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were, on their first appearance, deemed Atheists by the people; and so branded by the Mystagogue, as we And in Lucian *, and exposed amongst the rest in Tartarus, in their solemn shows and representations. This may be gathered from a remarkable passage in Origen, where Celsus thus addresses his adversary: " But now, as you, good man, believe eternal punish
ments, even so do the interpreters of these holy
Mysteries, the Hierophants and Initiators; you " threaten others with these punishments : THESE, on " the contrary, TUREATEN YOU T” This explains a passage in Jerom's catalogue of ecclesiastical writers; and will be explained by it. The Father, speaking of Quadratus, says;
Cumque Hadrianus Athenis exegisset hiemein invisens Eleusinem, & omnibus pene " Græciæ sacris initiatus, dedisset, occasionem iis, qui * Christianos oderunt, absque præcepto Imperatoris
vexare credentes, porrexit ei librum pro religione
nostra.” Now what occasion was afforded at this juncture to the enemies of Christianity, but only this, That, tiie Grecian Mysteries representing the Faithful in an odious light, the Emperor (who but just then had been initiated into almost all of them) might be reasonably thought estranged and indisposed towards. Christianity; and so the easier drawn to countenance, or conuive at, any injustice done unto it?
This, without doubt, was what sharpened the Fathers against the Mysteries; and they were not over tender και * Και εν μέν τη πρώτη της τελετής ημέρα] πρόχρησκ ήν, ώσπερ 'Αθήνησι, τοιαύτη" εί τις άθεοι, η ΧΡΙΣΤΙΑΝΟΣ, η Επικύρειών, ήκει xaléocoto tūr ógybwv Qerryérw -- Pseudomantis, T. II. pag. 244. Edit. Reitzii, 4to. Amstel. 1743.
Η Μάλισα μεν, ώ βέλτισε, ώσπερ συ κολάσεις αγωνίες νομίζεις ότι και οι των ιερών εκείνων έξηΓηται τελεταί τε και μεταξωγοί: άς σε μέν τους άλλους απειλείς, εκείνοι δε σοί. lib. viii.
in loading what they did not approve. On this account they gave easy credit to what had been told to them of the abominations in the Mysteries; and the rather, perhaps, on account of the secrecy with which they were celebrated. The same Secrecy in the Christian Rites, and the same language introduced by the Fathers in speaking of them, as we see below, procured as easy credit to those calumnies of murder and incest charged upon them by the Pagans. Nay, what is still more remarkable, those specific enormities, in which their own Mysteries were known to offend, they objected to the Christians. “ Alii eos (Christianos] ferunt
ipsius Antistitis ac Sacerdotis colere genitalia *." But here comes in the strange part of the story; that, after this, they should so studiously and formally transfer the terms, phrases, rites, ceremonies, and discipline of these odious Mysteries into our holy Religion; and, thereby, very early vitiate and deprave, what a pagan writer † could see, and acknowledge, to be ABSOLUTA & SIMPLEX, as it came out of the hands of its Author. Sure then it was some more than ordinary veneration the People had for these Mysteries, that could incline the Fathers of the Church to so fatal a counsel : hows 'ever, the thing is notorious I, and the effects have been severely felt.
We have all along supposed the Mysteries an invention of the Lawgiver : and, indeed, we had nothing to do with them, but in that view. Now though, from what hath been said, the intelligent reader will collect, we have not supposed amiss, yet since the pertinency
* Cæcil. apud Minut. in Octav. # Amm. Marcellinus, lib. xxi. cap. 16. Hist. Sec note (Q) at the end of this Book.
of the whole discourse, as here applied, depends upon it, he may perhaps expect us to be a little more particular.
That the Mysteries were invented, established, and supported by LAWGIVERS, may be
seen, 1. From the place of their original; which was EGYPT. This, Herodotus, Diodorus, and Plutarch, who collect froin ancient testimonies, expressly affirm; and in this all Antiquity concurs: the Eleusinian Mysteries, particularly, retaining the very Egyptian Gods, in whose honour they were celebrated; Ceres and Triptolemus being only two other names for Isis * and Osiris : as we have seen above from Theodoret; and so Tibullus,
Primus aratra manu sollcrti fecit Osiris,
Et teneram ferro sollicitavit humum t. Hence it is, that the UNIVERSAL NATURE, or the first Cause, the object of all the Mysteries, yet disguised under diverse NAMES, speaking of herself in Apuleius, concludes the enumeration of her various mystic rites, in these words, - “ Priscaque doctrina pollentes “ ÆGYPTII, CEREMONIIS me prorsus PROPRIISI
percolentes, appellant VERO NOMINE reginam är ISIDEM S.”
But the similitude betwen the Rites practised, and the Doctrines taught in the Grecian and Egyptian Mysteries, would be alone sufficient to point up to their original : such as the secrecy required of the Initiated; which, as we shall see hereafter, peculiarly characterized the Egyptian teaching; such as the doctrines taught of a metempsychosis, and a future state of rewards and punishments, which the Greek writers agree to have been first set abroach by the Egyptians *; such as abstinence enjoined from domestic fowl, fish, and beans t, the peculiar superstition of the Egyptians; such as the Ritual composed in hieroglyphics, an invention of the Egyptians I. But it would be endless to reckon up all the particulars in which the Egyptian and Grecian Mysteries agreed : it shall suffice to say, that they were in all things the same si
* "Ισις δε εςι καλά την 'Ελλήνων γλώσσαν Δημήτηρ. Herodot. lib, ii, cap. 59. And again cap. 156. Anuárne do "lons, + See note (R) at the end of this Book,
See note (S) at the end of this Book,
Again; nothing but the supposition of this common original to all the Grecian Mysteries can clear up and reconcile the disputes which arose amongst the Grecian States and Cities, concerning the original of these rites; every one claiming to be the Prototype to the rest. Thus Thrace pretended that they came first from thence; Crete contested the honour with those barbarians; and
* Timæus the Locrian, in his book Of the Soul of the World, speaking of the necessity of inculcating the doctrine of future punishments, calls them TIMSPIAI EENAI, FOREIGN TORMENTS: by which name both Latin and Greek writers generally mean, Egyptian, where the subject is Religion. + See Porphyrius De Abstin.
Senex commissimus ducit me protinus ad ipsas fores ædis amplissimæ, rituque solenni aspersionis celebrato mysterio, ac matutino peracto sacrificio, de opertis idyti profert quosdam libros, literis ignorabilibus prænotatos; pertim FIGURIS CUJUSCEMODI ANIMALIUM, CONCEPTI SERMONIS VERBA SUGGERENTES, partim nedosis, & in modum rotæ tortuosis, capreolatimque condensis apicibus. Apul. Metam. lib. xi.
και Πρός δε τέτοις αι τελεία και τα μοςήρια ταύτης της θεά [Δήμης τότε καθεδείχθησαν εν Ελευσίνι, τά τε περί τας θυσίας και τας αρχαιότητας ωσαύτως έχειν 'Αθηναίες και της Αίγυαλίες. Diod. Sic. lib. i.
Athens claimed it from both. And at that time, when they had forgotten the true original, it was impossible to settle and adjust their differences: for each could prove that he did not borrow from others; and, at the same time, seeing a similitude in the Rites *, would conclude that they had borrowed from him. But the owniny Egypt for their common Parent, clears up all difficulties: by accounting for that general likeness which gave
birth to every one's pretensions. Now, in Egypt, all religious Worship being planned and established by Statesmen, and directed to the ends of civil policy, we must conclude, that the Mysteries weré originally invented by LEGISLATORS.
2. The Sages who brought them out of Egypt, and propagated them in Asia, in Greece, and Britain, were all Kings or Lawgivers ; such as Zoroaster, Inachus, Orpheus t, Melampus, Trophonius, Minos, Cinyras, Erectheus, and the Druids.
3. They were under the superintendence of the State. A Magistrate intitled BALÍAETE, or King, presided in the Eleusinian Mysteries. Lysias informs us, that this King was to offer up the public prayers, according to their country Rites; and to see that nothing impious or immoral crept into the celebration I. This title
Και τα ιερά τρόπον τινά κοινοποιείσθαι ταύτά σε, και των Σαμοθράκων, και τα έν Λήμνω,
τα έν Λήμνω, και άλλα πλείω διά το τές προσπύλες λέγεσθαι τες αυτές. . Strabo, lib. x. p. 466. D. Edit. Paris, 1620. fol,
+ Of whom Aristophanes says, 'ogpags pè yap Teadlas 9 nuwv xaliserte, qóvwo i anbyeolau“ Orpheus taught us the Mysteries,
and to abstain from murder," i. e. from a life of rapine and violence, such as men lived in the state of nature.
1 - Και εύχας είξαι καλά τα πάτρια όπως αν μηδείς, galdiseño , puede coiling weri så legá - in Andoc,