« EelmineJätka »
with that of the earlier magistrates bearing the same name, mercial offices, and the trouble that would thereiy be and connected by some scholars, not only with the republic, caused in comparing values expressed in the old coinage but with the kings. There were also the Decemviri with those of the new. Among its advantages may be Sacrorum, who were custodians of the Sibylline books. reckoned the fact that, during the transition to the new Their number, which originally consisted of two, and after- state of things, the old coins would still be serviceable, for wards of ten, at last reached fifteen. It devolved on these any sum of money expressed in the new coinage could be functionaries not only to guard the Sibylline books, and to paid by means of them. The alterations on small imposts, consult them on all emergencies of state, but also to take requisite under the first scheme, would bere be’unnecessary ; a prominent part in the celebration of the games of Apollo. and inconvenience would be saved to those classes of the
DECIMAL COINAGE. It has often been proposed to population who receive weekly wages; which are generally substitute for our quarto-duodecimo vicesimal system of fixed at so many pence per hour. The reduction of suns reckoning money one entirely decimal, and therefore in expressed in the old coinage to their equivalents in the new harmony with the system, employed in all civilized coun-would, however, be slightly more difficult than under the tries, of reckoning numbers both integral and fractional In first system. the case of numbers, there is no difficulty in regard to the A third scheme proposes as the unit the half-sovereign, standard by which to reckon ; it is unity, and all integral a coin almost as familiar as the sovereign, with the view of numbers are either so many units, tens of units, hundreds having only three instead of four coins of account. The of units, &c., or combinations of these, and all fractional half-sovereign would be divided into 10 shillings as at numbers either so many tenths of a unit, hundredths of a present, and the shilling into 10 pence, each of which would unit, &c., or combinations of these. In the caso of money, therefore be equivalent to 1 d., or 20 per cent. more than however, the selection of the standard of value, or the unit the present penny. As a penny is of more value than the by which to reckon, coustitutes the main, if not the sole, metal of which it is made, the present copper coinage could theoretical difficulty to be overcome, previous to the intro- be made to serve under the new system. This scheme, ductivu of a decimal coinage. Practical difficulties would from its alteration of the value of the penny, is open arise from the unwillingness of people to make the changes to most of the objections that can be brought against in thinking and speaking that would be necessitated by new the first; and, in comparing accounts expressed in the coins, or the altered values of old ones.
old and the new coinages, it would necessitate—a very Of all the schemes proposed in England, that which slight inconvenience certainly—multiplication or division advocates the retention of the sovereign, or pound sterling, by 2. as the unit of value seems to have met with most favour. A fourth scheme proposes that the penny be made the According to this scheme, the pound would be divided into unit of value, and that all accounts should be kept in 10 forins, the florin into 10 cents, and the cent into 10 mils. tenpences and pence. All the present coins, though only The name forin, as well as the coin, is in use already; the one of them would be a coin of account, could still remain names cent and mil would mark the relation of the corres in circulation ; and only two new coins would be required, ponding coins to the pound. The cent, being the tooth the tenpence and its half, fivepence. part of the pound, would represent 2 d., or nearly 2 d.; It has also been proposed that there should be only two the mil, being the tooth part, would be worth a little less coins of account, the higher equivalent to 100 of the lower, than a farthing, which is the pioth. The coins which it such as florins and cents, the cent in this scheme being the would be found necessary to issue would probably be in mil of the first. Centesimal coinage similar to this exists copper, the mil = d., the 2-mil piece = id., rather less in several foreign countries, &c.; but it is probable that, than a halfpenny, and the 5-mil piece=ijd., rather less should a change be made, the practice of other nations than a penny farthing; in silver, the cent=2 d., the 2-cent will be imitated only where it is found to conduce to piece = 4 d., the 5-cent piece, or shilling, and the 10-cent national convenience. piece, or florin; in gold, the half-sovereign, and the The preceding are the most important of the schemes sovereign. In addition to the preceding, perhaps a double that have been suggested to replace the present system, and florin = 4s., in silver, and a crown = 58., in gold, might be the adoption of the first of them has been recommended by found convenient.
a committee of the House of Commons. But since 1855 The chief disadvantage of this system is that it would public opinion on the question does not appear to have abolish the copper farthing, halfpenny, and penny, and the advanced much. The arguments for and against a change silver coins representing 3d., 4d., 6d. Since 6d. = 25 mils are numerous, and to detail thein would be to fill a is the lowest number of pence which could be paid exactly moderate volume. The principal reason for making the in mils, inconvenience would thus be caused to the poorer change is that calculation would be enurmuusly simplified, classes, whose unit of value may be said to be the penny; for reduction from one denominatiou of money into another and difficulties would also arise in cases ere fixed imposts could always be performed at sight; and the compound of a penny and a half penny are levied, such as penny and rules, as far as money is concerned, would be virtually halfpenny tolls, postages, &c.
abolished. The greatest objections to the change, apart A second scheme advocates the adoption of the farthing from the difficulty of getting people to make it, which is as the unit of value, and its coins of account would be the doubtless much exaggerated, are that a decimal system does farthing, the cent or doit = 10 farthings, the florin = 10 not admit to a sufficient extent of binary subdivision, and cents or doits, the pound = 10 floring. The coins required that it does not admit of ternary subdivision at all. The for circulation would probably be-in copper, the farthing, third part, for instance, of a pound, of a florin, of a cent, the halfpenny, the penny; in silver, the cent or doit = 21d., being 333}, 331, 3} mils respectively, could not be exactly the 2-cent piece or groat = 5d., the shilling = 124d., and paid in decimal currency, while there is no difficulty in the florin = 25d. ; in gold, the half-sovereign = 10s. 5d., and paying the third part of a pound, or of a shilling by our the sovereign = 20s. 10d. Here also a silver double florin present coinage. Again, the 1, 1, $ of the pound, the }, 4s. 2d., and a gold crown = 58. 21d., might be found con- 1 of the florin, and the of the cent are the only binary venient.
subdivisions possible with the decimal coins of account; The chief disadvantages of this system would be the the }, }, }, to, and of the pound, and the 1, 1, $ of the Abolition of the present pound sterling, the unit of value in shilling are possible at present. Notwithstanding these national finance, in banks, insurance and all great com- drawbacks, the advantages of a decimal system seem con
siderably tò preponderate, and the introduction of it to be By most of the modern writers on international law merely a question of time.
these principles are regarded as a distinct gain to the cause The coinage of the United States, which was made of civilization, international justice, commerce, and peace. decimal in 1786, consists of the eagle = 10 dollars, the But a feeble and ineffectual attempt has been inada to dollar = 10 dimes, the dime = 10 cents, but of these de- repudiate these new rules of maritime law, though they Dominations dollars and cents are the only ones conimonly received the tacit assent of Parliament, and have been ased. In France, shortly after the great Dievolution, a acted upon by all nations in the six wars which have decimal system not only of money, but also of weights and occurred since 1856, including the American civil war, measures, was introduced. The standard of value is the although the United States had not concurred in the franc = 100 centimes; but though the only coins are francs, Declaration. The American Government withheld its centimes, and multiples of these, the word sou, a term assent, not because it objected to these principles, bu', belonging to the superseded coinage, is often used to denote because it held that they did not go far enough, and the 20th part of the franc, or 5 centimes. The Belgian that they ought to be extended to secure from capture and the Swiss monetary systems were assimilated to that all private property at sea. It is argued by the opponents of France in 1833 and 1851; and in 1865 France, Italy, of the Declaration that the British envoy at Paris excceded Belgium, and Switzerland, became parties to a treaty for his powers ; that the form of the instrument itself is the maintenance of a common system. Germany, within declaratory, but not binding either as a contract or a legisthe last few years, has effected a reform of her currency, lative act; that it is not competent to a congress to change the mark, which corresponds closely to our shilling, being the rights of belligerents founded on ancient law and
= 10 groschen = 100 pfennige. A decimal coinage exists usage ; and that Great Britain committed a fatal error in also in Russia, where the ruble=100 kopecks; in Holland, renouncing the right to seize enemy's goods in neutral ships where the guilder = 10 dubbeltjes = 100 cents; and in and to equip privateers. Portugal, where the milrei = 1000 reis.
To these arguments it is said in reply that the British See Observations on the Expediency and Practicability of Simpli. en voy at Paris had full powers to pledge the faith of the fying and Improving the Measures, Weights, and Money, &c., by Crow, with the concurrence of the Cabinet, and that if General Sir Charles Pasley, 8vo, 1834; the Report of the Select Committee on a Decimal System of Coinage, August 1853; and, the
Parliament disapproved his conduct, it ought to have been pablications of the “Decimal Association."
(J. S. M.)
pressed to a division at the time, and not when Great DECIUS MUS. See Mus.
Britain has enjoyed the benefit of the Deciaration, as a DECLARATION in an action at law was the first step
neutral, for twenty years. It is a part of the prerogative in pleading—the formal statement of the matter in respect
of the Crown to fix our international relations, and to of which the defendant sued. It was divided into counts,
determine the conditions of maritime warfare. The most in each of which a specific cause of action was alleged, but
fitting and binding expression of international law (which the language used was cautious and general, and the same
cannot assume the form of positive law by sovereign enactmatter might be the subject of several counts. By the
ment) is to be found in instruments recording in solemn simpler form of pleading established by the Judicature Act,
form the consent of ali civilized nations. On the ground 1873, the declaration is replaced by a statement of claim
of expediency, it is contended by the supporters of the Betting forth the simple facts on which the plaintiff replies.
Declaration of Paris, that Great Britain is, of all countries Statutory declaration.—By 5 and 6 Will. IV. c. 62/10 thi
in the world, that which has most to gain by it, because she (which was an Act to make provisions for the abolition of
is not only the greatest raval power, but the power wbich unnecessary oaths, and to repeal a previous Act of the
has the largest number of merchant vessels and the largest same session on the same subject) various cases are specified
amount of property afloat on the seas, and liable to attack. in which a declaration shall be substituted for an affidavit
The primary advantage of the Declaration no doubt on oath. Tliere is a general clause empowering any justice
accrues to neutrals, as it secures to them a larger carrying of the peace, notary public, or other officer now by law
trade in time of war, and exempts them from the seizure of authorized to administer an oath, to take and receive the
enemy's goods in neutral ships. Hence, if a belligerent declaration of any person voluntarily making the same
were now to violate the rules of the Declaration, he would before him in the form in the schedule to the Act annexéd;
have to encounter the opposition of all neutral states, and and if any declaration so made shall be false or untruo in
would speedily find them arrayed on the side of the enemy. any material particular, the person wilfully making such false
But in the event of war, Great Britain is the state most declaration shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanour.
exposed, by reasun of the magnitude of her maritime trade, DECLARATION OF PARIS, a diplomatic instrument
ant to the depredations of hostile cruisers; the injury done is ir protocol signed by the representatives of all the powers
to be measured by the amount of the shipping and property present at the Congress of Paris in 1856, and subsequently
exposed to it; and a single cruiser of a small state may secepted as a binding engagement of public law by all the
cause enormous losses to the commerce of a great power, as other powers (except the United States of America, Spain,
was seen in the American civil war. Since the establishsud Mexico), for the purpose of settling and defining
ment of a general system of railroads, the greater part of eartain rules of maritime law, in time of war, on points of
the trade of all the states of continental Europe Cun bə grest moment to belligerent and neutral states—points, it
carried on by land, either by direct communication or must be added, upon which the ancient law of nations had through neutral ports. The power of a naval state to gradually undergone some change, and on which great
inflict serious injury on an enemy by the interruption of differences of opinion and practice prevailed. The four
her trade is therefore by the nature of things greatly propositions agreed to by the plenipotentiaries were
diminished, and the same remark applies to commercial embodied in the following terms :
blockades. To England all foreign commodities must 1. Privateering is and remains abolished.
be brought by sea, and England is more dependent than 2 The neutral flag covers enemy's goods, with the exception of
any other country on foreign trade for the raw material contraband of war.
of her manufactures, and even for the food of her inhabi8. Neutral goods, with the exception of contraband of war, are tants. It is therefore the paramount interest of England not liable to capture under an enemy's flag.
to keep open all the channels of trade, as much as possible, 4 Blockades, in order to be binding, must be effective,--that is to wy, maintained by a force sufficient readily to prevent access to the
both in peace and war; and injuries done to the trade of want the enemy.
I an encmy are often equally prejudicial to the state which,
inflicts them. These are some of the leading arguments which were first excited by a piece of machinery, in the which have been advanced in defence of the Declaration Irene of Aristophanes, he exhibited to the university, reof Paris, and which no doubt actuated the authors of it. presenting the scarabæus flying up to Jupiter, with a man
A full account of the controversy will be found in the third and, basket of victuals on its back. On leaving England volume of Sir Robert Phillimore's Commentaries on International he went first to the university of Louvain, where he resided Law, where the learned author supports and advocates the old traditions of the Court of Admiralty, and also in Hall's Rights and
about two years, and then to the college of Rheims, where Duties of Neutrals (1874). The principles on which the Declara
he read lectures on Euclid's Elements with great applause. tion of Paris is based are explained and defended in an article in On his return to England in 1551 King Edward assigned the Edinburgh Review, No. 296.
(H. R.) him a pension of 100 crowns, which he afterwards DECLARATOR, in Scotch law, is a form of action by exchanged for the rectory of Upton-upon-Severn. Soon which some right of property, or of servitude, or of status, after the accession of Mary, he was accused of using enor some inferior right or interest, is sought to be judicially chantments agninst the queen’s life; but after a tedious declared (see Bell's Dictionary and Digest of the Law of confinement, he obtained his liberty in 1555, by an order Scotland.)
of council. DECREE, DECREET, the judgment of a court of
When Elizabeth ascended the throne, Dee was asked by justice, and, in English law, more particularly the judg- Lord Dudley to name a propitious day for the coronation. ment of a court of cquity. A decree nisi is the conditional On this occasion he was introduced to the queen, who took order for a dissolution of marriage made by the court for lessons in the mystical interpretation of his writings, and divorce and matrimonial causes, which will be made made him great promises, which, however, were never fulabsolute after six months, in the absence of sufficiert cause filled. In 1564 he again visited the Continent, in order to shown to the contrary.
present a book which he had dedicated to the Emperor DECRETALS, in canon law, are the answers sent þy Maximilian. He returned to England in the same year; the Pope to applications made to him as head of the church, but in 1571 we find him in Loriaine, whither two physicians chiefly by bishops, but also by synods, and even private were sent by the queen to his relief in a dangerous illness. individuals, for guidance in cases involving points of doc- Having once more returned to his native country, he settled trine or discipline. In the early days of the church these at Mortlake, in Surrey, where he continued his studies with rep:ies care to be circulated throughout the various unremitting ardour, and made a collection of curious books dioceses, and furnished precedents to be observed in and manuscripts, and a variety of instruments, most of analogous circumstances. From the 4th century onwards which were destroyed by the mob during his absence, on they formed the most prolific source of canon law. Decre- account of his supposed familiarity with the devil. In tals (decreta constituta decretalia, epistolæ decretales, or 1578 Deo was sent abroad to consult with German shortly decretalia, or decretales) ought
, properly speaking, physicians and astrologers in regard to the illness of the to be distinguished, on the one hand from constitutions queen. On his return to England, he was employed in (constitutiones pontificiæ), or general laws enacted by the investigating the title of the Crown to the countries Pope sua sponte without reference to any particular case, recently discovered by British subjects, and in furnishing ard on the other hand from rescripts (rescripta), which geographical descriptions. Two large rolls containing the apply only to special circumstances or individuals, and desired information, which he presented to the queen, are constitute no general precedeut. But this nomenclature is still preserved in the Cottonian Library. A learned treatise not strictly observed.
on the reformation of the calendar, written by him about For futher information see art. Canon Lak, in which will also the same time, is still preserved in the Ashmolean Library be found an account of the Pseudo-Isidorian or False Decretals. at Oxford.
DECURIO, an officer in the Roman cavalry, com From this period the philosophical researches of Dee manding a decuria, which was a body consisting of ten men. were concerned entirely with the pseudo-science of There were certain provincial magistrates called decuriones necromancy. In 1581 he became acquainted with Edward municipales, who had the same position and powers in free Kelly, an apothecary who professed to have discovered the and corporate towns as the senate had in Rome. As the philosopher's stone, and by whose assistance he performed name implies, they consisted at first of ten, but in later various incantations, and maintained a frequent imaginary times the number was often as many as a hundred; their intercourse with spirits. Shortly after, Kelly and Dee duty was to watch over the interests of their fellow-citizens, were introduced to a Polish nobleman, Albert Laski, and to increase the revenues of the commonwealth. Their palatine of Siradia (Sieradz), devoted to the same pursuits, court was called curia decuriorum, and minor senatus ; and who persuaded the two friends to accompany him to his their decrees, called decreta decurionum, were marked with native country. They embarked for Holland in September D. D. at the top. They generally styled themselves 1583, and arrived at Laski's place of residence in civitatum patres curiales, and honorati municipiorum sena- February following. They lived for some years in Poland tores. They were elected with the same ceremonies as
and Bohemia in alternate wealth and poverty, according the Roman senators, and they required to be at least twenty to the credulity or scepticisin of those before whom they five years of age, and to be possessed of a certain fixed exhibited. They professed to raise spirits by incantation. income. The election took place on the kalends of March. Kelly dictated their utterances to Dee, who wrote them
DEE, JOHN (1527–1608), a mathematician and astrolo- down and interpreted them. ger, was born in July 1527, in London, where his father Dee, having at length quarrelled with his companion, was a wealthy vintner. In 1542 he was sent to St John's quitted Bohemia and returned to England, where he was College, Cambridge. After five years' close application to
mate chancellor of St Paul's Cathedral in 1594, and warden mathematical studies, particularly astronomy, he went to
of Manchester College in 1595. He afterwards returned Holland, in order to visit several eminent Continental to his house at Mortlake, where he died in 1608, at the mathematicians. Having remained abroad nearly a year, age of eighty.one. he returned to Cambridge, and was elected a fellow of His principal works are—Propædewmata Aphoristica, Lond. 1558; Trinity College, then first erected by King Henry VIII.
Monas Hieroglyphica, Antwerp, 1564 ; Epistola ad Fredericuin In 1548 he took the degree of master of arts; but in the
Commandinum, Pesaro, 1570 ; Preface Mathematical to the English
Euclid, 1570 ; Divers Annotations and Inventions added after the same year he found it necessary to leave England on tenth book of English Euclid, 1570 ; Epistola præfixa Ephemr. account of the suspicions entertained of his being a conjuror, Tridibus Joannis Feldi, a 1557; Parallatica Lomanenuntioris Braxeos
auke Nucleus quichun, Lublin, 1573. The catalogne of his printed | system and published works is to be found in luis Compendious Rehearsal, 1 observed
seems detrimental to their growth. 28 Wils 23 well as in his letter to Archbishop Whitgift, to which the
in a caso quoted by Darwin, where the rearler is referred. A inaunscript of Dee's relating what passed fur antlers of a Wapiti deer, formed during a voyage food muy years between biin anıl some spirits, was edited by Neric Cas. | America, were singularly stunted, although the sand aubon and published in 1659. The Privute Dinry of Dr John Dee, ) individual afterwards, wheu ijyung iinder nornial cundiand the Catalogue of his Library of Manuscripis, edited by J. O. Halliwell, was published by the Caniden Society in 1842.
tions, produced perfect lorus, Spots are common to the
young of so many species of deer that their presence may DEED is a contract in writing, sealed and delivered by fairly be regarded as a family character. These spots the party bound to the party benefited. Contracts or persist through life in such forins as the Axis, or Spotted obligations under seal are called in English law speciulties, Deer (Axis maculutu), but in the majority of species they and down to a recent date they took precedeuce in pay altogether disappear in the adult form. Darwin considers ment over simple contracts, whether written or not. that in all such cases the old have had their colour Writing, sealing, and delivery are all essential to a deed. changed in the course of time, while the young have The signature of the party charged is not material, and the remained but little altered, and this he holds has been deed is not void for want of a date. Delivery, it is held, effected “ through the principle of inheritance at corremay be complete without the actual handing over of the sponding ages." The lachrymal sinus, or “ tearpit," is deed; it is sufficient if the act of sealing were accompanied present in most species of deer. This consists of a cavity by words or acts signifying that the deed was intended to beneath each eye, capable of being opened at pleasure, in be presently binding; and delivery to a third person for which a waxy substance of a disagreeable odour is secreted, the use of the party benefited will be sufficient. Ou the the purpose of which is not yet clearly ascertained. “ The other hand, the deed inay be handed over to a third person big round tears” which the contemplative Jacques watched, as an escrow (écrit), in which case it will not take effect as as they a deed until certain conditions are perfornied. Such ccn
“ Conrsed one another down his innocent noso ditional delivery inay be inferred from the circumstances
In piteous clase,” attending the transaction, although the conditiuns be not is Shakespeare's interpretation of the appearance presented expressed in words. A deed indented, or indenture (80 | by the motion of the glistening edyes of the tearpits in the called because written in counterparts on the same sheet of stag. The deer family comprises 8 genera and 52 species, parchment, separated by cutting a wavy line between distributed over all the great regions of the earth except thein), is between two or more parties who contract the Ethiopian, and living under the most diverse climatic mutually. The actual indentation is not now necessary to conditious. Their total absence from Africa south of the an indenture. A deed-poll (without indentation) is a deed Sahara may be due, as A. R. Wallace (Geographical Distriin which one party binds himself without reference to any bution of Animals) contends, to the presence in the past, as corresponding obligations undertaken by another party. now, of a great belt of dry and desert country effectually See COXTRACT.
preventing the immigration from Europe iuto Africa of DEER (Cervilce), a family of Ruminant Artiodactyle such a forest-frequenting group as the deer, while favourMaminals, distinguished by the possession of deciduous | ing the introduction of antelopes, which attain their branching horns or antlers, and by the presence of spots on greatest development in that region. They are also absent the young. The antlers are borne by the frontal bone, and from Australia, although present in the Austro-Malayan generally begiu to appear towards the end of spring. At region. The following are some of the more remarkable that season there is a marked determination of blood to the species. head, the vessels surrounding the frontal eminences become! The Red Deer or Stag (Cervus elaphus), the largest of temporarily enlarged, and the budding horn grows with the British deer, is a native of the temperatu regions of marvellous rapidity, the antlers of a full-grown stag being | Europe and Northern Asia, inhabiting dense forests, or freproduced in ten weeks. At first the horns aro soft, 1 quenting moors and barren hill-sides as in Scotland. In vascular, and higbly sensitive, and are covered with a | England, where in feudal times it was protected by forest delicate hairy integument known as the “velvet,” amply laws, which set greater value on the life of a stag than on provided with blood vessels. On attaining their fuil that of a mau, it was formerly abundant in all the royal growth the “burr," consisting of a ring of osseous tubercles forests. It is now almost extinct in that country, as.well at the base of the horn, is formed, and this by pressing | as in Ireland, in the wild state. In Scotland considerable upon, gradually cuts off the blood-vessels which supply herds are still to be found in the Highlands, and in several nutriment to the antlers. The velvety covering then / of the Western Isles, although, owing probably to the begins to shrivel and to peel off, its disappearance being diminished extent of their feeding grounds, to the breeding hastened by the deer rubbing its antlers against trees and in and in which takes place, and to the anxiety of deer. rocks; wbile the grooves, which are seen to furrow the now stalkers to secure the finest heads, the species is believed exposed surface, mark the place of the former blood-vessels. to be degenerating. The finest specimens in this country With the single exception of the reiodeer, antlers are con- I are found in the deer forests of Sutherlandshire, but these fined to the male sex, and are fully developed at the com- are inferior in size to those still obtained in the east of mencement of the rutting season, when they are brought Europe. The antlers of the Stag are rounded, at into use as offeusive weapons in the sanguinary fights three“ tines," or branches, and a crown consisting of three or between the males for possession of the females. When more points. The points increase in number with the age the season of love is over they are shed, reappearing, how of the creature, and when 12 are present it is known in Scotever, in the following spring, and continuing to grow larger land as a “royal stag.” This number, however, is sometimes and heavier until the deer attains its full growth. Whether exceeded, as in the case of a pair of antlers, weighing 74 lb, the deer inhabiting the warıner regions of tbe earth shed | from a stag killed in Transylvania, which had 45 points. their antlers every year has been a matter of considerable The antlers during the second year consist of a simple undispute, but in a recent work (Highlands of Central India) branched stem, to which a tine or branch is added in each sucForsyth states that he has convinced himself, from repeated ceeding year, until the normal development is attained, after observations, that in Indian deer this operation does not which their growth is somewhat irregular. The Red Deer is take place annually. In castrated animals the antlers gregarious, the females and calves herding together apart either cease to appear or are merely rudimentary, while from the males except at the rutting season, which begins eny influence whatever which disturbs the general , about the end of September end lasts for three weeks. Dur.
ing this time the males yo in search of the females, and are was until recently supposed to be monogamous, pairing in exceediugly fierce and dangerous. The period of gestation December, and the period of gestation only extending over extends a few days beyond eight months, and the hind five months. This supposition arose from the fact that the Usually produces a single calf. The stag is remarkably | fætus in the doe was never found till January, and that shy and wary, and its sense of smell is exceedingly acute. then it was but slightly developed, although the sexes were In former times it was huuted with horse, hound, and known to seek the society of each other in July and horn, and such is still the practice in Devonshire and in August. From the investigations of Professor Bischoff of Ireland, but in Scotland the old method has been Giessen it appears that the true rutting season of the Roe superseded by “stalking.” A full grown stag stands about | Deer is in July and August ; but that the ovum lies 4 feet high at the shoulders; its fur in summer is of a dormant until December, when it begins to develop in the reddish brown colour with a yellowish-white patch on the normal way; the period of gestation is thus extended to buttocks, in winter the fur is much thicker and of a nearly nine months. It was formerly abundant in all the grayish brown.
wooded parts of Great Britain, but was gradually driven The Wapiti Deer (Cervus canadensis) inay be regarded as out, until in Pennant's time it did not occur south of the representative of the stag in North America. It stands, Perthshire. Since then the increase of plantations has led however, a foot biglier, and bears correspondingly heavier to its partial restoration in the south of Scotland and north antlers. It occurs chiefly in Canada, where it feeds on of England. It takes readily to the water, and has been grass and the young shoots of the willow and poplar. It known to swim across lochs more than half a mile in has gained the reputation of being the most stupid of the breadth. cervine fapıily, but this may have partly arisen from the The Elk or Moose Deer (Alces malchis) is the largest of peculiar noise it makes, corresponding to the “belling" of living Cervidæ, its shoulders being higher than those of the the stag, but in its case resembling very much the braying horse. Its head measures 2 feet in length, and its antlers, of an ass.
Its filesh is coarse, and is held in little estimation which are broadly palmated, often weigh from 50 to 60 by the Indians, owing to the excessive hardness of the fat. Id; the neck is consequently short and stout. It is covered It thrives well in Britain, and would probably have been with a thick coarse fur of a brownish colour, longest on the introduced had its venisou been better.
neck and throat. Its legs are long, and it is thus unable The Fallow Deer (Dama vulyaris), a species semi- to feed close to the ground for which reason it browses on domesticated in Britain, where it forms a principal the tops of low plants, the leaves of trees, and the tender ornament in parks, still occurs wild in Westeru Asia, North shouts of the willow and birch. Its antlers attain their Africa, and Sardinia, and in prehistoric times appears to full length by the fifth year, but in after years they increase have abounded throughout Northern and Central Europe. in breadth and in the number of bravches, until fourteen It stands 3 feet high at the shoulders, and its antlers, of these are produced. Although spending a large part of which are cylindrical at the base, become palmated towards their lives in forests they do not appear to suffer much inthe extreinity, the palmation showing itself in the third convenience from the great expanse of their antlers. In year, and the antlers reaching their full growth in the making their way among trees, the horns are carried sixth. The fur is of a yellowish-brown colour (whence the horizontally to prevent entanglement with the branches,
fallow"), marked with white spots; there is, how. and so skilful is the elk tbat « he will not break or touch ever, a uniforinly brown variety found in Britain, and said a dead twig when walking quietly." His usual pace, to have been brought by James I. froin Norway on account according to Lloyd (Field Sports), is a shambling trot; but of its bardiness. The two varieties are said by Darwin to when frightened he goes at a tremendous gallop. The elk have been long kept together in the Forest of Dean, but | is a shy and timorous creature, fleeing at the sight of man. have never been known to mingle. The bucks and does This timidity, however, forsakes the male at the rutting live apart except during the pairing season, and the doe season, and he will then attack whatever animal comes in produces one or two, and sometimes three fawus at a birth. his way. The antlers and hoofs are his principal weapons, They are exceedingly fond of music, and a herd of twenty and with a single blow from the latter he has been known bucks were, it is said, brought from Yorkshire to Hanıpton to kill a wolf. In North America the moose is tormented Court, led by music from a bagpipe and violin. They feed in the hot season by mosquitoes, and it is when rendered on herbage, and are particularly foud of horse chestnuts, furious by the attacks of those insects that it can be most which the niales endeavour to procure liy striking at the readily approached. The female seldom gives birth to branches with their antlers.
diore than two fawus, and with these she retires into the The Roe Deer (Capreolus capra) is the smallest of the deepest recesses of the forest, the young remaining with British Cervidæ, a full-grown buck standing not more tbau | her lill their third year. The elk ranges over the whole 26 inches high at the shoulders. The antlers are short of Northern Europe and Asia, as far south as East Prussia, upright, and deeply furrowed, and differ from those of tbe the Caucasus, and North China, and over North America preceding species in the absence of a basal “ tine." The from the New England States westward to British horns, in this, as well as in the other members of the deer Columbia. It was formerly common in the forests of family, aro largely employed in the manufacture of Landles Germany and Frauce, and is still found in some parts of for cutlery, and the parings from these were formerly used Swedeu and Norway, where it is strictly protected. The in the preparation of aminouia, hence the name bartoloru elk, accurding to Lloyd, is easily domesticated, and was at still applied to that substauce. The Roe Deer iubabits one time employed in Sweden in drawing sledges. During southern aur temperate Europe as far east as Syria, where winter it is frequently seen alone, but in summer and it ffequents woods, preferring such as have a large growth i autunu it niay be met with in small herds. In summer of underwood, and are in the 'neighboarhood of culti- also it frequents morasses and low grounds, and takes vated ground. This it visits in the evening in search of readily to the water; in winter it retires to the shelter of food ; and where roes are vunerous, the damage dout to the forests, where alone it can find suitable sustenance. Its growing cropis is considerable. In going to and from the flesh is considered excellent, and its tongue and nose are feeding grounds they invariably follow the same track and regarded as delicacies. the sport-inan takes advantage of this habit to wasla; The Reindeer (Tarandus rangifer), the only domesticated then.lu buuting the roe the woods are driven by species of deer, has a range somewhat similar to the all, beaters, and they are shot down, as they speed along the extending over the entire boreal region of both hemispheres, accustomed paths, by the ambushed hunter. The species , from Greeuland and Spitzbergen in the north to New