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be in residence eight months, and the canons three months, repute for their alleged selfishness and in hospitality. in every year. The bishop is visitor of the dean and The town is of considerable antiquity, but owes its developchapter. 2. The dean of peculiars “ hath no chapter, yet ment to the refugees who flocked from the villages plundered is presentative, and bath cure of souls; he hath a peculiar, by the Turks in the 15th century. In 1552 it adopted the and is not subject to the visitation of the bishop.” 3. The Protestant faith. and it had to suffer in consequence, third dean “ hath no cure of souls, but hath a court and a especially when it was captured in 1686 by the imperial peculiar, in which he holdeth plea and jurisdiction of all forces. In 1693 it was made a royal free city. In such ecclesiastical matters as come within his peculiar. 1848–9 it formed a refuge for the National Government Such is the Dean of the Arches, who is the judge of the and Legislature when Buda-Pesth fell into the hands of the court of the arches, the chief court and consistory of the Austrians; and it was in the great Calvinist church that archbishop of Canterbury, so called of Bow Church, where Kossuth read the proclamation that declared the house of this court was ever wont to be held.” The parish of Bow Hapsburg to have forfeited the crown of Stephen. On the and twelve others are within the peculiar jurisdiction of 3d of July the town was captured by the Russiang. the archbishop in spiritual causes, and exempted out of Population in 1869, 46,111. the bishop of London's jurisdiction. 4. Rural deans are DEBT is a sum certain due by one person to another. clergymen whose duty is described as being “ to execute It may be created by contract, by statute, or by judgment. the bishop's processes and to inspect the lives and manners By the Judicature Act, 1873, any absolute assignment of the clergy and people within their jurisdiction” (see of any debt or other legal chose in action, of which express Phillimore's Ecclesiastical Law).
notice in writing shall have been given to the debtor, In the colleges of the English universities one of the fel trustee, or other person from whom the assignor would bave lows usually holds the office of “ dean," and is specially been entitled to receive or claim such debt, shall be charged with the discipline, as distinguished from the effectual in law. If the debtor receives notice that such teaching functions of the tutors.
assignment is disputed by the assignor, or any one claiming DEBENTURE, a deed by which certain property is under him, he may call upon the parties to interplead concharged with the repayment of money lent at a fixed inte-cerning the same, or he may pay the money into court in rest. It is commonly adopted by companies of a public conformity with the Acts for the Relief of Trustees. Order nature as a means of raising money for carrying on their xlv, of the Rules of Court under the same Act contains the undertakings. The creation of debenture stock in such com- provisions under which the debts due to a person against panies is regulated in England by the Companies Clauses Act, whom a judgment bas passed for the payment of money 1863, part ij., which makes debenture stock a prior charge may be attached by the judgment creditor. See on the undertaking, and gives the interest thereon priority BANKRUPTCY. of payment over all dividends or interest on any shares or DECALOGUE (in patristic Greek, ý dekádoyos, sc, stock of the company, whether ordinary or preference or Γβίβλος Or νομοθεσία) is another name for the tem comguaranteed. Payment of arrears may be enforced by mandments, in Hebrew the ten word (Deut. iv. 13,x. 4; Exod. appointment of a receiver, or (in Scotland) of a judicial xxxiv. 28), written on the two tables of stone, the 80factor.
called tables of the revelation (E. V., tables of testimony-Ex. DEBRECZYN, or DEBRETZN, & royal free city of xxxiv. 29, comp. ch. xxv. 21), or tables of the covenant Hungary, the chief town of the comitat of Hadju, and one (Deut. ix. 9). In Deuteronomy the inscription on these of the largest in the kingdom, is situated in the midst of a tables, which is briefly called the covenant (iv. 13), is slightly elevated sandy plain 114 miles east of Pesth, expressly identified with the words spoken by Jehovah out with which it is connected by rail. It is a meanly-built, of the midst of the fire at Mount Sinai in the ears of the straggling town, with irregular suburbs stretching out into whole people on the “day of the assembly," and rehearsed in the plain; its wide roadways are only paved with wood ch. v. 6–21. In the narrative of Exodus the relation of the down the centre and along the sides ; its houses are with “ten words " of ch. xxxiv, to the words spoken from Sinai, few exceptions only one story high, and the courtyards or ch. xx. 2-17, is not so clearly indicated—a circumstance gardens with which they are usually furnished give the which has given rise to speculations as to the possible whole place the appearance of an overgrown village, in existence of a second decalogue. Before entering on this spite of the number of its public buildings. The most question, however, we must examine the decalogue as prominent of these is the principal Protestant church, usually understood and embodied in the parallel passages which ranks as the largest in the country, but has no great in Exod. xx. and Dent. v. architectural pretensions. In its immediate neighbourhood 1. The variations in the parallel texts, so far as they are is the Protestant Collegium, a large and flourishing institu- important for the criticism of the decalogue, are mainly tion founded in 1792, and possessed of an extensive two. (a) The reason assigned for the institution of the library. The town-house, the Franciscan church, the Sabbath in Exodus is drawn from the creation, and agrees Piarist monastery and college, and the theatre are worthy with Gen. ii. 3. In Deuteronomy the command is based of mention; there are also hospitals, two gymnasiums, and on the duty of humanity to servants and the memory of an agricultural academy. The industries of the town are | Egyptian bondage. (6) In the tenth commandment, as pretty various, but none of them are of importance enough given in Exodus, "house" means house and household, to give it the character of a manufacturing centre. Its including all the particulars which are enumerated in ver. tobacco-pipes, of the genuine national style, its sausages, 17. In Deuteronomy, “Thou shalt not covet thy neighand its soap are widely known; and the first of the three bour's wife" comes first, and "house" following in associaare imported to England and France. Flour and beet-root tion with field is to be taken in the literal restricted sense. engar are also manufactured. Every three months the 2. The construction of the Hebrew text of the second Deighbouring plain is covered with the booths and bustle commandment is disputed, but the most natural senso of a great fair; but since the opening of the railway there seems to be, “Thou shalt not make unto thee a graven is hardly so extensive a concourse as before. Between 300 image ; sand] to no visible shape in heaven, &c., shalt and 400 square miles of territory belong to the municipality, thou bow down, &c.” The third commandment might be which derives a large annual revenue from the woods, pas better rendered, “Thou shalt not utter the name of the tures, &c. The inhabitants aro, with' very few exceptions, Lord thy God vainly." of Magyar origin and Calvinistic creed, and are in bad 3. Divisions of the Decalogue.-The division current in
England and Scotland, and generally among the Reformed the first was written on both sides (Ex. xxxii. 15). Dut (Calvinistic) churches and in the Greek Church, is known we shall presently see that there may be another way out as the Philonic division (Philo de Decalogo, § 12). It is of this difficulty. sometimes called by the name of Origen, who adopts it in 4. Critical questions.—That the decalogue not only conhis Homilies on Exodus. On this scheme the preface, tains Mosaic ideas, but is as old as Moses in its form as a Exod. xx. 2, has been usually taken as part of the first system of “ten words," is admitted by critics of almost every commandment. The Church of Rome and the Lutherans school. But it is much disputed what the original compass adopt the Augustinian division (Aug., Quæst. super E.cod., of the decalogue was. Did the whole text of Exod. xx. lxxi.), combining into one the first and second command 2-17 stand on the tables of stone ? The answer to this ments of Fhilo, and splitting his tenth commandment into question must start from the reason annexed to the fourth two. To gain a clear distinction between the ninth and commandment, which is different in Deuteronomy. But tenth commandments on this scheme it has usually been the express words“ and he added no moro," in Deut. v. felt to be necessary to follow the Deuteronomic text, and 22, show that there is no conscious omission by tho make the ninth commandment, Thou shalt not covet they Deuteronomic speaker of part of the original decalogue, neighbour's wife. As scarcely any scholar will now claim which cannot therefore have included the reason anucxcd priority for the text of Deuteronomy, this division may be in Exodus. On the other hand the reason annexed in viewed as exploded. But there is a third scheme (the Deuteronomy is rather a parenetic addition than an origiral Talmudic) still current among the Jews, and not unknown element dropped in Exodus. Thus the original fourth to early Christian writers, which is still a rival of the commandment was simply “Remember the Sabbath day to Philonic view. The preface, Exod. xx. 2, is taken as the keep it holy."3 When this is granted it must appear not first worü, and the second embraces verses 3–6. Among improbable that the elucidations of other commandments recent Christian writers who have adopted this view are may not have stood on the tables. Thus in the second Knobel in his Com. on E.codus) and Kuenen (Godsdienst commandment, “Thou shalt not bow down to any visiblo van Israel, i. 278.0.). The decision between Philo and the form," &c., is a sort of explanatory addition to the precept Talmud must turn on two questions. Can we take the “Thou shalt not make unto thee a graven image." And preface as a separate word ? And can we regard the pro so the promise attached to the fifth commandment was hibition of polytheism and the prohibition of idolatry as one probably not on the tables, and the tenth commandment commandment ? Now, though the Hebrew certainly speaks may have simply been, “Thou shalt not covet thy neighbours of ten “words,” not of ten“ precepts,” it is most unlikely house,” which includes all that is expressed in the following that the first word can be different in character from those clauses. Such a view gets over the difficulty arising froin that follow. But the statement “I am the Lord thy God,” the unequal length of the two halves of the decalogue. The is either no precept at all, or only enjoins by implication elucidations (unless in the case of the fourth command: what is expressly commanded in the words “ Thou shalt ment) may very well be as old as Moses (comp. Ewald, have no other gods before me." Thus to take the preface Geschichte, ii. 229). It is quite another question whether as a distinct word is not reasonable unless there are cogent there is any idea in the decalogue which cannot be as old grounds for uniting the commandments against polytheisin as Moses. It is urged by many critics that Moscs cannot and idolatry. But that is far from being the case. The have prohibited the worship of Jehovah by impages; for thio first precept of the Philonic scheme enjoins monolatry, the subsequent history shows us a descendant of Moses as second exprhsses God's spiritual and transcendental nature. priest in the idolatrous sanctuary of Dan. There were teraAccordingly Kuenen does not deny that the prohibition of phim in David's house, and the worship of Jehovah under images contains an element additional to the precept of the image of a calf was the state religion of the kingdom monolatry, but, following De Goeje, regards the words of Ephraim. It is argued from these facts that image from “thou shait not make unto thyself” down to “the worship went on unchallenged, and that this would not waters under the earth ” as a later insertion in the original have been possible bad Moses forbidden it. This argument decalogue. Unless this can be made out of which below does not appear to have all the force that Kuen en and -the Philonic scheme is clearly best, and as such it is now others attach to it, for it must be remembered how large a accepted by most scholare.
section of Christendom, in times much more advanced than How were the ten words disposed on the two tables ? those of the Old Testament, has accepted the decalogue The naturai arrangement (which is assumed by Philo and and yet has worshipped images. And on the other side Josephus) would be five and five. And this, as Philo we have the much more cogent arguments that the number recognized, is a division appropriate to the sense of of ten words, which no one doubts to be primitive, cannot the precepts ; for antiquity did not look on piety be naturally made out if the law against images is dropped, towards parents as a mere .precept of probity, part of and that the existence of this law is necessary to explain one's duty towards one's neighbour. The authority of the fact that the unquestionably Mosaic sanctuary of the parents and rulers is viewed in the Old Testament as a ark, which is just the sanctuary of the revelation of the ten delegated divine authority, and the violation of it is akin words, embodies the principle of the worship of Jehovah to blasphemy (comp. Ex. xxi. 17, Lev. xx. 9, with Lev. xxiv. without images in a distinct and practical form. It may 15, 16, and note the formula of treason, 1 Kings xxi. 13). be added that the prohibition of images of hewn stone,
We have thus five precepts of piety on the brst table, which is the primitive sense of the word “graven-image, and five of probity on the second, an arrangement which is can hardly be less ancient than the conception that the accepted by the best recent writers. But the current view stones of an altar were defiled by the toucb of the chisel of the Western Church since Augustine has been that the (Exod. xx. 24). And this is a conception which cannot precept to honour parents heads the second table. The be viewed as a later refinement on Mosaic ideas. only argument of weight in favour of this view is that it 5. The Decalogue of Exodus xxxiv.- In the book of makes the amount of writing on the two tables less | Exodus the words written on the tables of stone are nounequal, while we know that the second table as well as where expressly identified with the ten commandments of
. So, for example, Augustine, 1.c. Thomas, Summa (Prima Secunda, ? Exceptions to this consensus are Vatko (Biblische Theologie, p. qu. c. art. 4), and recently Sonntag and Kurtz. Purely arbitrary is the 202) and Noldeke (Untersuchungen, p. 51). iden of Lutheran writers (Gerhard, Loc. xiil. 8 46) that the ninth com. 3 It is generally assumed that the addition in Exodus is from the mandment forbids concupiscentia actualis, the tenth conc. originalis. hand that wrote Gen i.-il. 4.
chap. x. Lu xxv. 16 xxi. 18, xxii
. 15, ve simply | cepts of the decalogue as moral precepts d. lcge natura, read of " the revelation ” inscribed on the tables, and it though the law of the Sabbath is not of the law of nature, seems to be assumed that the contents of this revelation in so far as it prescribes a determinate day of rest (Thonias, must be already known to the reader. The expression Supina, Ima IIdos, qu. c. art. 3 ; Duns, Super Sententias, "ten Fords” first occurs in xxxiv. 28, in a passage which lib. ii. dist. 37). The most important mediæval exposition relates the restoration of the tables after they had been of the decalogue is that of Nicolaus de Lyra ; and the 15th broken But these “ten words ” are called " the words century, in which the decalogue acquired special importance of the covenant," and so can hardly be different from the in the confessional, was prolific in treatises on the subject Tords mentioned in the preceding verse as those in accord (Antoninus of Florence, Gerson, &c.). ance wherewith the covenant was made with Israel. And Important theological controversies on the decalogue again, the words of verse 27 are necessarily the command begin with the Reformation. The question between the ments which immediately precede in verses 12-26. Accord- Lutheran (Augustinian) and Reformed (Philonic) division ingly many recent critics, following Hitzig, who seems to of the ten commandments was mixed up with controversy have formed his view without reference to a previous as to the legitimacy of sacred images not designed to be suggestion of Goethe's, have sought to show that Exod. worshipped. The Reformed theologians took the stricter xxxiv. 12-26 contains just ten precepts forming a second view. The identity of the decalogue with the eternal law decalogue. In point of detail it is disputed whether the of nature was maintained in both churches, but it was an narrator of Exod. xxxiv. regards this decalogue as precisely open question whether the decalogue, as such (that is, as identical with that wbich stood on the first tables (which a law given by Moses to the Israelites), is of perpetual seems to follow from xxiv. 1) or as a modification of the obligation. The Socinians, on the other hand, regarded original words (s0 Ewald). It does not seem possible to the decalogue as abrogated by the more perfect law deny the connection of verses 27, 28 with one another and of Christ ; and this view, especially in the shape that the with the previous context as the text now stands. Hengs- decalogue is a civil and not amoral law (J. D. Michaelis), was tenberg (Beiträge, ii. 387.ff.) and Bertheau (Sieben Gruppen the current one in the period of rationalisn in last century. Mosaischer Gesetze, p. 97) seek to distinguish the words of The distinction of a permanent and a transitory element in Verse 28, as written by God himself, from those which, in the law of the Sabbath is found, not only in Luther and verse 27, Moses is commanded to write. But no such dis- Melanchthon, but in Calvin and other theologians of the tinction lies in the text, and it is not probable that the Reformed church. The main controversy which arose on narrator felt any contradiction between God's promise to the basis of this distinction was whether the prescription write the words in verse 1 and the use of human instrumen- of one day in seven is of permanent obligation. It was tality as implied in verse 28. On the other hand, the admitted that such obligation must be not natural but hypothesis of a second decalogue has serious if not insuper positive ; but it was argued by the stricter Calvinistio able difficulties. The number of ten precepts in Exod. divines that the proportion of one in seven is agreeable to xiv. is by no means clearly made out, and the individual nature, based on the order of creation in six days, and in precepts are variously assigned by different critics; while no way specially connected with anything Jewish. the most recent supporter of the theory admits that the Hence it was regarded as a universal positive law of God. original number of ten is now concealed. by additions. But those who maintained the opposite view were not exThis supposed decalogue contains no precepts of social cluded from the number of the orthodox. The laxer conmorality, but forms a sort of unsystematic abstract of the ception found a place in the Cocceian school. oldest laws about points of religious observance. If such
Literature.-Geffcken, Ueber die verschiedenen Eintheilungen des a system of precept3 was ever viewed as the basis of the Dekalog's und den Einfluss derselben auf den Cultus: Ewald's History covenant with Israel, it must belong to a far earlier stage of Israel, vol. i.; Schultz's and especially Oehler's Old Testament of religious development than that of Exod. u. This is Theology ; Oehler's article " Dekalog” in Herzog's Encyclopädie; recognized by Wellhausen, who says that our decalogue in English of Kalisch ; Kuenen's Godsdienst van Israel. Hfdst.
commentaries on Exodus, especially that of Knobel in German, and stands to that of Exod. xxxiv. as Amos stood to his con Kurtz, Geschichte des Allen Bundes, Bd. ii. ; other literature cited temporaries, whose whole religjon lay in the observance of by Oehler and by Koehler, Biblische Geschichte. i. 287. For sacred feasts. But the idea that the ethical teaching of the guidance in the theological controversies about the Decalogue the
(W. R. S.) prophets had no basis in the original document of the student may consult Walch and Baumgarten. Vosaic covenant is so revolutionary that few will venture DECAMPS, ALEXANDRE GABRIEL (1803-1860), one of to accept“Goethe's decalogue" with such inferences. The the foremost painters of the modern French school, was difficulty is presumably due to the interweaving of several born in Paris on the 3d March 1803. He received his distinct narratives, which perplexes the sequence of many artistic training from Abel de Pujol, but set himself free parts of Exodus. It is more probable that xxxiv: 10-27– at an early period of his career fronı academic trammels. & summary of the religious precepts of the Mosaic conve He asserted his originality in his choice of subjects as well nant_originally stood in a different connection than that as in his style of treatment. In his youth he travelled in there ever were two opinions as to what stood on the tables. the East. and reproduced Oriental life and scenery with a
6. The Decalogue in Christian Theology.—Following bold fidelity to nature that made his works the puzzle of the New Testament, in which the “ commandments conventional critics. His powers, however, soon came to summed up in the law of love are identified with the pre- be recognized, and he was ranked along with Delacroix cepts of the decalogus (Mark 1. 19: Rom. xii. 9; cf. and Vernet as one of the leaders of the French school. At Mark xii. 28 1.), the ancient church emphasized the the Paris Exhibition of 1855 he received the grand or permanent obligation of the ten commandments as a sum council medal. Most of his life was passed in the neighmary of natural in contradistinction to ceremonial precepts, bourhood of Paris. He was passionately fond of animals, though the observance of the Sabbath was to be taken in a especially dogs, and indulged in all kinds of field sports. spiritual sense (Augustine, De Spiritu et Litera, xir. ; He died on the 22d August 1860 in consequence of being Jerome. De Celebratione Paschæ). The mediæval theo thrown from a vicious horse while hunting at Fontainebleau. logians followed in the same line, recognizing all the pre- The style of Decamps was characteristically and intensely
French. It was marked by vivid dramatic conception, by i listorn und Pfingsten im zweiten Dekalog, Heidelberg, 1838.
a manipulation bold and rapid, sometimes even to rough. • Welthansen in Jorrbb, f. D. Thenlo, 1876, p. 564,
ness, and especially by original and startling use nt
decided contrasts of colour and of light and shade. His botany of the faculty of sciences in the same university. subjects embraced an unusually wide range. He availed He was an admirable lecturer, and the gardens under his himself of his travels in the East in dealing with scenes charge were much improved during his occupancy of the from scripture history, which he was probably the first of chair. From Montpellier he removed to Geneva in 1816, European painters to represent with their true and natural having been invited by the now independent republic to local background. Of this class were his Joseph sold by fill the newly created chair of natural history. The rest of his Brethren, Moses, taken from the Nile, and his scenes his life was spent in an attempt to elaborate and complete from the life of Samson, nine vigorous sketches in charcoal his “natural” system of botanical classification. The and white. Perhaps the most impressive of his historical results of his labours in this department are to be found in pictures is his Defeat of the Cimbri, representing with his Regni vegetabilis systema naturale, of which two wonderful skill the conflict between a horde of barbarians volumes only were completed (1821) when he found that and a disciplined army. Decamps produced a number of it would be impossible for him to execute the whole work genre pictures, chiefly of scenes from French and Algerine on so extensive & scale. He accordingly commenced in domestic life, the most marked feature of which is humour. 1824 a less extensive work in the same direction-his The same characteristic attaches to most of his numerous Prodromus systematis regni vegetabilis,—but even of this animal paintings. He painted dogs, horses, &c., with great he was able to finish only seven volumes, or two-thirds of fidelity and sympathy; but his favourite subject was the whole. It was carried on after his death by his son monkeys, which he depicted in various studies and sketches Alphonse, who in 1834 had succeeded him in his professorwith a grotesque humour that could scarcely be surpassed. ship. He had been for several years in delicate health Probably the best known of all his works is The Monkey when he died on the 9th September 1841 at Turin, whither Connoisseurs, a clever satire of the jury of the French he had gone to attend a scientific reunion. De Candolle Academy of Painting, which had rejected several of his received diplomas or the honour of membership from most earlier works on account of their divergence from any of the learned societies of Europe, and was a very frequent known standard. The pictures and sketches of Decamps contributor to their Transactions. Louis Philippe decorated were first made familiar to the English public through the him with the cross of the Legion of Honour.
He was lithographs of Eugène la Roux. See Moreau's Decamps et highly esteemed in his native city, where he was for a long son (Euvre (Paris, 1869).
period rector of the academy and a member of the legislature. DE CANDOLLE, AUGUSTIN PYRAMUS (1778–1841), a For an estimate of his place as a botanist see BOTANY, vol. celebrated botanist, was born at Geneva, February 4, 1778. iv. p. 80. He was descended from one of the most ancient families of See Flourens's Eloge de Candolle (1842), and Ne la Rive's Provence, and his ancestors had been expatriated for their Candolle, sa Vie et ses Travaux (1851). religion in the middle of the 16th century. His father was DECAPOLIS, a district of Palestine, or perhaps rather a famous printer, and syndic of the university and republic. a confederation of districts, situated, with the exception of Though a weakly boy he showed great aptitude for study, a small portion, on the eastern side of the Upper Jordan and distinguished himself at school by his rapid attain and the Sea of Tiberias. Its boundaries are not accurately ments in classical and general literature, and specially by a known, and probably were never precisely defined. It faculty for writing elegant verse, which led Florian to antici- evidently takes its name from the fact that it included pate that he might become famous as a poet. He showed ten cities (déka róles), but the ancient geographers do not remarkable powers of memory, which proved of the greatest agree as to which these ten cities were. This difference of service to him in the science to which he ultimately devoted statement may be explained by the supposition that, like himself. His interest in plants was first roused while he the Cinque Ports of England, Decapolis preserved its was residing with his mother at a remote country village original designation after new members were received into during the siege of Geneva in 1792. 'He began his scientific the confederation, and perhaps some of the old members studies at the college of Geneva, by attending the courses had lost their connection. Pliny recognizes the uncertainty, of Saussure and Vaucher, the latter of whom first inspired but gives the following list : Damascus, Philadelphia, him with the determination to make botanical science the Raphana, Scythopolis (on the west side of the Jordan), chief pursuit of his life. In 1796 he removed to Paris, Gadara, Hippo, Dion, Pella, Galasa (Gerasa), and Canatha. where he resided with Dolomieu, attended various courses Damascus is the only one that retains its importance ; of lectures on natural science, and gained the friendship of Scythopolis, or Beth-Shean, which seems to have been Jussieu and Desfontaines. His first productions, Historia anciently the next in size, is represented by the village of Plantarum Succulentarum (4 vols., 1799) and Astragalogia Beisan ; and Gerasa, Canatha or Kenath, and Pella are (1802), introduced him to the notice of Cuvier (whose chair of interest only for their ruins. Decapolis was placed by in the Collége de France he supplied in 1802), Humboldt, the Romans under the jurisdiction of the Syrian governor, Biot, and Lamarck, who afterwards confided to him the and seems to have enjoyed special privileges. Regarding publication of the third edition of the Flore Française the rise and decay of the confederation we have no precise (1803-15). The introduction to this work contained the information, bui it was at the height of its prosperity in first exposition of his principle of classification according to the time of Christ. the natural as opposed to the Linnean or artificial method. DECATUR, a flourishing city of the United States, Having been elected (1804) doctor of medicine by the capital of Macon county, Illinois, situated in the midst of medical faculty of Paris, he wrote, as an inaugural work, a rich agricultural district to the right of the Sangamon the Essai sur les propriétés médicinales des plantes com. river, at a railway junction about 38 miles east of Springparées avec leurs formes extérieures et leur classification field. It is well built
, and has 15 churches and 24 public naturelle, and soon after, in 1806, his Synopsis plantarum schools ; but none of its edifices are individually remarkable in flora Gallica descriptarum. At the desire of the French Among its industrial establishments is a large rolling mill
. Government he spent the summers of the following six Population in 1870, 7161. years in making a botanical and agricultural survey of the DECCAN (DAKSHIN, the Country of the South), in whole kingdom, the results of which he published in 1813. India, includes, according to Hindu geographers, the In 1807 he was appointed professor of botany in the whole of the territories situated to the south of the medical faculty of the university of Montpellier, and in Nerbudda. In its more modern acceptation, however, 1810 he was transferred to the newly founded chair of 1 it is sometimes understood as comprising only the
country lying between that river and the Krishna, extreme breadth exceeds 800. This vast tract comprehends the latter having for a long period formed the southera ühe chief provinces now distributed between the presidencies boundary of the Mahometan empire of Delhi. Assign- of Madras and Bombay, together with the native states of ing it the more extended of these limits, it compre- Hyderabad and Mysore, and those of Kolápur, Sawanthends the whole of the Indian peninsula, and in this view wárí, Travancore, Cochin, and the petty possessions of the mountainous system, consisting of the Eastern and France and Portugal. Western Ghats, constitutes the inost striking feature of DECEMBER, the last month of the year. In the the Deccan. These two mountain ranges unite at their Roman calendar, traditionally ascribed to Romulus, the northern extremities with the Vindhya chain of mountains, 1 year was divided into ten months, the last of which was and thus is formed a vast triungle supporting at a consider called December, or the tenth month, and this name, able elevation the expanse of table-land which stretches though etymologically incorrect, was retained for the last from Cape Comorin to the valley of the Nerbudda The or twelfth month of the year as now divided. In the surface of this table-land slopes from west to east as Romulian calendar December had thirty days; Numa indicated by the direction of the drainage of the country, reduced the number to twenty-nine ; Julius Cæsar added the great rivers the Cauvery, Godavery, Krishna, and two days to this, giving the month its present length. The Pennaar, though deriving their suurces from the base of the Saturnalia occurred in December, which is therefore styled Western Gbáts, all finding their way into the Bay of “ acceptus geniis" by Ovid (Fasti, iii. 58); and this also Bengal through fissures in the Eastern Ghats.
explains the phrase of Horace." libertate Decembri utere." In early times this country embraced that possessed by (Sat. ii. 7). Martial applies to the month the epithet the five Hindu princes of Telingana, Maharashta, the Tamu] canus (hoary), and Ovid styles it gelidus (frosty) and country, Orissa, and Carnata or Bijáyanagar. It was first fumosus (smoky). The Saxons called it winter-monat, or invaded by the Mahometans in 1294, who stormed Deogiri, winter month, and heligh-monat, or holy month, from the the capital of Maharashta, and abandoned the city to fuct that Christmas fell within it. The 22d December is pillage. Iu the year 1325 the Mahometans made further the date of the winter solstice, when the sun reaches the progress in its conquest; and having extirpated the Hindu tropic of Capricorn. dynasties, they annexed the provinces as far south as the DECEMVIRI (i.e., the ten men), ten magistrates of Krishna to the empire of Delbi. The imperial sway was, absolute authority among the Roinans. Their appointment, however, of brief duratiun. Telingana and Carnata speedily according to Roman tradition, was due to plebeian dissatisreverted to their former niasters; and this defection on the faction with the capricious administration of justice by part of the Hindu states was followed by a general revolt, the patricians, who had no written law to direct them. resulting in the establishment in 1347 of the independent on the representatiou to the senate of the popular grievMahometan dynasty of Bahmani, and the consequent with ances by the tribunes, commissioners were sent to Greece drawal of the power of Delhi from the territory south of to collect the laws of Solon and of the other celebrated the Nerbudda. In the struggles which ensued, the Hindu legislators of Greece. On the return of these commissioners kingdom of Telingana fell to the Mussulmans, who at a later it was agreed, after mucb discussion, that ten new magis. period formed a league against the remaining Hindu prince, trates, called decemviri, should be elected from the senate and at the battle of Talikota in 1565 destroyed the to draw up a body of laws. Their election involved the monarchy of Bijayanagar or Camata. On the dissolution abdication of all other magistrates; they were invested of the Bahmani empire, its dominions were distributed into with supreme power, and presided over the city with the five Mahometan states of Golconda, Bijápur, Ahmed regal authority. They were, each in turn, clothed nagar, Beder, and Berar. Of these the larger succeeded with the badges of the cousulship, and the one so disin subverting those of less importance; and in 1630, during tinguished had the power of assembling the senate and the reign of Shah Jabán of Delhi, the greater proportion of confirming its decrees. The first decemvirs were chosen in the Deccan had been absorbed by the kingdoms of the year 302 A.U.C. (451 B.C.) They arranged the laws Golconda, Ahmednagar, and Bijápur. During the reign by which their government was to be regulated in ten of Aprungzebe (in the latter half of the 17th century) | divisions, submitted them to the senate and comitia for sll those states were reduced, and the Deccan was again their approbation, and, after the code was recognized as annexed to the empire of Delhi. In the subsequent reigns, constitutional, administered it with so much moderation and when the great empire of Aurungzebe fell into decay, the efficiency that the continuauce of the decemviral office for Nizam threw off his alliegiance and fixed his court at another year was unanimously voted. The second body of Hyderabad. At the same time the Mahrattas, emerging decemvirs included. one member of the first Appius from obscurity, established a powerful monarchy, which i Claudius-and, according to Niebulir, tive plebeians. was usurped by the Peshwe. The remainder of the The new magistrates added to the laws which had already imperial possessions in the peninsula were held by chieftains been enacted, and thus completed the celebrated leges acknowledging the supremacy of one or other of these duodecim tubularum, op which ail Roman law, in futuro two potentates. In the sequel, Mysore became the prize | ages, was founded. Their administrativn, however, was as of the Mahomotan usurper Hyder Ali. During the unpopular as that of their predecessors had been the contests for power which ensued about the middle of the reverse ; and, by its partiality and injustice, wbich reached last eentury betweer the natiw chiefs, the French and the a climax in the flagitious pursuit of Virginia by Appius English took opposite sides. After a brief course of Claudius, it so roused the popular fury that the abolition triumph, the interests of France declined, and a new of the office was effected. But, as Sir G. Cornewall Lewis empire in India was established by the British. Mysore has shown in his work on the Credibility of Darly Roman formed one of their earliest conquests in the Deccan. History, it is difficult to write with scientific accuracy about Tanjore and the Carnatic were shortly after annexed to this episode in Roman history. There · were other their dominions. In 1818 the forfeited possessions of the magistrates in Rome, called decemvirs, in regard to Peshwa added to their extent; and these acquisitions, with whose appointment and jurisdiction information is scanty. others which have more recently fallen to the paramount Scholars differ concerning the date of their institution, and power by cession, conquest, or failure of heirs, form & the special functions of their office. There is evidence, continuous territory stretching from the Nerbudda to Cape however, that such a court existed during the empire : bnt Comorin. Its length is upwards of 1000 miles, and its it is uncertain whether the jurisdiction of the later coincided