοφρόνως και αν τις αναιρή τες θεσμες ή μη σπείθηλαι, έκ υπΠρέψω, αμυνώ δε και μόνος, και μελά σάλων και ΙΕΡΑ ΤΑ ΠΑΤΡΙΑ ΤΙΜΗΣΩ: ίτορες Θεοί τέτων. Joan. Stobei de Rep. Serm. xli. p. 243, Lugd. Ed. 1608,

+ Αγισεύω, και είμι καθαρά, και αγνή από των άλλων και καθαρευόλων, και απ' ανδρός συνεσίας, και τα Θεοίνια, και 'Ιοβακχεία γεραίρω το Διονύσω ΚΑΤΑ ΤΑ ΠΑΤΡΙΑ, και εν τοις καθήκασι χρόνους. Oratę cont. Neæram.

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by some horrid abuses committed, through the clandestine exercise of foreign worship. “How often, says he, “ in the times of our fathers and forefathers, hath this « affair been recommended to the Magistrates'; to

prohibit all foreign worship; to drive the priests and “ sacrifices from the cirque, the forum, and the city ; " to search up, and burn books of prophecies; and to “ abolish all modes of sacrificing, differing from the “ Roman discipline? For those sage and prudent men, “ instructed in all kind of divine and human laws, “ rightly judged that nothing tended so much to “ overthrow religion, as when men celebrated the « sacred rites, not after their own, but foreign

customs *

But when I say all regular policied states had an established religion, I mean no more than he would do, who, deducing Society from its true original, should, in order to persuade men of the benefits it produceth, affirm that all nations had a civil policy. For, as this writer could not be supposed to mean that every one constituted a free State, on the principles of public liberty (which yet was the only Society he proposed to prove was founded on truth, and productive of public good) because it is notorious, that the far greater part of civil policies are founded on different principles, and abused to different ends ; so neither would I be understood to mean, when I say all nations

* Quoties hoc patrum avorumque ætate negotiuni est magis, tratibus datum, ut sacra externa sieri vetarent; sacrificulos, valesque foro, circo, urbe prohiberent; vaticinos libros conquirerent, comburerentque ; omnem disciplinam sacrificandi, præterquam more Romano, abolerent? Judicabant enim prudentissimi viri omnis divini humanique juris, nihil æque dissolvendæ religionis esse, quam ubi non patrio, sed externo ritu sacrificaretur. Hist. ļib. xxxix,


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concurred in making this union, that they all exactly discriminated the natures, and fairly adjusted the rights of BOTH SOCIETIES, on the principles here laid down; though an ESTABLISHMENT resulting from this discrimination and adjustment, be the only one I would be supposed to recommend. On the contrary, I know this union hath been generally made on mistaken principles; or, if not so, hath degenerated by length of time. And, as it was sufficient for that writer's

purpose, that those Societies, good or bad, proved the sense, all men had of the benefits resulting from civil policy in general, though they were oft mistaken in the application; so it is sufficient for ours, that this universal concurrence in the Two SOCIETIES TO UNITE, shews the sense of mankind concerning the utility of such union, And lastly, as that writer's principles are not the less true on account of the general deviation from them in forming civil Societies ; so may not ours, though so few states have suffered themselves to be directed by them in practice, nor any man, before, delivered them in speculation.

Such then is the Theory here offered to the world; of which, whoever would see a full account, and the several parts cleared from objections, inay consult the treatise mentioned before, intitled, The Alliance between Church and State: in which we pretend to have discovered a plain and simple truth, of the highest

concernment to civil Society, long lost and hid under : the learned ob$curity arising from the collisïon of con

trary false principles.

But it is now time to proceed with our main subject. We have here given a short account of the true nature of the Alliance between Church and State; both to



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