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Derby has been long celebrated for its porcelain, which rivalled that of Saxony and France. This manufacture was introduced in the year 1750, and although for a time partially abandoned, it has been so far revived, and is still continued. There are also spar works where the fluor ■par, or blue john, is 'wrought into a variety of useful and ornamental articles. The manufacture of silk, hosiery, lace, and cotton formerly employed a large portion of the population, and there are still numerous silk mills and elastic web works, <fcc. The iron manufacture is also of great importance; among the larger establishments may be mentioned the Britannia Works, which furnished the roof of the great Agricultural Hall, London.
The sanitary condition of the town is much improved since the formation of a local board, and the rate of mor tality is low. Among benevolent institutions may be mentioned a ragged school, and a nurses' " home." The population of the municipal borough, which occupies an area of 1796 acres, numbered 40,609 persons in 1851, 43,091 in 1861, and 49,810 in 1871. The parliamentary borough, which in 1867 was extended so as to include the townships of Litchurch and Little Chester, and covers an area of 2999 acres, had a population in 1871 of 61 381— 29,882 males and 31,499 females.
Derby is a town of great antiquity, but its origin is unknown. During the He'ptarchy it was called Northworthig and its present name Derby, or Deoraby, is due to the Danes. Constituted in the ninth century the chief town of the county by King Segurd, Derby was incorporated by Henry I. Its charter was surrendered to Charles II. in 1680, and a new one-was granted in 1683, by which the government of the borough was vested in a mayor, 9 aldermen. 14 brethren, and 14 capital burgesses. In 1835 the town council was re-organized under the Municipal Corporations Act, and now consists of a mayor, 12 aldermen, and 86 councillor*. Derby was the furthest place reached by
the Pretender in his march towards London in 1745; he lodged in Exeter House, Full Street, and held there a council of war, which resulted in the abandonment of his project.
Bibliography :—History of Derby from Vie Bemote Ages of Antiquity, to the year MDCOXCI, by W. Hutton, 8vo, Lond. 1791; (reprinted with additions, 1817). Collection of Fragments Illustrative of the History and- Antiquities of Derby, by Robert Simpson, 2 vols., Derby, 1826. New Historical and Descriptive View of Derbyshirs, by Eev. D. P. Daviea. 8vo, Belper, 1811. View of the Present State o/ Derbyshire, &c., by James Pilkington, 2 vols. 8vo, Derby, 1789. Magna Britannia, by Daniel ana Samuel Lysons, vol. v. (Derbyshire), 4to, Lond., 1817. History and Gazetteer of the County of Derby, by Glover and Noble, 2 vols, (unfinished), Derby, 1831. XoUs on the Churches of Derbyshire, vols. i. and ii., by Charles Cox, London aid Chesterfield, 1876. (A. L. a)
DEEBY," Edwabd-qeoffbey Smith Stanley, Jt-odbTkknth Eabl Of, Baron Stanley of Bickerstaffe, and 3 baronet (1799-1869), born at Knowsley in Lancashire, on the 29th March 1799, was the eldest son of Lord Stanley, who afterwards (1834) became the thirteenth carl of Derby. The title in the direct line of succession to which he was thus born ranks second in precedency among the earldoms in the peerage of England. He was educated at Eton and at Christ Church, Oxford, where he distinguished himself as a classical scholar, though he took only an ordinary degree on quitting the university. In 1819 he obtained the Chancellor's prize for Latin verse, the subject being "Syracuse." He gave early promise of his future eminence as an orator, and it is said that in his youth he used to practise elocution under the instruction of Lady Derby, his grandfather's second wife, who as Miss Eliza Farren had been a celebrated actress. With such an inclination and aptitude for public speaking, the heir to an ancient title was only fulfilling his natural destiny in seeking a seat in the House of Commons, and of course he had no difficulty in finding one. In 1820, soon after he had attained his majority, he was returned for Stockbridge in Hampshire, one of the nomination boroughs whose electoral rights were swept away by the Reform Bill of 1832, Stanley, like several others who entered parliament by means of them, being a warm advocate of their destruction. It may appear somewhat strange that he should havd remained for four years, so far as is known, a silent member; but the representative of a pocket borough had no constituency to consider, and there was not in those days the incentive to frequent speaking that is now furnished by full daily reports of the debates circulating through the entire country. His maiden speech was delivered early in the session of 1824 in the debate on a private bill foi lighting Manchester with gas. Although the subject can scarcely have given scope for any high flight of oratory the speaker was warmly complimented by Sir James Mackintosh, one of the first authorities in the House, who welcomed him as an accession to the Liberal ranks, and Hansard reports the speech as characterized by " much clearness and ability." His second appearance was made in connection with .a subject—irrepressible as it proved, though he always did his utmost to repress it—which was afterwards to determine more than one important turning point in his political career, and to call forth his last utterance in parliament. It is noteworthy also as an early exhibition of the Conservative instinct whose growing strength led gradual!} to an entire change of his political position. On the 6th May 1824, he delivered what seems to have been a vehement and eloquent speech against Joseph Hume's motion for a reduction of the Irish Church establishment, maintaining in its most conservative form the doctrine that church property is as sacred as private property. From this time his appearances became frequent; and he soon asserted his place as one of the most powerful,