« EelmineJätka »
be in residence eight months, and the canons three months, in every year. The bishop is visitor of the dean and chapter. 2. The dean of peculiars " hath no chapter, yet is presentative, and hath cure of souls; he hath a peculiar, and is not subject to the visitation of the bishop." 3. The third dean "hath no cure of souls, but hath a court and a peculiar, in which he holdeth plea and jurisdiction of all such ecclesiastical matters as come within his peculiar. Such Is the Dean of the Arches, who is the judge of the court of the arches, the chief court and consistory of the archbishop of Canterbury, so called of Bow Church, where this court was ever wont to be held." The parish of Bow and twelve others are within the peculiar jurisdiction of the archbishop in spiritual causes, and exempted out of the bishop of London's jurisdiction. 4. Rural deans are clergymen whose duty is described as being "to execute the bishop's processes and to inspect the lives and manners of the clergy and people within their jurisdiction" (see Fhillimore's Ecclesiastical Law).
In the colleges of the English universities one of the fellows usually holds the office of "dean," and is specially charged with the discipline, as distinguished from the teaching functions of the tutors.
DEBENTURE, a deed by which certain property is charged with the repayment of money lent at a fixed interest It is commonly adopted by companies of a public nature as a means of raising money for carrying on their undertakings. The creation of debenture stock in such companies is regulated in England by the Companies Clauses Act, 1863, part iii., which makes debenture stock a prior charge on the undertaking, and gives the interest thereon priority of payment over all dividends or interest on any shares or stock of the company, whether ordinary or preference or guaranteed. Payment of arrears may be enforced by appointment of a receiver, or (in Scotland) of a judicial factor.
DEBRECZYN, or Debretzn, a royal free city of Hungary, the chief town of the comitat of ITadju, and one' of the largest in the kingdom, is situated in the midst of a slightly elevated sandy plain 111 miles east of Pcsth, with which it is connected by rail It is a meanly-built, straggling town, with irregular suburbs stretching ont into the plain; its wide roadways are only paved with wood down the centre and along the sides; its houses are with few exceptions only one story high, and the courtyards or gardens with which they are usually furnished give the whole place the appearance of an overgrown village, in spite of the number of its public buildings. The most prominent of these is the principal Protestant church, which ranks as the largest in the country, but has no great architectural pretensions. In its immediate neighbourhood is the Protestant Collegium, a large and flourishing institution founded in 1792, and possessed of an extensive library. The town-house, the Franciscan church, the Piarist monastery and college, and the theatre are worthy of mention; there are also hospitals, two gymnasiums, and an agricultural academy. The industries of the town are pretty various, but noae of them aft of importance enough to give it the character of a manufacturing centre. Its tobacco-pipes, of the genuine national style, its sausages, and its soap are widely known; and the first of the three are imported to England and France. Flour and beet-root sugar are also manufactured. Every three months the neighbouring plain is covered with the booths and bustle of a great fair; but since the opening of the railway there is hardly Bo extensive a concourse as before. Between 300 and 400 square miles of territory belong to the municipality, which derives a large annual revenue from the woods, pastores, 4c The inhabitants are, with'very few exceptions, of Magyar origin and Calvinistic creed, and are in bad
repute for their alleged selfishness and inhospitality. The town is of considerable antiquity, but owes its development to the refugees who flocked from the villages plundered by the Turks in the 15th century. In 1552 it adopted the Protestant faith, and it had to suffer in consequence, especially when it was captured in 1686 by the imperial forces. In 1693 it was made a royal free city. In 1848-9 it formed a refuge for the National Government and Legislature when Buda-Pesth fell into the hands of the Austrians; and it was in the great Calvinist church that Kossuth read the proclamation that declared the house of Hapsburg to have forfeited the crown of Stephen. On the 3d of July the town was captured by the Russians. Population in 1869, 46,111.
DEBT is a sum certain due by one person to another. It may be created by contract, by statute, or by judgment. By the Judicature Act, 1873, any absolute assignment of any debt or other legal chose in action, of wliicb express notice in writing shall have been given to the debtor, trustee, or other person from whom the assignor would have been entitled to receive or claini such debt, shall be effectual in law. . If the debtor receives notice that suth assignment is disputed by the assignor, or any one claiming under him, he may call upon the parties to interplead concerning the same, or he may pay the money into court in conformity with the Acts for the Relief of Trustees. Order xlv. of the Rules of Court under the same Act contains the provisions under which the debts due to a person against whom a judgment has passed for the payment of money may be- attached by the judgment creditor. See Bajtkbuptcy.
DECALOGUE (in patristic Greek, i) iWXoyo?, sc, /Si'/JAo? or yofwOca-ia) is another name for the ten comnwn<imfn<«,inHebrewthe<«ni«>raV:(Deut. iv. 13,x. 4;Exod. xxxiv. 28), writtsn on the two tables of stone, the nocalled tables of the revelation (E 7., tables of testimony—Ex. xxxiv. 29, comp. ch. xxv. 21), or tables of the covenant (Deut. ix. 9). In Deuteronomy the inscription on these tables, which is briefly called the covenant (iv.* 13), is expressly identified with the wprds spoken by Jehovah out of the midst of the fire at Mount Sinai in the ears of the whole people on the "day of the assembly," and rehearsed in ch. v. 6-21. In the narrative of Exodus the relation of the "ten words " of ch. xxxiv. to the words spoken from Sinai, ch. xx 2-17, is not so clearly indicated—a circumslance which has given rise to speculations as to the possible existence of a second decalogue. Before entering on this question, however, we must examine the decalogue as usually understood and embodied in the parallel passages in Exod. xx. and Dent v.
1. The variations in the parallel texts, so far as they .ire important for the. criticism of the decalogue, are mainly two. (a) The reason assigned for the institution of the Sabbath in Exodus is drawn from the creation^and agree* with Gen. ii. 3. In Deuteronomy the command is based on the duty of humanity to servants and the memory of Egyptian bondage, (b) In the tenth commandment,-as given in Exodus, "house" means house and household, including all the particulars which are enumerated in ver. 17. In Deuteronomy, "Thou shalt not covet thy neighbour's wife " comes first, and "house " following in association with field is to be taken in the literal restricted sense.
2. The construction of the Hebrew text of the second commandment is disputed, but the most natural sense seems to be, "Thou shalt not make unto thee a graven image; [and] to no visible shape in heaven, 4c, shalt thou bow down, 4c" The third commandment might be better rendered, "Thou shalt not utter the name of the Lord thy God vainly."
3. Divisions of the Decalogue.—The division currant in England and Scotland, and generally among the Reformed
(Calvinistic) churches and in the Greek Church, is known as the Philonic division (Philo de Decalogo, § 12). It is sometimes called by the name of Origen, who adopts it in his Uotnilies on Exodus. On this scheme the preface, Exod. xx. 2, has been usually, taken as part of the first commandment. The Church of Borne and the Lutherans adopt the Augustinian division (Aug., Qucest. super Exod., lxxi.), combining into one the first and second commandments of Philo, and splitting his tenth commandment into two. To gain a clear distinction between the ninth and tenth commandments on this scheme it has usually been felt to be necessary to follow the Deuteronomic text, and make the ninth commandment, Thou shalt not covet they neighbour's wife.1 As scarcely any scholar will now claim priority for the text of Deuteronomy, this division may be viewed as exploded. But there is a third scheme (the Talmudic) still current among the Jews, and not unknown to early Christian writers, which is still a rival of the Philonic view. The preface, Exod. xx. 2, is taken as the first worn1, and the second embraces verses 3-6. Among recent Christian writers who have adopted this view are Knobel (in his Com. on Exodus) and Kuenen (Godsdienst van Israel, i. 278 J}.). The decision between Philo and the Talmud must turn on two questions. Can we take the re face as a separate word? And can we regard the proibition of polytheism and the prohibition of idolatry as one commandment t Now, though the Hebrew certainly speaks of ten "words," not of ten'" precepts," it is most unlikely that the first word can be different in character from those that follow. But the statement " I am the Lord thy God," is either no precept at all, or only enjoins by implication what is eypressly commanded in the words "Thou shalt have no other gods before me." Thus to take the preface as a distinct word is not reasonable unless there are cogent grounds for uniting the commandments against polytheism and idolatry. But that is far from being the case. The first precept of the Philonic scheme enjoins monolatry, the second expresses God's spiritual and transcendental nature. Accordingly Kuenen does not deny that the prohibition of images contains an element additional to the precept of monolatry, but, following De Goeje, regards the words from "thou shait not make unto thyself" down to "the waters under the earth " as a later insertion in the original decalogue. Unless this can be made out—of which below —the Philonic scheme is clearly let, and as such it is now accepted bv most scholars.
How were the ten words disposed on the two tables? The natural arrangement (which is assumed by Philo and Josephus) v.'ould be five and five. And this, as Philo recognized, is a division appropriate to the sense of the precepts; for antiquity did not look on piety towards parents as a mere .precept of probity, part of one's duty towards one's neighbour. The authority of parents and rulers is viewed in the Old Testament as a delegated divine authority, and the violation of it is akin to blasphemy (comp. Ex. xxi 17, Lev. xx. 9, with Lev. xxiv. 15, 16, and note the formula of treason, 1 Kings xxi 13).
We have thus five precepts of piety on the first table, and five of probity on the second, an arrangement which is accepted by the best recent writers! But the current view of the Western Church since Angustine has been that the precept to honour parents heads the second table. The only argument of weight in favour of this view is that it makes the amount of writing on the two tables less Unequal, while we know that the second table as well as
1 Bo, for example, Augnstine, I. e. Thomu, Sum ma (Prima Secunda>t an. o. art 4), and recently Sonntag and Kurtz. Purely arbitrary is the idea of Lutheran writers (Gerhard, Lot. xiii. § 46) that the ninth commandmsst forbids amatpisuntla actuahs, the tenth one. orijinaUs.
the first was written on both sides (Ex. xxxiL 16). Cut we shall presently see that there may be another way out of this difficulty.
4. Critical questions.—That the decalogue not only contains Mosaic ideas, but is as old as Moses in its form as a system of" ten words," is admitted by critics of almost every school9 But it is much disputed what the original compass of the decalogue was. Did the whole 'text of Exod. xx. 2-17 stand on the tables of stone i The answer to this question must start from the reason annexed to tho fourth commandment, which is different in Deuteronomy. But the express words "and he added no moro," in Deut. v. 22, show that there is no conscious omission by tho Deuteronomic speaker of part of the original decalogue, which cannot therefore have included the reason annexed in Exodus. On the other hand tho reason annexed iu Deuteronomy is rather a parenetic addition than an origiral element dropped in Exodus.. Thus the original fouith commandment was simply "Remember the Kibbalhday to keep it holy."3 When this is granted it must appear not improbable that the elucidations of other commandments may not have stood on the tables. Thus in the second commandment, "Thou shalt not bow down to any visiblo form," (fcc, is a sort of explanatory addition to the precept "Thou shalt not make unto thee a graven image." And so the promise attached to the fifth commandment was probably not on the tables, and the tenth commandment may have simplybeen,"Thou shalt not covet thy neighbours house," which includes all that is expressed in tho following clauses. Snch a view gets over the difficulty arising from the unequal length of the two halves of tho decalogue. The elucidations (unless in the case of the fourth commandment) may very well be as old as Moses (comp. Ewald, Geschichte, ii. 229). It is quite another question whether
! there is any idea in the decalogue which cannot be as old as Moses. It is urged by many critics that Moses cannot have prohibited the worship of Jehovah by images; for tho subsequent history shows ns a descendant of Moses as priest in the idolatrous sanctuary of Dau. There were teraphim in David's house, and the worship of Jehovah under the image of a calf was the state religion of the kingdom of Ephraim. It is argued from these facts that image worship went on unchallenged, and that this would uot have been possible had Moses forbidden it • This argument does not appear to have all the force that Kuenen and others attach to it, for it must be remembered how large a section of Christendom, in times much more advanced than those of the Old Testament, has accepted the decalogue and yet has worshipped images. And on the other side we have the much more cogent arguments that the number of ten words, which no one doubts to be primitive, cannot be naturally made out if the law against images is dropped, and that the existence of this law is necessary to explain the fact that the unquestionably Mosaic sanctuary of the ark, which is Just the sanctuary of the revelation of the ten words, embodies the principle of the worship of Jehovah without images iu a distinct and practical form. It may be added that the prohibition of images of hewn stone, which is the primitive sense of the word " graven-image," can hardly be less ancient than the conception that the stones of an altar were defiled by the touch of the chisel (Exod. xx. 24). And this is a conception which cannot be viewed as a later refinement on Mosaic ideas.
5. The Decalogue of Exodus xxxiv.—in tho book of Exodus the words written on the tables of stone are nowhere expressly identified with the ten commandments of
* Exceptions to this consensus are Vatke (BMische Thtobjie, p. 202) and Kbldeke (Vnlersuchungen, p. 61).
* It is generally assumed that the addition In Excxlus is from the hand that wrote Oen L-U. 4.
cLap. xx. lu xxv. 16 Txxl 18, zzxiL 15, we simply read of " the revelation " inscribed on the tables, and it seems to be assumed that the contents of this revelation most be already known to the reader. The expression "ten words" first occurs in xxxiv. 28, in a passage which relates the restoration of the tables after they had been broken. But these " ten words " are called " the words of the covenant," and so can hardly be different from the words mentioned in the preceding verse as those in accordance wherewith the covenant was Aiade with Israel. And again, the words of verse 27 are necessarily the commandments which immediately precede in verses 12-26. Accordingly many recent critics, following Hi trig,1 who seems to have formed his view without reference to a previous suggestion of Goethe's, have sought to show that Exod. xxxiv. 12-26 contains just ten precepts forming a second decalogue. In point of detail it is disputed whether the narrator of Exod. xxxiv. regards this decalogue as precisely identical with that which stood on the first tables (which seems to follow from xxxiv. 1) or as a modification of the original words (so Ewald). It does not seem possible to deny the connection of verses 27, 28 with one another and with the previous context as the text now stands. Hengstenberg (Beiiriige, ii. 387 f.) and Bertheau (Sieben Gruppen ilosaische.r Gcsetze, p. 97) seek to distinguish the words of verse 28, as written by God himself, from those which, in verse 27, Moses is commanded to write. But no such distinction lies in the text, and it is not probable that the narrator felt any contradiction between God's promise to write the words in verse 1 and the use of human instrumentality as implied in verse 28. On the other hand, the hypothesis of a second decalogue has serious if not insuperable difficulties. The number of ten precepts in Exod xxxiv. is by no means clearly made out, and tie individual precepts are variously assigned by different critics; while the most recent supporter of the theory admits that the original number of ten is now concealed, by additions.9 This supposed decalogue contains no precepts of social morality, but forms a sort of unsystematic abstract of the oldest laws about points of religious observance. If such a system of precepts was ever viewed as the basis of the covenant with Israel, it must belong to a far earlier stage of religious development than that of Exod xx. This is recognized by Wellhausen, who says that our decalogue stands to that of Exod. xxxiv. as Amos stood to his contemporaries, whose whole religion lay in the observance of sacred feasts. But the idea that the ethical teaching of the prophets had no basis in the original document of the Mosaic covenant is so revolutionary that few will venture to accept" Goethe's decalogue" with such inferences. The difficulty is presumably due to the interweaving of several distinct narratives, which perplexes the sequence of many parts of Exodus. It is more probable that xxxiv.- 10-27— a summary of the religious precepts of the Mosaic convenant—originally stood in a different connection than that there ever were two opinions as to what stood on the tables.
6. The Decalogue in Christian Theology.—Following the New Testament, in which the "commandments summed np in the law of love are identified with the precepts of the decalogue (Mark x. 19: Bom. xui 9; ef. Mark xiL 28 J).), the ancient church emphasized the permanent obligation of the ten commandments as a summary of natural in contradistinction to ceremonial precepts, though the observance of the Sabbath was to be taken in a spiritual sense (Augustine, De Spirit* et Litera. xiv.; Jerome. De Celebratione Pascka). The mediaeval theologians followed in the same line, recognizing all the pre
cepts of the decalogue as moral precepts rV lege naturce, though the law of the Sabbath is not of the law of nature, in so far as it prescribes a determinate day of rest (Thomas, Suvima, ITM* II4", qu. c art. 3; Duns, Super Sentential, lib. iii. dist 37). The most important mediaeval exposition of the decalogue is that of Nicolaus de Lyra ; and the 15th century, in which the decalogue acquired special importance in the confessional, was prolific in treatises on the subject (Antoninus of Florence, Gcrson, &c).
Important theological controversies on the decalogue begin with the Reformation. The question between the Lutheran (Augustinian) and Reformed (Philonic) division of the ten commandments was mixed up with controversy as to the legitimacy of sacred images not designed to be worshipped The Beformed theologians took the stricter view. The identity of the decalogue with the eternal law of nature was maintained in both churches, but it was an open question whether the decalogue, as such (that is, as a law given by Moses to the Israelites), is of perpetual obligation. The Socinians, on the other hand, regarded the decalogue as abrogated by the more perfect law of Christ; and this view, especially in the shape that the decalogue is acivil and not amoral law (J. D. Michaeb's), was the current one in the period of rationalism in last century. The distinction of a permanent and a transitory element in the law of the Sabbath is found, nut only in Luther and Melanchthon, but in Calvin and other theologians of the Beformed church. The main controversy which arose on the basis of this distinction was whether the prescription of one day in seven is of permanent obligation. It was admitted that such obligation must be not natural but positive; but it was argued by the stricter Calvinistio divines that the proportion of one in seven is agreeable to nature, based on the order of creation in six days, and in no way specially connected with anything Jewish. Hence it was regarded as a universal positive law of God. But those who maintained the opposite view were not excluded from the number of the orthodox. The laxer conception found a place in the Cocceian school.
. Literature.—Ccfickcn, Ueber die verschiedenen Eintheihingen des Dckalog's unddenEinAussderulbenau/denCultus: Ewald'siftrfory of Israel, vol. ii.; Sciiultz's unci especially Oehler's Old Testament Theology; Oehler's article "Dekalog" hi Herzogs Encyclopadis; commentaries on Exodus, especially that of Knobel iu German, and in English of Kalisch; Kuenen's Godsdienst van Israel, Hfdst. v. Kurtz, GeschicMe des Allen Bundcs, Bd. ii. ; other literature cited by Oebier and by Koehler, Biblische Gesckichlc. i. 287. For guidance in the theological controversies about the Decalogue tho student may consult Walch and Baumgarten. (W. B. S.)
DECAMPS, Alexandre Gabriel (1803-1860), ono of the foremost painters of the modern French school, was born in Paris on the 3d March 1803. He received his artistic training from Abel de Pujol, but set himself free at an early period of his career from academic trammels. He asserted his originality in his choice of subjects as well as in his style of treatment In his youth he travelled in the East, and reproduced Oriental life and scenery with a bold fidelity to nature that made his works the puzzle of conventional critics. His powers, however, soon came to be recognized, and he was ranked along with Delacroix and Tercet as one of the leaders of the French school. At the Paris Exhibition of 1855 he received the grand or council medal. Most of his life was passed in the neighbourhood of Paris. He was passionately fond of animals, especially dogs, and indulged in all kinds of field sports. He died on the 22d August 1860 in consequence of being thrown from a vicious horse while hunting at Fontainebleau. The style of Decamps was characteristically and intensely French It was marked by vivid dramatic conception, by a manipulation bold and rapid, sometimes even to roughness, and especially by original and startling use of
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decided contrasts of colour and of light and shade. His subjects embraced an unusually vide range. He availed himself of his travels in the East in dealing with Bcenes from Bcripture history, which he was probably the first of European painters to represent with their true and natural local background. Of this class were his Joseph sold by his Brethren, Moses, taken from the Nile, and his scenes from the life of Samson, nine vigorous sketches in charcoal and white. Perhaps the most impressive of his historical pictures is his Defeat of the Oimbri, representing with wonderful skill the conflict between a horde of barbarians and a disciplined army. Decamps produced a number of genre pictures, chiefly of scenes from French and Algerine domestic life, the most marked feature of which is humour. The same characteristic attaches to most of his numerous animal paintings. He painted dogs, horses, <fcc, with great fidelity and sympathy; but his favourite subject was monkeys, which he depicted in various studies and sketches with a grotesque humour that could scarcely be surpassed. Probably the best known of all his works is The Monkey Connoisseurs, a clever satire of the jury of the French Academy of Fainting, which had rejected several of his earlier works on account of their divergence from any known standard. The pictures and sketches of Decamps were first made familiar to the English public through the lithographs of Eugene la Roux. See Moreau's Decamps et ton (Euvre (Paris, 1869).
DE CANDOliE, Augustht Pybamus (1778-1841), a celebrated botanist, was born at Geneva, February 4, 1778. He was descended from one of the most ancient families of Provence, and his ancestors had been expatriated for their religion in the middle of the 16th century. His father was a famous printer, and syndic of the university and republic. Though a weakly boy he showed great aptitude for study, and distinguished himself at school by his rapid attainments in classical and general literature, and specially by a faculty for writing elegant verse, which led Florian to anticipate that he might become famous as a poet. He showed remarkable powers of memory, which proved of the greatest service to him in the science to which he ultimately devoted himself. His interest in plants was first roused while he was residing with his mother at a remote country village during the siege of Geneva in 1792. 'He began his scientific studies at the college of Geneva, by attending the courses of Saussure and Yaucher, the latter of whom first inspired him with the determination to make botanical science the chief pursuit of his life. In 1796 he removed to Paris, where he resided with Dolomieu, attended various courses of lectures on natural science, and gained the friendship of Jussieu and Desfontaines. His first productions, Historia Plantarum-Succvlentarum (4 vols., 1799) and Astragalogia (1802), introduced him to the notice of Cuvier (whose chair in the College de France he supplied in 1802), Humboldt, Biot, and Lamarck, who afterwards confided to him the publication of the third edition of the Flore Francaise (1803-15). The introduction to this work contained the first exposition of his principle of classification according to the natural as opposed to the Linnean or artificial method. Having been elected (1804) doctor of medicine by the medical faculty of Paris, he wrote, as an inaugural work, the Essai sur les proprietis medicinales des plantes compurees avec leurs formes exterieures et leur classification naturelle, and soon after, in 1806, his Synopsis plantarum in flora Oallica descriptarum. At the desire of the French Government he spent the summers of the following six years in making a botanical and agricultural survey of the whole kingdom, the results of which he published in 1813. In 1807 he was appointed professor of botany in the medical faculty of the university of Montpellier, and in 1810 he was transferred to the newly founded chair of
botany of the faculty of sciences in the same ■university. He was an admirable lecturer, and the gardens under his charge were much improved during his occupancy of the chair. From Montpellier he removed to Geneva in 1816, having been invited by the now independent republic to fill the newly created chair of natural history. The rest of his life was spent in an attempt to elaborate and complete his "natural" system of botanical classification. The results of his labours in this department are to be found in his Hegni vegetabUis systema naturale, of which two volumes only were completed (1821) when he found that it would be impossible for him to execute the whole work on so extensive a scale. He.accordingly commenced in 1824 a less extensive work in the same direction—his Prodrom-M systemalis regni vegetabUis,—but even of this he was able to finish only seven volumes, or two-thirds of the whole. It was carried on after his death by his son Alphonse, who iu 1834 hod succeeded liim in his professorship. He had been for several years in delicate health when he died on the 9th September 1841 at Turin, whither he had gone to attend a scientific reunion. De Candolle received diplomas or the honour of membership from most of the learned societies of Europe, and was a very frequent contributor to their Transactions. Xiouis Philippe decorated him with the cross of the Legion of Honour. He was highly esteemed in his native city, where he was for a long period rector of the academy and a member of the legislature. For an estimate of his place as a botanist see Botany, vol. iv. p. 80.
See Flonrens's Hloge de Candolle (1842), and Pe la Hive's Candolle, sa Vie el ses Travauz (1851).
DEOAPOLIS, a district of Palestine, or perhaps rather a confederation of districts, situated, with the exception of a small portion, on the eastern side of the Upper Jordan and the Sea of Tiberias. Its boundaries-are not accurately known, and probably were never precisely defined. It evidently takes its name from the fact that it included ten cities (8«a irdXtis), but the ancient geographers do not agree as to which these ten cities were. This difference of statement may be explaiucd by the supposition that, like the Cinque Ports of England, Decapolis preserved its original designation after new members were received into the confederation, and perhaps some of the old members had lost their connection. Pliny recognizes the uncertainty, bnt gives the following list:—Damascus, Philadelphia, Raphana, Scythopolis (on the west side of the Jordan), Gadara, Hippo, Dion, Pella, Galasa (Gerasa), and Canatha. Damascus is the only one that retains its importance; Scythopolis, or Beth-Shean, which seems to have been anciently the next in size, Is represented by the village of Beisan; and Gerasa, Canatha or Kenath, and Pella are of interest only for their ruins. Decapolis was placed by the Romans under the jurisdiction of the Syrian governor, and seems to have enjoyed special privileges. Regarding the rise and decay of the confederation we have no precise information, bui. it was at the height of its prosperity in the time of Christ
DECATUR, a flourkhing city of the United States, capital of Macon county, Dlinois, situated in the midst of a rich agricultural district to the right of the Sangamon river, at a railway junction about 38 miles east of Springfield. It is well built, and has 15 churches and 24 public schools; but none of its edifices are individually remarkabla Among its industrial establishments is a large rolling mill, Population in 1870, 7161.
DECOAN (damhin, the Country of the South), in India, includes, according to Hindu geographers, the whole of the territories situated to the south of the Nerbudda. In its more modern acceptation, however, it is sometimes understood as comprising only thq oormtry lying between that river and the Krishna, the latter having fcr a long period formed the southern boundary of the llahoinetan empire of Delhi Assigning it the more extended-of these limits, it comprehends the whole of the Indian peninsula, and in this view the mountainous system, consisting of the Eastern and Western Ghats, constitutes the most striking feature of the Deccan. These two mountain ranges unite at their northern extremities with the \indhya chain of mountains, and thus is formed a vast triangle supporting at a considerable elevation the expanse of table-land which stretches from Cape Comorin to the valley of the Nerbudda. The surface of this table-land (dopes from west to east as indicated by the direction of the drainage of the country,— the great rivers the Oauvery, Godavery, Krishna, and Pennaur, though deriving their sources from the base of the Western Gbats, all finding their way into the Bay of Bengal through fissures in the Eastern Ghats.
In early times this country embraced that possessed by the five Hindu princes of Telingana, Maharoshta, the Tamul country, Orissa. and Carnata or Bijayanagar. It was first invaded by the Mahometans in 1294, who stormed Deogiri, the capital of Maharoshta, and abandoned the city to pillage. In the year 132S the Mahometans made further progress in its conquest; and having extirpated the Hindu dynasties, they annexed the provinces as far south as the Krishna to the empire of Delhi The imperial sway was, however, of brief duration. Telingana and Carnata speedily reverted to their former masters; and this defection on the part of the Hindu states was followed by a general revolt, resulting in the establishment in 1347 of the independent Mahometan dynasty of Bahmani, and -the consequent withdrawal of the power of Delhi from the territory south of the Nerbudda. In the struggles which ensued, the Hindu kingdom of Telingana fell to the Mussulmans, who at a later period formed a league against the remaining Hindu prince, and at the battle of Talikota in 1565 destroyed the monarchy of Bijayanagar or Carnata. On the dissolution of the Bahmani empire, its dominions were distributed into the five Mahometan states of Golconda, Bijapur, Ahmednagar, Beder, and Berar. Of these the larger succeeded in subverting those of less importance; and in 1630, during the reign of Shah Jahan of Delhi, the greater proportion of the Deccan had been absorbed by the kingdoms of Golconda, Ahmednagar, and Bijapur. During the reign of Anmngzebe (in the latter half of the 17 th century) all those states were reduced, and the Deccan was again annexed to the empire of Delhi. In the subsequent reigns, when the great empire of Aurungzebe fell into decay, the Nizam threw off his alliegiance and fixed his court at Hyderabad. At the same time the Mahrattas, emerging from obscurity, established a powerful monarchy, which was usurped by the Peshwa. The remainder of the imperial possessions in the peninsula were held by chieftains acknowledging the supremacy of one or other of these two potentates. In the sequel, Mysore became the prize of the Mahometan usurper Hyder AIL During the contests for power which ensued about the middle of the last eentury between' the natiw chiefs, the French and the English took opposite sides. After a brief course of triumph, the interests of France declined, and a new empire in India was established by the British. Mysore formed one of their earliest conquests in the. Deccan. Tanjore and the Camatic were shortly after annexed to their dominions. In 1818 the forfeited possessions of the Peshwa added to their extent; and these acquisitions, with others which have more recently fallen to the paramount power by cession, conquest, or failure of heirs, form a continuous territory stretching from the Nerbudda to Cape Comorin. Its length is upwards of 1000 miles, and its
extreme breadth exceeds 800. This vast tract comprehends £he chief provinces now distributed between the presidencies of Madras and Bombay, together with the native states of Hyderabad and Mysore, and those of Kolapur, Sawantwari, Travancore, Cochin, and the petty possessions of France and Portugal.
DECEMBER, the last month of the year. In the Roman calendar, traditionally ascribed to Romulus, the year was divided into ten months, the last of which was called December, or the tenth month, and this name, though etymologically incorrect, was retained for the last or twelfth month of the year as now divided. In the Romulian calendar December had thirty days; Numa reduced the number to twenty-nine; Julius Caesar added two days to this, giving the month its present length. The Saturnalia occurred in December, which is therefore styled "acceptus geniis" by Ovid (Fasti, Hi. 68); and this also explains the phrase of Horace "libertate Decembri utere" (Sat. ii 7). Martial applies to the month the epithet canus (hoary), and Ovid styles it gelidus (frosty) and fumosus (smoky). The Saxons called it ivintcr-mouat, or winter month, and heligh-monat, or holy month, from the fact that Christmas fell within it The 22d December is the date of the winter solstice, when the sun reaches the tropic of Capricorn.
DECEMVIRI (i.e., the ten men), ten magistrates of absolute authority among the B omans. Their appointment, according to Roman tradition, was due to plebeian dissatisfaction with the capricious administration of justice by the patricians, who had no written law to direct thorn. On the representation to the senate of the popular grievances by the tribunes, commissioners were sent to Greece to collect the laws of Solon and of the other celebrated legislators of Greece. On the return of these commissioners it was agreed, after much discussion, that ten new magistrates, called decemviri, should be elected from the senate to draw up a body of laws. Their elecliou involved the abdication of all other magistrates; they were invested with supreme power, and presided over the city with regal authority. They were, eaeh in turn, clothed with the badges of the consulship, and the one so distinguished had the power of assembling the senate and confirming its decrees. The first decemvirs were chosen in the year 302 A.tj.c. (451 B.c.) They arranged the laws by which their government was to be regulated in ten divisions, submitted them to the senate and comitia for their approbation, and, after the code was recognized as constitutional, administered it wild so much moderation and efficiency that the continuance-of the deceniviral office for another year was unanimously voted. The second body of decemvirs included, one member of the first—Appius Claudius—and, according to Niebuhr, five plebeians. The new magistrates added to tho laws which had already beed enacted, and thus completed the celebrated leges duodecim tubularum, on which ail Roman law, in future ages, was founded. Their administration, however, was as unpopular as that of their predecessors had been the reverse; and, by its partiality and injustice, which reached a climax in tho flagitious pursuit of Virginia by Appius Claudius, it so roused the popular fury that the abolition of the office was effected. But, as Sir G. Comewall Lewis has shown in. his work on the Credibility of Early Roman History, it is difficult to write with scientific accuracy about this episode in Roman history. There • were other magistrates in Borne, called decemvirs, in regard to whose appointment and jurisdiction information is scanty. Scholars differ concerning the date of their institution, and the special functions of their office. There is evidence, however, that such a court existed during the empire ; bnt it is uncertain whether the jurisdiction of the later coincided