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sculptors. Desiderio was for a short time a pupil of Donatello, and he seems to have worked also with Mino da Fiesole, with the delicate and refined style of whose works those of Desiderio seem to have a closer affinity than with the perhaps more masculine tone of Donatello. Vasari especially praises the works of Desiderio for their grace and simplicity which, as the critic remarks, art) a gift of nature, and can be acquired by no study. He particularly extols the sculptor^ treatment of the figures of women and children, and the eulogy applies equally to the genius and manner of Mino da Fiesole. It does not appear that Desiderio ever worked elsewhere than at Florence; and it is there that those who are interested in the Italian sculpture of the Benaissance must seek the few but remarkable works of his chisel, which have survived the changes and chances of four centuries.
DES MOINES, formerly Foet Des Moines, a city of the United States, capital of Iowa, at the confluence of the Raccoon with the Des Moines River, which is one of the right hand tributaries of the Mississippi, and is navigable thus far for steamboats. Its public buildings include the old capitol, erected in 1856, the new capital, founded in 1870, the post-office, with a number of other United States offices under the same roof, the Baptist college, 15 churches, and 5 high schools j and among its industrial establishments are a paper-mill, a woollen factory, an oil-mill, besides foundries, machine-shops, flour-mills, and plough-factories. There are two public libraries in the town, one of which is maintained by the State, and numbers 15,000 volumes; and, besides several dailyand weekly newspapers, no fewer than six monthly periodicals are published. Forty acres of ground have been appropriated for a public park; and another area of 100 acres belongs to a parkcompany. Coal, lime, and clay are abundant in the neighbourhood, and the town is supplied with water from the Raccoon. Des Moines, which dates from 1846, received incorporation in 1851, and was raised to the rank of a city and the capital of the State in 1857. Population in 1860, 3965; in 187?, 16,601.
DESMOULINS, Luotb Sqeplice Camille Benoist (1760-1794), was born at Guise, in Picardy, on the 2d of March 1760. His father was lieutenant-general of the bailiwick of Guise, and was desirous that Camille his eldest son, who from his earliest years gave signs of unusual intelligence, should obtain as complete an education as France could then bestow. His wishes were seconded by a friend obtaining a "bourse" for the young Desmoulins, who at the age of fourteen left home for Paris, and entered the college of Louis le Grand. In this school, in which Robespierre was also a bursar and a distinguished student, Camille laid the solid foundation of his learning, and made an acquaintance with the literature and history of the classical nations so deep and extensive that it furnished him throughout the whole of his short and chequered life with illustrations which he applied with brilliancy and effect to the social manners and political events of his time.
Desmoulins having been destined by his father for the . law, and having completed his legal studies, was admitted an advocate of the Parliament of Paris in 1785. His professional success, was not great; his manner was violent, his appearance far from attractive, and his speech was impaired by the natural defect of a painful stammer. He indulged and fostered, however, his love for literature, he was closely observant of the course of public affairs, and he was thus gradually being prepared for the main duties of his life—those of a political litterateur.
In March 1789 Desmoulins began his political career. Having been nominated deputy from the bailiwick of Guiso, Ike appeared at Laon as one of the commissioners for the election of deputies to the States General summoned by
royal edict of 24th January. Camille heralded its meeting by his Ode to the Slates General. It is, moreover, highly probable that he was tho author of a radical pamphlet entitled La Philosophic an peuple Francois. His hopes of professional success were now scattered, and he was living in Paris in extreme poverty and almost in squalor. He, however, shared to the full the excitement which attended tho meeting of the States General. As appears from hi» letters to his father, ho watched with exultation the procession of deputies at Versailles, and with violent indignation the events of the latter part of June which followed the closing of the Salle des Menus to the deputies who had named themselves the National Assembly. It is further evident that Desmoulins was already sympathizing, not only with the enthusiasm, but also with the fury and cruelty, of the Parisian crowds.
The sndden dismissal of Necker by Louis was the event which brought Desmoulins to fame. On the 12th of July 1789 Camille, leaping upon a table in one of the cafes of the Palais Royal, startled a numerous crowd of listeners by the announcement of the dismissal of their favourite. Losing in his violent excitement, the stammer which impeded his ordinary speech, he inflamed the passions of the mob by his burning words .and his call " To arms!" "This dismissal," he said, "is the tocsin of the St Bartholomew of the patriots." Drawing, at last, two pistols from under his coat, he declared that he would not fall alive into the hands of the police who were watching his movements. Ho descended amid the embraces of the crowd, and his cry " To arms I" resounded on all sides. This scene was the beginning of the actual events of the Revolution. Following Desmoulins the crowd surged through Paris, procuring arms by force; and on the 13th it was partly organized as the Parisian militia which was afterwards to be the National Guard. On the 14th the Bastille was taken.
Desmoulins may be said to have begun on the following day that public literary career which lasted till his death. In May and June 1789 he had written La France libre, which, to his chagrin, his publisher refused to print The taking of the Bastille, however, and the events by which it wan preceded, were a sign that the times had changed; and on the 15th of July Desmoulins's work was issued. It attracted immediate attention. By its erudite, brilliant, and courageous examination of the rights of king, of nobles, of clergy, and of people, it attained a wide and sndden popularity; it secured for.the author the friendship and protection of Mirabeau, and the studied abuse of numerous royalist pamphleteers. Shortly afterwards, with his vanity and love of popularity inflamed, he pandered to the passions of the lower orders by the publication of bis Discours de la lanterns aux Parisiens, which with an almost fiendish reference to the excesses of the mob he headed by a quotation from St John, Qui male agit odit lucern. Camille was dubbed " Procureur-general de la lanterue."
In November 1789 Desmoulins began his career as a journalist by the issue of the first number of a weekly publication—Revolutions de France et de Brabant. He conducted this alone till July 1790, and thereafter with the assistance of Stanislas Freron till July 1792, when the publication ceased. Success attended the Revolutions from its first to its last number, Camille was everywhere famous, and his poverty was relieved. These numbers are valuable as an exhibition not so much of events as of the feelings of the Parisian people during the most stormy period of their history; they are adornod, moreover, by the erudition, the wit, and the genius of the author, but they are disfigured, not only by the most biting personalities and the defence and even advocacy of the excesses of the mob, but by the entire absence of the forgiveness and pity £or which the writer was afterwards so eloquently to plead.
Desmoulins had now become an acknowledged leader of public opinion. Its sadden changes suited his fickle temperament, and form the only excuse for the glaring inconsistencies which disfigure his published writings. Mirabeau, for instance, whose genius and hospitality he had frequently and openly lauded, he afterwards thought fit to denounce as the "god of orators, liars, and thieves." He was powerfully swayed by the influence of moro vigorous minds ; and for some time before the death of Mirabeau, in April 1791, he had began to be led by Danton, with whom he remained associated during the rest of his life. In July 1791 Camille appeared before the municipality of Paris as head of a deputation of petitioners for the deposition of the king. Iu that month, however, such a request was dangerous; there was excitement in the city over the presentation of the petition, and the private attacks to which Desmoulins had often been subject were now followed by a warrant for the arrest of himself and Danton. Danton left Paris for a little; Desmoulins, however, remained there, appearing occasionally at the Jacobins club. He resigned his functions as a journalist, and the issue of his Revolution* ceased.
Three mouths afterwards, however, he again appeared in • public, having been appointed secretary to the Society of the Friends of the Constitution. His second attempt at journalism was made in April and May 1792, in the issue of several numbers of the Tribune det Patriotet, but success did not attond the effort, and it was in his pamphlet Jean Pierre Brissot demasque, which abouuded in tho most violent personalities, that Desmoulins again secured the eager attention of the public. This pamphlet, which had its origin In a petty squabble, was followed in 1793 by a Fmgment de Fhittoire teerile de la involution, in which the party of the Gironde, and specially Brissot, were most mercilessly attacked.
On the nomination of Danton, after the excesses of the 10th of August 1792, to the post of minister of justice, Desmoulins was appointed his secretary general On September the 8th he was elected one of the deputies for Paris to the lately created National Convention. He was not successful as an orator. He was of the party of " the Mountain," and voted for the abolition of royalty and the death of the king. With Robespierre he was now more than ever associated, and the Hietoire det Bristotint, the fragment above alluded to, was inspired by the archrevolutionist The success of the brochure, so terrible as to send the leaders of tho Gironde to the guillotine, alarmed Danton and the author. Not so with Robespierre; and the split was formed which was to end in the rain of the Dantonists.
In December 1793 was issued the first number of the Vieux Cordelier, by which Danton'9 idea of a committee of clemency was formulated and upheld. From the first Robespierre, although revising the sheets, disapproved of it, and at the fifth number the actual rupture became visible. Robespierre took advantage of the popular indignation roused against the Hebertists to send them to death, but the time had come when-Saint Just and he were to turn their attention not only to les enrages, but to let indulgent!—the powerful faction of the Dantonists. On the 7th of January 1794 Robespierre, who on a former occasion had defended Camille when in danger at the hands of the National Assembly, in addressing the Jacobins club counselled not the expulsion of Desmoulins, but the burning of certain numbers of the Vieux Cordelier. Camille sharply replied that he would answer with Rousseau,—" burning is not answering,'' and a bitter quarrel thereupon ensued. By the end of March not only
were Hebort and tho leaders of the extreme party guillotined, but their opponents, Danton, Desmoulins, and the best of the moderates were arrested. On the 31st the warrant of arrest was signed and executed, and on the 3d, 4th, and Sth of April the trial took place before the Revolutionary Tribunal. It was a scene of terror not only to the accused but to judges and to jury. The retorts of the prisoners were notable. Camille on being asked his age, replied, "I am thirty-three, the age of the tant-culotie Jesus, a critical age for every patriot." This was false; fie was thirty-four.1 Tinville, alarmed at the eloquence of Danton, procured from the Committee of Public Safety a decree which closed the months of tho accused. Armed with this and the false report of a spy who charged the wife of Desmoulins with conspiring for the escape of her husband and the ruin of the republic, Tinville by threats and beseechings at last obtained from the jury a sentence of death. It was passed in absence of the accused, and their execution was appointed for the same day.
Since his arrest the courage of Camille hod miserably failed. He had exhibited in the numbers of the Vieux Cordelier almost a disregard of the death which he must have known hovered over him. He had with consummate ability exposed the terrors of the Revolution, and had adorned his pages with illustrations from Tacitus, the force of which the commonest reader could feel In his last number, the seventh, which his publisher refused to print, he had dared to attack even Robespierre, but at his trial it was found that he was devoid of physical wnrage. He had to be torn from his seat ere he was removed to prison, and as he sat next to Danton in the tumbrel which conveyed them to the guillotine, the calmness of the great leader failed to impress him. In his violence, bound as he was, he tore his clothes into shreds, and his bare shoulders and breast were exposed to the gaze of the surging crowd. Of the fifteen guillotined together, including among them Herault de Sechelles, Westermann, and Philippeaux, Desmoulins died third; Danton, the greatest, died last With them also died the hope of the Revolution. But a few months were to pass ere it was to be solemnly decreed that they had " deserved well of humanity."
On the 29th of December 1790, Camille had married Lucilo Duplessis, and among the witnesses of the ceremony are observed the names of Brissot, Petiun, and Robespierre. The only child of the marriage, Horace-Camille, was bom on the 6th of July 1792. Two days afterwards Desmoulins brought it into notice by appearing with it before the municipality of Paris to demand " the formal statement of the civil estate of his son." The boy was afterwards pensioned by the French Government. Lucile, Desmoulins's accomplished and affectionate wife was, a few days after her husband, and on a false charge, condemned to the guillotine. She astonished all onlookers by the calmness with which she braved death.
See the biographies of Deamoulins by Edward Floury and JrdeH Claretie. Thelatter, entitled Camille Desmoulins and his Wife, has been translated into English (London, 1876). The work of Roch Mercandier, Histoirt dtt hommes de prove; is not trustworthy. See also the literature of the Revolution, and especially of the Dantonists. The standard edition of Desmordins's works ia that of Mstton. (T. S.)
DE SOTO, Fhimnando (1496 t-1542J, a Spanish captain and explorer, who is frequently accredited with the honour of being the discoverer of the Mississippi, and is certainly one of the most remarkable of the Eldorado adventurers of the 16th century. He was born at Xeres de Caballeros, in Estremadura, of an impoverished family
1 This ia bom* out by the register of bis birth and bapUam, and by words in hla last letter to hit wife,—" I die at thirty-four.' The datea (1762-81) given in nearly every biography of DeamonUtt are certainly inaccurate.
of good position, and was indebted to the favour of Fedrarias Davila for the means of pursuing his studies at the university. He commenced active life in 1519 by joining his patron in his second expedition to Darien, where lie distinguished himself by his- ability and the independence of his demeanour. In 1528 we find him exploring the coast of Guatemala and Yucatan, and in 1532 he led a reinforcement of 300 volunteers to the assistance of Pizarro in Pern. To him was due the discovery of the pass through the mountains to Cuzco; and in the capture of that city and in other important engagements he bore a brilliant part After the completion of the conquest De Soto, who had landed in America with " nothing else of his own save his sword and target," returned to Spain with n fortune of " an hundred and fourscore thousand duckets," which enabled him to marry the daughter of his old patron Davila, and to maintain "all the state that the house of a nobleman requireth." The Emperor Charles V., to whom he had lent a portion of Jus wealth, appointed him governor of the Island of Cuba, and adelantado or president of Florida, which was then the object of great interest, as possibly another Peru. In 1538 he set sail' with an enthusiastic and richly furnished company of about 600 men, of whom se\ eral had sold all that they possessed to furnish their equipment. Landing in May 1539 at Espiritu Santo Bay, on the west coast of the present State of Florida, the explorers continued for nearly four years to wander from one point to another, ever deceived in their expectations, and ever allured by the report of the wealth that lay beyond. The exact line of their route is in many places difficult to identify, but it seems to have passed N. through Florida and Georgia as far as 35° N. lat, then S. to the neighbourhood of Mobile, and finally N.W. towards the Mississippi. This river was reached early in 1541, and the following winter was spent on the Washita, As they were returning in 1542 along the Mississippi, De Soto died (either in May or June), and his body was sunk in its waters. On the failure of an attempt which they made to push eastwards again, his men, under the leadership of Moscoso, were compelled in 1543 to trust themselves to the stream. A voyage of nineteen days brought them to the sea, and they then held along the coast to Panuco, in Mexico.
Of this nufortunate expedition three narratives are extant, of seemingly independent origin, and certainly of very different character. The first was published in 1557 at Evora, and pro. fesses to be the work of a Portuguese gentleman of Elvas, who hail accompanied the expedition :—Rclaram verdadeira dos Trabalhos g ho Oouernador da Fcm&do d'Souto <£• certos Fidalgos Portuguests passarom no cVscobrimUo da Provineia da Frolida. Agora nouamfte feita per hu Fidalgo Deluas. An English translation was published by Haklayt in 1609, and another by an anonymous translator in 1586, the latter being based on a French version which had appeared at Fans in 1685 from the pen of Citri de la Guette. The second narrative is the famous history of Florida by the Inca, Garcil&sso de la Vega, who obtained bis information from a Spanish cavalier engaged in the enterprise; it was completed in 1591, first appeared at Lisbon in 1606 under the title of La Florida del Ynca, and has since passed through many editions in various languages. The third la a report presented to Charles V. of Spain in his Council of the Indies in 1544, by Luis Hernandez de Biedma, who had accompanied De Soto as His Majesty's factor. It ia to be found in Temaux-Compans's JUcueil de Pieces tur la Floride in the Historical Collections of Louisiana, Philadelphia, 1850, and in W. B. Bye's reprint for the Haklayt Society of Hakluyt's translation of the Portuguese narrative.
See Bancroft's History of the United States, voL L; M'Culioch, Researches Concerning the Aboriginal History of America; Monette, History of the Discovery and Settlement of the Valley of the Mississippi.
DESSAIX, Joseph Mabie, Count (1764-1834), French general, was born at Thonon, in Savoy, September 24, 1764. He studied medicine, took bis degree of doctor at Turin, and' then went to Paris. When the Revolution
broke out he served in the National Guard. Sympathizing with the extreme party, he attempted in 1791 to establish its principles in his native land; but, being prosecuted by order of the king, he escaped to France. He had organized the so-called Legion of tlie Allobroges, and as its captain took part in the great conflict of August 10,1792. In the following years he served at the siege of Toulon, in the army of the eastern Pyrenees, and in tho army of Italy. He was captured at the battle of Eivoli, but was soon exchanged. In the spring of 1798 Dcssaix was elected member of the Council of Five Hundred. In consequence of his opposition to the revolution of 18 Brumaire (9th November 1799), by which Napoleon became supreme, he was excluded from the council, retaining, however, his military command. He was appointed successively commander of Frankfort and of Breda, and in September 1803 was promoted general of brigade, and soon after commander of the Legion of Honour. He distinguished himself at the capture of Ulm, at the passage of the Tagliamento, and at the battle of Wagram. His brilliant courage at this battle procured him from the emperor the surname of "the Intrepid," and the dignity of count of the empire. He was also promoted general of division, and named grand officer of the Legion of Honour. He took part in the expedition to Russia, and was twice wounded. For several months ho was commander of Berlin, and afterwards delivered the department of Mont Blanc from the Austrians. His just conduct on this occasion earned him the title of the Bayard of Savoy. After the first restoration, Dessaix was created chevalier of St Louis. He nevertheless joined Napoleon in the campaign of, the Hundred Days, aud in 1816 was imprisoned for five months. The rest of his life was spent in retirement He died October 26, 1834.
DESSAU, the chief town of the duchy of Anhalt, in North Germany, is situated in 51* 51' 6" N. lat and 12' 18' E long., on the left bank of the Mulde, nearly two miles from its confluence with the Elbe, and 67 miles south-west of Berlin, with which it is connected by railway. The town has three suburbs. Of its gates the Zerbster Thor, with the statues of Otto the Rich and Albert the Bear, alone remains. The ducal palace, which stands in fine pleasure-grounds, contains a collection of historical curiosities, and a gallery of pictures, including works by Cimabue, Lippi, Rubens, Titian, and Vandyck, Among the other buildings are the palace of the hereditary prince, the theatre and concert room, the administrative offices, bank, gymnasium, musical academy, Amelia and Wilbelmine Institutes, two hospitals, and the Schlosskirche, adorned with paintings by Lucas Cranach, in the most interesting of which (the Last Supper) ore portraits of several Reformers. The manufactures of Dessau are woollen, linen, and cotton goods, hats, leather, tobacco, and organs and other musical instruments; and there is a considerable trade in corn. In the environs are the ducal villas of Georgium and Luisium, the gardens of which, as well as those of the neighbouring town of Worlitz, are much admired. Dessau was probably founded by Albert the Bear; it was already a town in 1213. It first began to grow into importance at the close of the 17th century, in consequence of the religious emancipation of the Jews in 1686, and of the Lutherans in 1697. Moses Mendelssohn, the philosopher, was born at Dessau in 1729. The population in 1875 was 19,621.
DESTERRO, Nossa Senhora Do Desterro, or Santa Cathabxna, a city of Brazil, the chief town of the province of Santa Catharina, on the west coast of the island from, which the province derives its name, in 27* 30' S. lat and 48* 30' W long. It is a small but strongly fortified place, with an excellent harbour, some foreign commerce, and regular intercourse with Rio do Janeiro, from which it ii distant about 460 miles. Its public buildings include s governor's palace, an arsenal, a court-house, and a hospital; but none of them hare any architectural interest In 1838 great damage was done to the town by a waterspout. Population from 7000 to 8000.
DETMOLD, the chief town of the principality of Lippe, in North Germany, is situated on the Werre, at the foot of the Teutoburger-Wald, in 61' 56' N. lat. and 8" 50' E. long. The foundations of the older portion of the town were laid in 1300, and those of the newer in 1709. Among the chief buildings and institutions are the new palace, in the Renaissance style, erected about 1550, tbe town-house, house of correction, penitentiary, military hospital, gymnasium, the industrial, commercial, and free schools, the theatre, museum of natural science, and public library. The leading industries are linen-weaving, tanning, brewing, horsedealing, and the quarrying of marble and gypsum. About three miles to the south-west of the town is the Qrotenburg, with Bandel's colossal statue of Hermann or Arminius, the leader of the CheruscL Detmold (Thiatmelli) was in 783 the scene of a conflict between the Saxons and the troops of Charlemagne. The population in 1875 was 6982.
DETROIT, the most important city of Michigan, in the United States of America, capital of Wayne county, situated on the west bank of the Detroit River (from the French for a ttraii), opposite the Canadian town of Windsor.
It is about 7 miles S.W. of Lake St Clair, 65 miles from Lake Huron, and 18 miles N. of Lake Erie, in 42* 20' N. bt and 83* 3' W. long. The river, which there separates the United States from Canada, is about half a mile to three quarters of a mile wide, and 5} fathoms deep, and flows with a pretty swift current The population of Detroit has increased from 21,019 in 1860 to 46,619 in 1860, and 79,577 in. 1870. .Of this last number 85,381 were of foreign birth, including 12,647 Germans. According tothe State census of 1874, the population of the city was 101,255; while in the neighbouring towns are not fewer than 15,000 persons whose business interests are in the city. Detroit with its suburbs stretches about'five miles along the river, and the central part extends for about two miles back from the shore. The streets generally cross each other at right angles, and are from 60 to 100 feet wide. They are for the most part ornamented with rows of trees. A number of avenues, from 100 to 200 feet wide, diverge from the Grand Circus, a spacious park, semicircular in form, which is divided into two quadrants by Woodward Avenue. Connected with the Grand Circus is
the Campus Martins, a public " place " about 600 feet long and 250 feet wide. The chief public building is the city hall, which faces the Campus Martina with fronts on four streets, and is oue of the finest structures of the kind in the West Built of sandstone, and designod after the Italian style of architecture, it measures 200 feet long, and 90 feet wide, and is surmounted by a tower 180 feet high. The cost of the building amounted to $600,000 (£120,000). Other noteworthy structures are the opera house, thp office of the Board of Trade, the Roman Catholk cathedral, which is the jnost imposing of the many churches in the city, the custom house, containing also the post-office, and the Michigan Central Railroad freight depot, which is 1250 feet long by 102 feet wide. On the Campus Martins stands the Michigan Soldiers' and Sailors' Monument It is of bronze and granite, 65 feet high and about 20 feet in diameter at the base. It is surmounted by a colossal bronze statue of an Indian girl representing Michigan in defence of the Union. The design comprises numerous other bronze figures, all of which were cast in Munich.
The commercial facilities of Detroit are very extensive. The Detroit River is a connecting link in the great c^ain of lake navigation, and affords the best harbour on the lakes. The city is the centre of an extensive railroad system, which presents important channels of transportation in almost every direction. Not fewer than five trunk lines diverge to the eastern seaboard. More than 350 vessels are owned here, and from ten to thirteen daily lines of steamers run to various points on the lakes. There is a considerable foreign commerce with Canada, the imports in 1876 amounting to $1,680,922, and the exports to $2,340,015; 4426 vessels entered and 4355 cleared in the foreign trade; 3968 entered and 3000 cleared in the coastwise trade. The large quantities of produce, chiefly from Michigan, passing eastward through the city by rail and water, give to Detroit an extensive domestic commerce. The manufacturing industries of the city are extensive and important. The working of iron is carried on in numerous blast furnaces, foundries, and other establishments. In 1875, 9 mills manufactured 238,200 barrels of flour; 8 factories produced more than 4,000,000 lb of chewing and smoking tobacco; and 171 establishments made .about 30,000,000 cigars. Twelve saw-mills annually cut from 45,000,000 to 50,000,000 feet of lumber; and 26 brickyards make from 66,000,000 to 60,000,000 bricks a year. The extensive Pullman car works, with a capital of about $12,000,000, are situated here; also one of the seven pin factories in the United States. The city glass works produce about $200,000 worth of glass a year; and tile copper smelting works more than $2,000,000 worth of ingot copper from Lake Superior ore. There are four ship-yards and three large dry docks.
Detroit has 10 lines of street railway, with more than 45 miles of track intersecting the city in every direction. It is divided into 11 wards, each returning 2 aldermen to the city council, and has a metropolitan police of 100 members; 7 steam fire-engines, the stations of which are connected by telegraphic alarm apparatus with all parts of the city; and ample supplies of water from the river. There are 64 churches, 14 asylums and hospitals, 18 public schools, 4 public libraries, the largest containing about 25,000 volumes; 2 medical colleges, and 3 medical societies; 8 daily newspapers, and 30 weekly and monthly papers and periodicals; several public parks; 10 banks, with an aggregate capital of $3,210,000; and 62 incorporated companies, representing capital stock to the amount of $22,445,000. The net city debt proper. January 1,1875, Amounted to $990,340, or about $9 78 per head of the population.
Detroit was settled by tlie French early in the 18th century, and passed into the hands of the English in 1763. It was then besieged for eleven months by the Indian chief, Pontiac. Ceded to the Americans in 1783, it was net occupied by them till 1796. It was incorporated as a city in 1824, and was the capital of Michigan from 1837 to 1847, when that honour was transferred to Lansing.
DEUCALION', in Greek legend, corresponds to the Biblical Noah. A great flood had destroyed the whole race of men except Deucalion and his wife Pyrrha, who saved themselves in a boat or ark, from which they landed on Mount Othrys, or, as it was afterwards said, on Mount Parnassus. They were then commanded by Zeus to cast behind them the bones of their mother, i.e., the stones of the hill side, and from the stones thrown by Deucalion sprang men, from those thrown by Pyrrha, women. Hence men were called Xaoi, "stone race." Deucalion's son Eellen was the founder of the race of Hellenes. The chief locality of this legend was Thessaly; it existed also at Dodona, where Deucalion was thought to have introduced the worship of Zens.
DEUTERONOMY. See Pentateuch.
DEUTSCH, Emanuel Oscae Menahem (1829-1873), an eminent Oriental scholar, was born on the 28th of October 1829, at Neisse, a ttfwn in Prussian Silesia. He was of Jewish extraction; and the family had been settled in his native place for several generations. When six yean old, Emanuel began to attend the gymnasium of Neisse, and continued a pupil for two years; after which, in compliance with the earnest wish of his uncle, David Deutsch of Mislowitz, the charge of the boy's education was transferred to him. Rabbi Deutsch was a first-rate scholar, deeply learned in the Talmud, with stern Ideas of duty, as we may infer from the fact that he made his nephew rise the whole yz&r round at 5 o'clock, study for the first two hours, and then spend an hour in prayer, before allowing him to taste food or light a Are. The rest of the day, with the exception of half an hour for exercise and recreation, was devoted to hard study. This dull routine, which proved at once the foundation of his accurate scholarship and of his ill-health, continued till Emanuel was thirteen years old, when he returned to Neisse, to solemnize his religious majority (Bar-mitzva). He proceeded once more to the gymnasium, where he enrolled in the highest class. On reaching his sixteenth year he began his studies in Berlin University, paying special attention to theology and the Talmud. Indeed the Talmud was seldom absent from his thoughts; and, after his death, a great accumulation of papers was found, containing parts of it, copied or translated, beginning in a child's hand-writing, and reaching down to a comparatively late period. Deutsch supported himself by teaching, and, about two years after going to Berlin, wrote some stories and poems on Jewish subjects for magazines. He also mastered the English language and studied English literature. In 1855 Deutsch was offered an appointment as assistant in the library of the British Museum, which he gladly accepted. "For nigh twenty years," he says, "it was my privilege to dwell in the very midst of that pantheon called the British Museum, the treasures whereof, be they Egyptian, Homeric, palimpsest, or Babylonian cuneiforms, the mutilated glories of the Parthenon, or the Etruscan mysterious grotesqueness, were all at my beck and call, all days, all hours." He worked intensely, always aiming at a book on the Talmud as his master-piece, and contributed no less than 190 papers to Chambers's Ervycloposdia, in addition to essays in Kitto's and Smith's Biblical Dictionaries, and articles in periodicals. In October 1867 his article on "The Talmud," published in the Quarterly Review, at once
made him f anions. It wax translated, within twelve months, into French, German, Russian, Swedish, Dutch, and Danish. He was passionately desirous of travelling in the East; and, having obtained leave of absence for ten weeks, he left England on the 7th of March 1869. The rapidity and fatigue of the journey permanently injured his health; but he thoroughly enjoyed his visit to Palestine, where his intense patriotism and finely-strung poetical nature found much food for reflection. Never, to the end of his life, did he mention his visit to the Wailing Place of tho Jews in Jerusalem without profound emotion. He reached England on the 10th of May, submitted a valuable report of his travels to the trustees of the British Museum, and delivered a number of lectures, chiefly on Phoenicia. His article on " Islam" appeared in the Quarterly Review for October 1869; and, at the same time, overwork, the consciousness of approaching ill-health, and the death of attached friends brought on terrible depression. Broken health continued to drag him down ; and, in the autumn of 1872, his old longing for the East returned so powerfully upon hinrthat, after obtaining six months leave, he left for Italy and Egypt. There a cold moist winter told severely on his health. On the 30th of March 1873, he reached Cairo, and was ultimately removed to Alexandria, where, becoming rapidly worse, he died on the 12th of May. He was buried next day in the Jewish cemetery in Alexandria, where a granite stone marks his restingplace. Deutsch was one of the hardest workers of the century, and added to his own special studies of Sanskrit, Chaldaic, Aramaic, and Phoenician, a remarkable acquaintance with English literature. His Literary Remains; edited by Lady Strangford, were published in 1874, consisting of nineteen papers on such subjects as "The Talmud," "Islam," "Semitic Culture," "Egypt, Ancient and Modern," "Semitic Languages," "The Targums," "The Samaritan Pentateuch," and " Arabic Poetry.
DEDTSCHKRONE, Arenskbone, or Walcz, a town of Prussia, at the head of a district in the government of Marienwerder, situated between the two lakes of Arena and Radau, about 15 miles north-west of Schneidemuhl, a railway junction 60 miles north of Posen. Besides being the seat of the public offices for the district, it possesses a Jewish synagogue, and a progymnasium established in the old Jesuit College; and it manufactures woollens, tiles, brandy, and beer. Population in 1871,6146.
DEUTZ (Latin, Tuitium), an old town of Rhenish Prussia, on the right bank of the Rhine, opposite to Cologne, with which it is connected by two bridges. It contains the church of St Heribert, built in the 17th century, a Protestant church, cavalry barracks, artillery magazines, and gas, porcelain, machine, and 'carriage factories. The fortifications of the town form part of the defences of Cologne. The population in 1875 was 14,513. To the east of Deutz is the manufacturing suburb of Ealk, with about 8,500 inhabitants. The old castle in Deutz was in 1002 made a Benedictine monastery by Heribert, archbishop of Cologne. Permission to fortify the town was in 1230 granted to the citizens by the archbishop of Cologne, between whom and the counts of Berg it was in 1240 divided. It was bnrnt in 1376, 1445, and 1583; and in 1678, after the peace of Nimeguen, the fortifications were demolished. They were rebuilt in 1816." See Cologne.
DEUX PONTS, in German Zweibriicken, and in Latin Biponiium, a town of Bavaria, in the Palatinate, 50 miles west of Spires, on the Erbach, which ultimately finds its way to the Moselle. Besides a court of appeal for the. Palatinate, a penitentiary, and various administrative offices, it possesses a public library, a gymnasium, and a synagogue. Its most important buildings are the old ducal palace, greatly damaged by the French in the 18th century.