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all times too apt to be disconraged by the consciousness of there is a diversity of occupation. We have bakers, blacksmiths, their own defect, it should be the teacher's duty cheerfully makers, cabinetmakers, carpenters, carvers on wood and stone, to stimulate and encourage them to advancement.1 An infant school was formed in connection with the gravers on wood and metals, French polishers, gardeners, gilders,

cigar-makers, compositors, coopers, cork-cutters, cutlers, enManchester Institution for the deaf and dumb some years glass writers and stainers, harness makers, saddlers, hatters, ago, but from the report for 1876 it appears that there were

panners, jewellers, law writers, optical and philosophical only two children under the age of seven, out of a total of instrument makers, pattern designers, print and map colourers,

printers both lithographic and letterpress, turners, typefounders, 119 pupils, in the two departments. Most of the instituiratch-djal painters, wire drawers, &c. We also find artists lithotions admit children from seven to nine years of age, and graphic, photographic, heraldic—and some in the highest branches it is the opinion of teachers of experience that at that age both in oil and water colours ; also a scnlptor of great ability who it is most suitable to commence instruction. Still, before produced a beautiful composition in competition for the Wellington

prize, who also once stood second for a gold medal, and they are eligible for an institution of the deaf and dumb, who has most satisfactorily executed statuettes of Wellington, Peel, much may and ought to be done by the parents for their Raglan, Havelock, &c.? There are, besides, two heraldic painters, improvement.

who have studios of their own, and are amongst the best of their art The first and primary aim of the teacher is to get at the the

artists in oil

, although but young and at present students, have

in London, with others who are rising in great proficiency. Two of minds of the pupils, and for this end it is of immense executed pictures which havo been accepted by the British Instiadvantage that they should be brought up together, so that tution, the Suffolk Academy, and in one inxtance by the Royal they may acquire and maintain the language of signs. The Academy. In more intellectual occupations we find several gentle. acquisition enables them to convey to one another much

men in the civil service, respecting one of whom, who has gained a and varied information, which proves of great service in the superior position in his office, it has been remarked to us by some

whoso duties bring them into contact with him, that notwith. hands of the teacher in the class-room; and further, through standing his affliction they can do business better with him than this intercommunion the influence of example operates any other clerk in the establishment. There is a young gentleman with due force in stimulating them to intellectual exertions. making himself noted as an entomologist; some are teachers of the

deaf and dumb, occasionally even principals of institutions; and the The length of time required at school for the education highest instance we know of is a barrister, not a pleader of course, of the deaf and dumb must be determined by the capacities but who is eminent as a conveyancer. of the pupils, and perhaps even more by their position females there is not so much variety ; some are engaged in domestic in life. Of course, they require a much longer time than work, others are artificial florists, bookfolders and sewers, brush.

drawers, cigar makers, corset makers, dress and mantle makers, hearing children to compensate for their deprivation. Still fringe and tassel makers, laundresses, muslin workers, milliners, those who have to begin to earn their daily bread by the sewing machinists, straw bonnet makers, tailoresses, &c. We also labour of their hands at about the age of fourteen (if know one who is a compositor, another a lady's maid, and a third of good capacity) leave the school with a store of varied who is employed in a telegraph office." and useful knowledge. They are able to understand From this it will be seen that to the educated deaf mute directions given to them, to hold intercourse with others, nearly all trades are open, and the reports from their masters to express their opinions on ordinary affairs-in short, to the several institutions are generally most favourable. they are raised from a wretched and forlorn condition to The census returns for 1871 give the following table of that of intelligent and moral beings, and as such their occupations of deaf and dumb in England and Wales and future progress will be proportional to their own diligence, Scotland :and will be impeded by no obstacles except those which their own exertions are now competent to remove.

Occupations.—Most of the deaf and dumb soon after leaving school are put to some trado. They will be found to be engaged in all kinds of employment except those to which hearing and speech are indispensable. The depriva

6. Indefinite and non-productive... tion of hearing is no barrier to learning most trades, and the deaf and dumb acquire them with the same facility and show the same expertness as others. As.& rule, they are

Institutions. Most of the institutions for the deaf and very steady, and

apply themselves with assiduity to their dumb in England have originated in the benevolent in. work; for while the attention of those who can hear is terest of a few individuals of the localities in wbich often distracted in the workshop, they steadily keep to their task, as they well know that talking implies for them nual subscriptions, donations, legacies, and fees of pupils

they are established. They are supported by public ancessation from labour. There is at times a little difficulty for board and education. The principals are held reto get employers for them, as they require more attention sponsible for the educational department and for internal to be initiated into their trades. deaf and dumb by the Rev. S. Smith enumerates many of Trades are taught to the boys in some of the schools, while The following extract from an interesting work on the management, while the affairs of the institutions are

directed by committees selected from the subscribers. the trades in which they are engaged

all the pupils have to do some industrial work, and the "dumb and are

there drilled him well so that he is now able to join in general practice. The children are admitted either gratuitously or by payment is however a rifle volunteer, whose father being an old 'soldier girls are taught household work, sewing, and knitting. Amongst the males, besides various labouring employments, the of fees, varying in amount in the several institutions, some trades of shoemaking and tailoring predominate, but beyond these of which grant apprentice fees and otherwise assist the

children on leaving school. 'In one school only, namely, Donaldson's Hospital in Edinburgh,

The London Asylum was the first public school in are the deaf and dumb brought up together with hearing children, but even there it has never been thought practicable to instruct them in England for the gratuitous education of the indigent deaf

The benefit derived by the deaf and dumb and dumb. It was projected by the Rev. J. Townsend and from such a system is very slight in an educational point of view, but Rev. H. Mason, rector of Bermondsey, London. On the socially it is of great advantage, as it draws them out of that isolation

14th November 1792 the school was opened with four pupils to which they are naturally so prone, and fits them to hold free and ready intercourse with strangers in after life ; and besides, che association largely tends to spread the mode of deaf-mute communication * Among those who passed the recent Cambridge Local Examinations throughout the country, as the hearing children learn to communi. with honours in classics and mathematics was a dear-mute lad under 16 cate freely with them.

years of age, named Farrar.


England and



1. Professional
2. Domestic......
8. Commercial .....
4. Agricultural....................
8. Industrial

120 876 118 728 2995 7181

26 76 70 340 921 654




the same class-room.

with Dr Watson as principal. Its existence becoming more contributed liberally. The sum of $12,000 was raised in generally known, the number of candidates for admission the course of a few months, $5600 having been obtained in increased so greatly beyond the means of accommodation Massachusetts, above $2000 of which was collected in the that a larger and more commodious building was found to city of Boston. After this school had been founded, the be absolutely necessary. An appeal for funds to erect auch need of other schools was at once felt; and the New York a building was made and liberally responded to, and an Institution was opened in 1818, that in Pennsylvania in eligible plot of ground was taken in the Old Kent | 1822, the one in Kentucky in 1823, Ohio school in 1829; Road, London; and on the 11th of July 1807 the late and others followed till the number reached to 35, the last of duke of Gloucester laid the foundation stone of the new which, a day school, was opened at Cleveland, Ohio, in 1871. building. Since its foundation 4094 children have been In America, and in almost every country in Europe except admitted. In 1862 a branch was started at Margate, and Great Britain and Ireland, the state successfully undertakes after twelve years' experience the committee of management the instruction of the deaf and dumb. All the institutions were influenced to erect a permanent building for the are munificently supported by large annual appropriations accommodation of 150 children. It was formally opened by from the local legislatures, the state regarding it as a the Prince of Wales on the 19th of July 1876, with Mr R. primary duty that the deaf and dumb, the blind, &c., shall Elliott as head master. The asylum, with the branch at not be excluded from those educational privileges accorded Margate, is supported by voluntary contributions, legacies, to every member of the community. donations, and dividends from stock. The average income In a spirit of enlightened liberality, highly creditable to is about £12,000 a year. There are at present 317 pupils the United States, the Government of that country adopts in attendance, who come from all parts of the kingdom. the deaf and dumb as “ wards of the commonwealth," and The ages of admission are 81 to 11), and the children in the most generous manner acquits itself of its obligation are elected by votes of the subscribers ; and, with a view towards them. The following facts have been taken from to assist that class of the deaf and dumb whose friends are the official reports of some American institutions able to pay for their board, the committee receive children

The number of pupils in the Indiana Institution in the year 1870 apon the payment of £25 per annum. Those children was 186 ; for these the State had granted a sum of 50,000 dollars, whose parents or guardians are unable to put them to some which is equal to £10, 400, or £56 per annum for each pupil. A useful trade on leaving school are apprenticed by the still further sum of 43,500 dollars

, or nearly £9,000 sterling, was charity: Since 1811 the number of children apprenticed hassivenrefore the erection of some additional buildings which the been 1515, and the total amount of premium £14,632, 16s. in the Union provides for its deaf-mute ward with similar gene

Various institutions for similar objects have been formed rosity. on the Continent. The asylum for the deaf and dumb at It is to be hoped that the day is not far distant when Paris, which was formerly under the management of the the deaf and dumb in Great Britain and Ireland may be Abbé Sicard, has for its object not only to enable the congratulated on the inauguration by the legislature of a pupils to communicate their ideas and to form the under humane and beneficent policy on their behalf. standing, but also to qualify them to earn their subsistence.

In many of the large towns where institutions are On quitting the asylum they are all capable of following a established, associations in aid of the deaf and dumb are trade or profession. Their apprenticeship begins on their springing up and carrying on most important and valuable first entering the institution, and is terminated when their work. Their first business is to seek out neglected children education is finished.

and to get them placed in some special school. Situations Institutions, formed more or less upon the model of that are procured for those on leaving school whose parents are at Paris, have been established in Portugal, Spain, Italy, unable to do anything for them, and the education comSwitzerland, Baden, Würtemberg, Bavaria, Austria, Saxony, menced at the institutions is carried on by means of lectures; Hesse-Cassel, Nassau, Hanover, Brunswick, the Free Towns and as little benefit is to be got by attending the ordiof Germany, Belgium, Holland, Denmark, Sweden, Russia, nary church services, meetings are held on Sundays, when Poland, the United States of America, Canada, Mexico, and suitable religious exercises are performed, portions of ScripBengal, to say nothing of those in Great Britain and ture explained, and an address given by spelling with the France. The American annals of 1873 give as 35 Ameri- assistance of such signs as may be found necessary. The can institutions for the education of the deaf and dumb, missionaries connected with these associations call upon containing a total of 4253 pupils—Damely, 2393 males and them at their homes, in this way making themselves 1860 females, 378 of whom are semi-mutes. The latter familiar with their condition; the sick are visited and number includes all the deaf who have acquired language receive consolation ; and the distressed, infirm, and aged through the ear. In Canada there are 4 institutions with are assisted. These associations, while rendering assistance 292 pupils, of whom 220 are males and 72 females. Out to the deserving, endeavour to make them help themselves, of this number 17 are semi-mutes. The first institation and help only at the point where otherwise they would be for the education of deaf mutes in America was opened on lost; and it has been made a rule that when one loses his the 15th April 1817. The circumstances which led to its place through any fault of his own, he cannot claim the establishment are as follows:

assistance of the association to find another for him. There A deaf-mute little girl in the family of Dr Cogswell, an eminent physician in Hartford city, attracting some attention, it was soon

seem to be few societies which have a greater claim on afterwards found that there were other deaf mutes in the country public sympathy; and that it deserves recognition is testified It was decided to send some one abroad to acquira the art of by the great good it is doing to this neglected and isolated educating them; and to establish a school for this purpose funds were class of persons, many of whom would otherwise have proraised, and the Rev. F. H. Gallaudet, D.D., was selected for this bably acquired habits of idleness and intemperance, Fork. He left the United States, May 15, 1816, to execute this mission intrusted to him. The Institution was incorporated by

In the English census returns for 1871 we find that only the Connecticut Legislature in May 1816, under the name of the 529 deaf mutes, out of a total of 11,518, of whom 51 were Connecticut Asylum for the Education of the Deaf and Dumb. imbeciles and 26 blind as well as deaf and dumb, were

Mr Gallaudet returned to America in August 22 of the inmates of workhouses in England and Wales. That small same year, accompanied by Mr L. Clerc, a deaf-mute pupil proportion affords evidence of the fact that by means of of the Abbé Sicard. They immediately commenced education the deaf and dumb may be transferred from the collecting funds to start the school The enterprize dependent and burdensome class into the self-supporting excited general interest, and individuals and churches class of the community,

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Number of
Deaf and

England and Wules...............
Islands of the British Soas...




1 in 1640
1 in 1311
1 in 1026
1 in 1649



1 in 1432


Census, 1861.

(A. LA.)

DEAK, FRANZ (1803-1876), an Hungarian statesman,

was born on October 17, 1803, at Kehida, in the comitat of 6,653

Szalad. Ho sprang from an old noble family, of which he

was the last descendant. Having studied law at the Total.......................


academy of Raab, he practised as an advocate in Szalad,

and soon became a prominent figure at the meetings of These figures afford an indication that causes are at work which are diminishing the extent of deaf - muteism in the

the comitat. He represented Szalad in the Diet which country; such as dirent sanitary improvements, general attention met at Presburg in 1832 and lasted till 1836. By hie to the laws of health, and more skilful treatment of the diseases earnestness and practical sagacity he made so deep an imwhich result in deafress. Of the 11,518 deaf mutes in England pression that he was in a short time recognized as leader and Wales in 1871 (including those described as dumb) 6262 are malos and 5256 p re females. In Scotland, out of the 2087

deal hand, to resist the eucroachments of the central Government

of the opposition. The object of his policy was, on the one mutes, 1133 are males and 954 females, of whom 1016 were ascertained to have been so from birth, while 1071 became so in after at Vienna on the rights of his country, and, ou the other, to life from various cat-es.

The number of deaf and dumb persons in remo7e abuses which then made Hupgary one of the most Ireland is 5554, vie., in Leinster, 1318; Munster, 1690 ; Connaught, backward nations in Europe. He again sat for Szalad in the 882; and Ulster, 1764.

The instances of persons in the melancholy condition of Dict of 1839-40, and by skilful management effected a tem. being deaf and dumb and blind are more numerous than might porary reconciliation between the Imperial Government and be supposed; for the congenitally deaf are in a measure pre. the Reform party, of which he was the head. He gave deep disposed to the organic defect which results in blindness. than 111 persons were returned as deaf and dumb and blindof offence, however, by the vigour with which he denounced these 20 were in special asylums and 26 iu workhouses. In 1861

the cxemption of Hungarian nobles from taxation, as well only 30 persons were described as blind and deaf and dumb. as other injurious survivals of the Middle Ages; and when

As dumbness can only co-exist with deafuess from birth or from elected in 1843 he received such definite instructions from early life, the number of deaf and dumb, unlike that of the blind, the constituency to vote in a reactionary sense that he does not iucrease with age, but is highest immediately after the age when the epidemic diseases of children have been passed through.

declined to accept his seat. At a second election the Talle II. shows concisely the locality, the date of establishment, Liberals exerted themselves so energetically that he was and approximately the number of pupils in each of the institutions again appointed ; but, on the ground that violence had been in Great Britain and Ireland.

used in connection with his candidature, he once more

refused to enter the Diet. For some yeurs he lived as Locality.


a private citizen ; but he was everywhere regarded as the

most influential Hungarian politiciuu, and his party took (London


no important step without consulting him. A project for

a penal code which he drew up about this time was Manchester.........

admitted in Germany, France, and England to be one of Liverpool..........

the most enlightened ever conceived. The excitement of

1843 caused the first symptoms of the disease of the heart Newcastle Brighton.

of which he ultimately died; and during the rest of his life

he always suffered more or less from ill health. On this Swansea.

account he could not enter the Diet of 1847; but next 17

year, when revolutionary forces threatened to break up the empire, he was persuaded to take a seat vacated for him

by one of the members for Szalad. Edinburgh Donaldson's Hospital......

The emperor, alarmed by the dangers which surrounded

him on every side, conceded in a number of measures, Dundee.

afterwards known as “the laws of 1848," every important

demand Deák had ever made. The first independent
Dublin, Claremont..............

Hungarian Cabinet, with Count Batthyanyi as president,
Roman Catholic..

No. of

Date of establishment.

1792 1662


Margate branch


1512 1823 18:25 1827 1829 1838 1840 1841 1842 18+7 1862 1870

8G 112 149 90 46 103 73 97 84 18 86



[merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small]



was formed, and the ministry of justice was intrusted to Derry and Raphoe...

Deák. In this office, during the few months he held it, he Total.....

worked indefatigably; and he intended completely to
roorganize legal administration. His plans, however, were



disturbed by the agitation of which Kossuth was the centre, Hungary has produced no other statesman of equal and which aimed at changes of a more extreme character distinction. He approached closely to the type which is than he approved. He desired to maintain the relations of supposed to be peculiarly English, holding fast vital Austria and Hungary, and exercised his whole inflaence in principles, but always ready to accede to a compromisa favour of a good understanding between the two countries. on matters of secondary moment. Intensely opposed to Events decided against him, for Kossuth rose to power and revolution, he was absolutely fearless when sure that he began the war in the course of which the Hapsburg was standing on lawful ground, and pursued the political dynasty was formally, deposed. Deák resigned his ideal he had formed with a persistence which has been portfolio, and appeared in connection with the subsequent rarely equalled. In youth his style as an orator was struggle only as one of the deputation which, on the passionate and florid; but he ultimately became calm and approach of the Austrian army to Buda-Pesth, went to deliberate, carrying conviction by command of facts, logical negotiate with Prince Windischgrätz. When the war was arrangement of ideas, and lucid statement. At all periods over, Deák was offered the post of Judex Curiæ ; but he of his career he conveyed the impression of absolute insisted that the laws of 1848 were still in force, and would sincerity and devotion to high and unselfish aims. He have nothing to do with any system of government in which was of a genial disposition, remarkably fond of children, they were ignored. On the other hand, he discountenanced and with a gift of ready humour which made him as great violent proposals

, urging that the legal rights of the land a favourite in society as in parliament. (J. si.) could be secured only by legal meaus

DEAL, a municipal and parliamentary borough and Hungary suffered deeply from the reaction which market town of Eng.and, in the county of Kent, eight followed the revolutionary period, and it was clear that miles N.N.E. of Dover and five miles by rail S.S.E. of she only awaitod a favourable opportunity to throw off the Sandwich. It consists of three divisions :-Lower Deal, imperial yoke. The disasters sustained by Austria in the which is the most important, on the coast ; Middle Deal ; Italian war of 1859 suggested to the emperor the necessity and, about a mile inland, Úpper Deal. Though largely of a change of policy; and the result was that in 1861 the frequented as a sea-bathing place, the town derives its im. Diet again met. This time Deák appeared as member for portance mainly from its vicinity to the Downs, a fine Pesth, which henceforth returned him at every election till anchorage about eight miles long and six miles wide his death. The Moderate party rallied round him, and between the shore and the Goodwin Sands, in which large after much discussion the address to the emperor drawn up fleets of wind-bound vessels may lie in safety. The trade by him was adopted. In this the Diet took its stand on consequently consists largely in the supply of provisions and the laws of 1848, and demanded the appointment of a naval stores ; though boat-building and a few other indusHungarian ministry ; but at Vienna they were not prepared tries are carried on., The Deal pilots, limited by statute to to give way so far. The imperial rescript was very hostile the number of 56, are famous for their skill and daring. in tone, and the Diet was speedily dissolved. In 1865 Among the public buildings in the town the most remarkfrosh negotiations were begun, and they were powerfully ablc are St Leonard's Church in Upper Deal, which dates promoted by a series of letters in the Pesti Napló, setting from the Norntan period; the Baptist chapel in Lower Deal, forth Deák's ideas as to the proper bases of reconciliation. founded by Captain Taverner, governor of Deal Castle, in Towards the end of 1865 the Diet was opened by the 1663; the Deal and Walmer Institute, established in 1864 ; emperor in person. About six months afterwards it was the military and naval hospital; and the barracks, which hastily closed because of the approaching war between date from 1795. The site of the old navy yard is now Austria and Prussia; but it reassembled on November 19, occupied by villas ; and the esplanade has been improved 1866, when Austria had been utterly defeated and seemed by the construction of a promenade pier. _At the south end on the brink of ruin. The Radical party wished to take of the town is Deal Castle, erected by Henry VIII. ; and advantage of the general confusion by exacting terms to about a mile to the east is Sandoun Castle, which owes its which the Austrian Government would never before have origin to the same monarch, and is of interest as the prison consented; but Deák maintained his former position, in which Colonel Hutchinson died in 1664. Walmer desiring no more than that the system which he considered Castle, the official residence of the warden of the Cinque the only legal one should been forced. His influence over Ports, is about a mile to the south. It has become intithe Diet and the nation prevailed; and he had the satis- mately associated with the menory of the duke of Welling. faction of seeing Count Andrassy appointed president of an ton, who died within its walls in 1852. Deal was possibly Hungarian cabinet and the emperor and empress crowned the site of a Roman station, but it has not received any as king and queen of Hungary. The establisb.nent of the definite identification. In the 13th century it was regarded dual system, which enabled the Austro-Hungarian monarchy as a subordinate member of the Cinque-Port guild; but even to enter upon a new career after terrible humiliations and as late as the time of Henry VIII. it was still but a small losses, was due to the efforts of Deák more than to any village. Perkin Warbeck landed at this point in 1495. other cause, and the fact was gratefully acknowledged both The castle was vainly besieged by the royalists in 1648; by the mass of his countrymen and by the emperor. and in 1652 the Downs were the scene of Blake's victory

For some years the Deák party continued the most over Van Tromp. Mrs Elizabeth Carter was a native of powerful in the Diet; but the stato of his health rendered Deal

. The population of the borough, which unites with it impossible for him to do much more than deliver an Sandwich and Walmer in sending one member to Parlia occasional speech on subjects of unusual interest. His last ment, was, in 1871, 8009. The area is 1124 acres. speech, in the summer of 1873, was on the relations of DEAN, Latin decanus, is derived from the Greek Séra, church and state ; and he proclaimed himself in favour of ten ; and whether the term was first used among the secular the American system—"a free church in a free state. clergy to signify the priest who had a charge of inspection Before his death his party lost its hold over the nation ; and superintendence over ten parishes, or among the regular and in 1875 Tisza, a man of more advanced opinions, was clergy to signify the monk who in a monastery had author. called to the head of the Government. Deák died on ity over ten other monks, appears doubtful." Decurius" January 29, 1876, at Buda-Pesth, after a long and painful may be found in early writers used to signify the same illness. His death was regarded as a national calamity, thing as " decanus," which shows that the word and the and he was buried at the cost of the state amid mani idea signified by it were originally borrowed from the old fesluliwns of universal grief.

Koman military systein.

The earliest mention which occurs of an "archipresbyter” | chapter" Unris de gremio tantum potest eligi et promoveri Beems to be in the 4th epistle of St Jerome to Rusticus, in ad decanatus dignitatem.” The duties of the dean in & which he says that a cathedral church should possess one Roman Catholic cathedral are ta preside over the chapter, bishop, one archipresbyter, and one archdeacon. Liberatus to declare the decisions to which the chapter may have in also (Breviar. c. xiv.) speaks of the office of archipresbyter its debates arrived by plurality of voices, to exercise in a manner which, as Bingham ays, enables one to inspection over the choir, over the conduct of the capitular understand what the nature of his duties and position was. body, and over the discipline and regulations of the church ; And he thinks that those are right who hold that the and to celebrate divine service on occasion of the greater archipresbyters were the same as the deans of our cathedral festivals of the church in the absence, or inability, of the churches. Stillingfleet (Irenic. part ii. c. 7) says of the bishop. With the exception of the last clause the same archipresbyters that "the memory of them is preserved statement may be made as to the duties and functions of still in cathedral churches, in the chapters there, where the the deans of our cathedral churches. dean was nothing else but the archipresbyter ; and both Deans had also a place in the judicial system of the dean and prebendaries were to be assistant to the Lombard kings in the 8th, 9th, and 10th centuries. But bishop in the regulating the church affairs belonging to the the office indicated by that term, so used, seems to have been city, while the churches were contained therein." Bingham, a very subordinate one; and the name was in all probability however, following Liberatus, describes the office of thé adopted with immediate reference to the etymological archipresbyter to have been next to that of the bishop, the meaning of the word,-a person having authority over ten head of the presbyteral college, and the functions to have in this case apparently) families. Muratori, in his Italian consisted in administering all matters pertaining to the Antiquities, speaks of the resemblance between the saltarii church in the absence of the bishop. But this does not or sylvani and the decani, and shows that the former had describe accurately the office of dean in an English cathedral authority in the rural districts, and the latter in towns, or church. The dean is indeed second to the bishop in rank at least in places where the population was sufficiently and dignity, and he is the head of the presbyteral college close for them to have authority over ten families. Neveror chapter ; but his functions in no wise consist in theless, a document cited by Muratori from the archives of administering any affairs in the absence of the bishop. the canons of Modena, and dated in the year 813, recites There may be some matters connected with the ordering of the names of several “deaneries" (decania), and thus the internal arrangements of our cathedral churches, shows that the authority of the dean extended over a respecting which it may be considered a doubtful point certain circumscription of territory. whether the authority of the bishop or that of the dean is In the case of the “dean of the sacred college,” the supreme. But the consideration of any such question connection between the application of the term and the leads at once to the due theoretical distinction between the etymology of it is not so evident as in the foregoing two. With regard to matters spiritual, properly and instances of its use; nor is it by any means clear how and strictly so called, the bishop is supreme in the cathedral as when the idea of seniority was first attached to the far as—and no farther than he is supreme in his diocese word. This office is held by the oldest cardinalgenerally. With regard to matters material and temporal, i.e., he who has been longest in the enjoyment of the as concerning the fabric of the cathedral, the arrangement purple, not he who is oldest in years—who is usually, and conduct of the services, and the management of the but not necessarily or always, the bishop of Ostia and property of the chapter, &c., the dean (not excluding the Velletri. Perhaps the use of the word “dean," as signifydue authority of the other members of the chapter, but ing simply the eldest member of any corporation or body speaking with reference to the bishop) is supreme. And of men, may have been first adopted from its applicathe cases in which a doubt might arise on the point are tion to that high dignitary. The dean of the sacred those in which the material arrangements of the fabric or college is in the ecclesiastical hierarchy second to the Pope of the services may be thought to involve doctrinal con- alone. His privileges and special functions are very many; siderations.

a compendious account of the principal of them may be The Roman Catholic writers on the subject say that found in the work of Moroni, vol. xix. p. 168. there are two sorts of deans in the church the deans of There are four sorts of deans of whom the law of England cathedral churches, and the rural deans—as has continued takes notice. 1. The dean and chapter are a council to be the case in the English Church. And the probability subordinate to the bishop, assistant to him in mattors would seem to be that the former were the successors and spiritual relating to religion, and in matters temporal relatrepresentatives of the monastic decurions, the latter of the ing to the temporalities of the bishopric. The dean and inspectors of "ten” parishes in the primitive secular chapter are a corporation, and the dean himself is a corchurch. It is thought by some that the rural dean is the poration sole. Deans are said to be either of the old or of lineal successor of the chorepiscopus, who in the early church the new foundation—the latter being those created and was the assistant of the bishop, discharging most, if not all, regulated after the dissolution of the monasteries by Henry episcopal functions in the rural districts of the diocese. VIII The deans of the old foundation before 3 and 4 But upon the whole the probability is otherwise. Beveridge, Vict. c. 113 were elected by the chapter on the king's congé Cave, Bingham, and Basnage all hold that the chorepiscopi d'élire ; and the deans of the new foundation (and, since the were true bishops, though Romanist theologians for the Act, of the old foundation also) are appointed by the most part have maintained that they were simple priests. king's letters patent. It was at one time held that a layBut if the chorepiscopus has any representative in the church man might be dean ; but by 13 and 14 Charles II. c. 4, of the present day, it seems more likely that the archdeacon priest's orders are a necessary qualification. Deaneries are is such rather than the deap

sinecures in the old sense, ése., they are without cure of The ordinary use of the term dean, as regards secular souls. The chapter formerly consisted of canons and probodies of persons, would lead to the belief that the oldest bendaries, the dean being the head and an integral part of member of a chapter had, as a matter of right, or at least the corporation. By 3 and 4 Vict. c. 113, it is enacted of usage, become the dean thereof. But Bingham (lib. ii. that “all the members of the chapter except the dean, in ch. 18) very conclusively shows that such was at no time every collegiate and cathedral church in England, and in the case; as is also further indicated by the maxim to the the cathedral churches of St David and Llandaff, shall be effect that the dean must be selected from the body of the styled canons." By the same Açt the dean is required to

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