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and they becomo the rods or prisms of the enameL As the hardening takes place from the periphery to the centre of each cell, the axial portion may, as Tomes pointed out, remain soft for some time in the axis of the enamel rod. With the increase in length, and with the calcification of tho cells of the enamel epithelium, the stellate gelatinous cells disappear, and the outer ends of tho enamel rods come in contact with the cells of the external enamel epithelium. By some observers the external epithelium is supposed to disappear without undergoing any special differentiation, but by others it is believed to undergo conversion into Nasmytli's membrane.

In this manner the crown of a tooth is formed, and it is lodged in a membranous sac formed by the differentiation into a fibrovaacular membrane of the surrounding connective tissue. Whilst within its sac, the crown of the tooth possesses the characteristic form of the group of teeth to which it belongs. After the calcificalion of the enamel rods is completed, it can undergo no further change either in shape or in increase of size.

Whilst the crown of the tooth is being formed, ossification of the jaws has been goiug on, and the tooth, with ita membranous sac, has become lodged in an alveolus or socket in the jaw, which alveolus is closed in by the gum.

In order that the crown of the tooth may come into use as a masticatory organ, it has to be elevated to the level of the gum, which is absorbed by the pressure, aud tho crown then erupts into the cavity of the inouth. The process of eruption is due to the development of the fang, which, as it grows in length, elevates the crown of the tooth and forces it outward. The dentine of the fang is developed from the odontoblast cells of the pulp in a manner similar to that already described for the development of the dentine of tho crown. The cement or crusta petrosa is developed from the connective tissue lining the alveolus, which firms the alveole-dental periosteum. It is therefore on ossification in membrane.

As the temporary or milk teeth precede the permanent teeth, their papilla) are naturally the first to form. The series of milkpapilla are not, however, simultaneously produced. From the observations of Goodsir, it has been shown that the milk-papilla of the anterior molar in the upper jaw appears about the seventh week; then the canine papilla, the two incisor papillae, and the posterior molar papilla are succssively formed, the last making ita appearance about the end of the tenth week. The dental papilla in the upper jaw immediately precede the papilla? of the corresponding teeth in the lower jaw.

The eruption of the milk teeth into the mouth does not begin to take place until the latter half of the first year of extra-utenne life, and is not completed until betweeen the second and third year. Though variations occur in the date of eruption of each tooth in different children, it may be stated that the incisors usually appear from the seventh to the ninth month, the anterior molars from the twelth to the sixteenth month, the canines during the seventeenth or eighteenth month, the posterior milk molars from two to *-wo and a half years. The milk teeth begin to be shed about the

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Pro. M.—One-half the lower Jaw of atortai shoot the II th or 12th week, showing the dental papilla* In the order of their appearance. ], the first milk molar: 1 the canine; I and 4, the two Incisors; 6, the second mil* molar.—from Qoodslr.

Fio. 23 — Posterior part of the lower Jaw of a child at hlrth. ft, the crown and sac of the posterior milk molar; 6, the crown and sac of the first permanent molar; b, the earlty In connection with which the papilla of the second permanent molar ultimately forma, y. shows a temporary and permanent incisor from the same fcetoav—From Goodsir.

Tomes, by the agency of a group of cells situated at the bottom of the sockets. As these cells occasion absorption of the tooth tissue, similar to that occurring in the bone tissue from tho action of the large multi-nucleated osteo-klast cells, they may appropriately be called odonto-klasts.

The development of tho permanent teeth will now be considered. In the description of the arrangement of the teeth it has been pointed oat that the number of teeth in the permanent set exceeds that of the temporary set. The permanent incisors and canines come into the place of the temporary incisors and canines, and the permanent bicuspids succeed the temporary molars, but the permanent molars have no milk predecessors, and are superadded at the back of the dental series.

The development of the successional permanent teeth, which are the ten anterior teeth in each jaw, will first be examined. Trior to the period when the lips of the primitive dental groove meet, to produce the saccular stage of dentition of the several temporary teeth, an indentation, or furrow, takes place in the connective tissue adjoining the string of epithelial cells which form the neck of the enamel organ. This furrow constitutes what Goodsir termed the cahnty of reserve, and it is filled up by epithelial cells continuous with the epithelium of the neck of the enamel organ. As a cavity of reserve is formed immediately behind (i.e., on the lingual side of) each milk tooth, they are ten in number in each jaw, aud, except that for the anterior molar, are formed successively from before backwards.

The cavities of reserve are concerned in the production of the permanent successional teeth, and each temporary tooth is replaced by the permanent tooth formed in connection with the cavity of reserve situated immediately behind it (fig 21). The cavities of reserve become elongated, and widened, and pass above the temporary teeth in the upper jaw, and below those in the lower jaw. At the bottom of each a dental papilla forms, the apex of which indentates and becomes covered by the epithelium contained in the cavity, which forms a cap for the papilla, and constitutes the enamel organ for the permanent tooth. The cavity becomes completely closed by the grow th of the surrounding connective tissue, and the embry* jwrmanent tooth becomes sacculated. The process of calcification then goes on, in both the enamel Organ and dental papilla, in a manner similar to that already described in the temporary teeth. The permanent teeth then become lodged in sockets in the jaw distinct from those of the temporary teeth. The sac of each permanent tooth remains connected with the fibrous tissue of the gum by a slei fibrous band, or gubemacv.lum, which passes through a hole in jaw immediately behind the corresponding milk tooth. Before the successional permanent tooth erupts, not only should the temporary tooth be shed, but the bony partition between their respective sockets must be absorbed.

The superadded permanent teeth, or permanent molars, three in number on each side, lie behind tho successional teeth. Their mode of origin is similar to that of the temporary teeth. The primitive groove, occupied by an involution of the epithelial covering of the gum, is prolonged backwards. Three dental papilla successively appear at the bottom of this groove, and the epithelium covering each papilla forms its enamel organ. Legros and Magitot, however, state that the second permanent molar arises in connection with a diverticulum (cavity of reserve) proceeding from the epithelial string of the enamel organ of the first permanent molar, and that the wisdom tooth is formed in connection with a similar diverticulum from the second permanent molar. The embryo tooth becomes sacculated, and goes through the process of calcification similar to what has been described in the other teeth

the

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Fig. si.—A. Che lower Jew ol a child between four sod five rears old. 5, the last mi'k molar, with the incisional btcneptd tooth In the cavity of reeerre Immediately below It; • and 7, the first and second permanent molars In their atca; *, the eerily tn conneotloa with which the wisdom tooth Is formed. B, the lower jaw of a child about six years old; 6 snd7, the first and second permanent molars; 8, the papilla of the wisdom tooth deToloped to connection with its cavity ft.—From Goudatr

liret molar is the first o. the permanent teeth to erupt into the mouth, which it usually does In the sixth year. The incisors appear when the child is seven or eight; the bicuspids when it it nine or ten; the canines about twelve ; the second molars about thirteen ; and the wisdom teeth from seventeen to twentjr fire.

In his dentition man is diphyodont as regards his incisor, canine, and premolar teeth, but monophyodont in the molar series.

From the description of the development of the teeth, it will hare been seen that a tooth is made up of three hard tissues—enamel, dentine, and. cement—and of the soft vascular and nervous pulp. These tissues are not developed from one layer only of the blastoderm. The enamel is of epiblast origin, whilst the dentine, cement, and pulp are derived from the mesoblast A tooth in its fundamental develo] ncnt, as was long ago pointed out by Goodsir, must be referred to the same class of organs as the hairs and feathers. The enamel of the tooth, like the hair, is produced by a differentiation of the involuted epithelium of the epiblast whilst the dentine and pulp resemble the papilla of the hair, in proceeding from the mesoblast. The tooth-sac, like the hair-follicle, is also of mesoblaat origin. Whether the cement, as Robin and Magitot hare described, be dereloped by means of a special cement organ, in the interior of the tooth-sac, or be formed, aa has been stated in this description, by the alveolo-dental periosteum, it is on either view derived from the mesoblast. Aa to the origin of Nasmy th's membrane, there is a difference of opinion ; some regard it aa a special comification of the external cells of the enamel organ, in which case it would be from the epiblast; whilst others consider it to be continuous with though structurally different trim, the cement—homologous, therefore, with the layer of cement, which in the horse, ruminants, and some other mammals covers the surface of the crowns of (he teeth.

The tissues of a tooth hare not all the aame importance in the structure of a tooth. The dentine is apparently always present, bat the enamel, or the enamel and cement, mar be absent in the teeth of some animals.' For example, the tusks of the elephant and narwhal, and the teeth of the Edentata, are without enamel, and in the Rodentia enamel is present on only the anterior surface of the incisors. But though the enamel is not dereloped, or forms only an imperfect covering for the crowns of these teeth, vet an enamel organ is formed in the embryo jaws. In 1872 W. Turner described a structure homologous with the enamel organ in relation with each of the dental papules in the lower jaw of a fatal narwhal; but this organ did not exhibit a differentiation into the three epithelial layers, such as occurs in those teeth in which enamel is developed. Since then C. S. Tomes has seen an enamel organ in the embryo armadillo, and has also pointed out that, in teeth generally, enamel organs exist, quite irrespective of whether enamel subsequently does or does not form.

But further, the involution of the oral epithelium, and the coincident formation of a primitive groove, take place not only where the teeth subsequently arise, but along the whole curvature of the future jaws; whilst the production of dental papilla is restricted to the snots where the teeth ore formed! Hence it would seem tiiat the inflection of the oral epithelium is not so essential to the development of a tooth as the formation of a papilla. The inflected epithelium marks only a preliminary stage, and it may or may not be transformed into tooth structure. But that which is essential to the formation of a tooth is the production of the papilla v.Uich ■ at the bottom of the primitive groove. (W. T.)

DIGITALIS, or Foxglotb, a genus of biennial and perennial plants of the natural order Scrophulariacea. The common'or purple foxglove, D. purpurea, is common in dry hilly pastures and rocky places and by toad sides in various parts of Europe; it ranges in Great Britain from

Cornwall and Kent tu Orkney, but. it does not occur in Shetland or in some of the eastern counties of England. It nourishes best in siliceous soils, and is not fonnd in thi Jura and Swiss Aips. The characters of the plant are as follows :—stem erect, roundish, downy, leafy below, and from 18 inches to 6 feet or more in height; leaves alternate, crenate, rugoso, ovate or elliptic-oblong,-and ol a dull green, with the under surface downy and paler than the upper; radical leaves together with their petioles often » foot in length; root of numerous, slender, whitish fibres; flowers 1J-2J- inches long, pendulous, on one side of the stem, purplish crimson, and hairy and marked with eye-like spots within; segments of calyx ovate, acute, cleft to the base; corolla obtuse, with the upper lobe entire or obscurely divided; stamens four and didynamous (see vol. iv. p. 138, fig. 226); anthers yellow and bilobed; capsule bivalvcd, ovate, and pointed; and seeds numerous, small, oblong, pitted, and of a pale brown. As Parkinson remarks of the plant, " It flowreth seldome before July, and the seed is ripe in August;" but it may occasionally be found in blossom as late as September. In one variety, common in gardens, the flowers are white; in another their purple is of a coppery or metallic hue; and not unfrequently in cultivated plants several of the uppermost blossoms may be united together so as to form a cup-shaped compound flower, through the centre of which the upper part of the stem passes. A figure of D. purpurea will be found in vol iv. plate xi Many species of foxglove with variouslycoloured flowers have been introduced into Britain from the Continent Tbe plants may be propagated by off-sets from the roots, but are best raised from seed.

The foxglove (Ang.-Sax, foxet-dife, foxet-glofa) is known by a great variety of popular names in Britain. In the south of Scotland it is called bloody fingers; further north, dead-men's-bells; and on the eastern borders, ladies? thimbles, wild mercury, and Scotch mercury. Among its Welsh synonyms are menyg-ellyllon (elves' gloves), menyg y llwynog (fox's gloves), bytedd cochion (red fingers), and bytedd y cua (dog's fingers). In France its designations are gantt de noire dame, and doigtt de la Vierge. The German name fingerhvi, (thimble) suggested to Fuchs, in 1642, the employment of the Latin adjective digitalis as a designation for the plant

The leaves, gathered from wild plants whan about twothirds of their flowers are expanded, deprived usually of the petiole and the thicker part of the midrib, and dried, constitute the drug digitalis or digitalis folia of the pharmacopoeia. The prepared leaves have a faint odour and bitter taste; to preserve their properties they must be kept excluded from light in stoppered bottles. They are occasionally adulterated with the leaves of Inula Conyta, Ploughman's Spikenard, which may be distinguished by their greater roughness, their less divided margins, and their odour when rubbed; also with the leaves of Symphytum officinale, Comfrey,- and of Verbatcum Thaptut, Great Mullein, which unlike those of the foxglove have woolly upper and under surfaces. The powder, infusion, and tincture of digitalis are employed both externally and internally; and its active principle, digital in, may further 'be used for subcutaneous injection. Digitalin, according to Nativelle, is a crystallizable, neutral, inodorous, bitter substance, of the formula CpH^Oj., insoluble in water and ether, but soluble in alcoholand chloroform. The earliest known descriptions of the foxglove are those given by Fuchs and Tragus about the middle of the 16th century, but its virtues were doubtless known to herbalists at a much remoter period. Gerarde, in his Herbal (1697), advocates the use of foxglove for a variety of complaints; and John Parkinson, in the. Tkeatrum Bolanicum, or Theater of Plants (I'iiO). tells us that - -

"TheItalianshave an usuall prorerba with them concerning this herb, called by them Araiaa, which is AraXda tuttt yiaqhc Hilda:

Arabia salvcth all sores It hath been found by late ox

poriencetabeaTailcablefortheKing's Evill. . . . also to be effcctuall against the Falling Sickncssc, that divers have been cured thereby."

Later, Salmon, in The New London Dispensatory, praises the remedy foxglove in no measured terms.

Digitalis was first brought prominently under the notice of the medical profession by Dr W. Withering, who, in his Account of the Foxglove (1785), gave details of upwards of 200 cases, chiefly dropsical, in which it was used. Having become acquainted with the drug in 1775 as an ingredient in a Shropshire family receipt for the cure of dropsy, he began to administer it as a diuretic, but at first in doses too large; for, "misled by reasoning from the effect of the squills, which generally acts best upon the kidneys when it excites nausea," he sought to produce the same effect by foxglove. Further experience, however, convinced him "that its diuretic effects do not at all depend upon its exciting nausea or vomiting ;" and that often the urinary discharge may be checked when the dose is imprudently urged so as to occasion sickness. He moreover observed that in cases where the drug produced purging it was inefficacious unless combined with small doses of opium, so as to restrain its* actios off the bowels. 'Withering seldom found it to succeed in men of great natural strength, tense fibre, warm skin, and florid complexion, or in those with a tight and cordy pulse. He recommended digitalis "in every species of dropsy, except' the encysted;" and he was of opinion that it might be made subservient to the cure of diseases unconnected with dropsy, and that its wer over the motion of the heart, to a degree unobserved him in any other medicine, might be turned to good account by tho physician.

The experiments of Marcet and Brunton show that the infusion of digitalis hasa poisonous effect on various plants, and, even in very small quantity, kills fishes,—their auricles after death being found distended, their ventricles strongly contracted. On birds the effect of the infusion is to cause firm contraction of the left ventricle, and consequent excessive congestion of the lungs. A large turkey, according to M. Salome (Mist, at VAcademic. 1748, p. 120, 12ino, and p. 84, 4to ed.), walked as if intoxicated, in consequence of partaking once of foxglove leaves. Another turkey, weighing 7 lb, ate during 4 days about half a handful of the leaves, after which it refused nourishment, and in a couple of weeks died, its weight being reduced to 3 lb. Handfield Jones and Fuller have proved that the infusion produces upon the hearts of frogs and mammals effects similar to those observed in birds. The usual results of small and repeated doses of digitalis are contraction of the capillaries, and augmented arterial blood.pressure, with slower and more powerful cardiac systole, and an increase in the urinary secretions; large or long-continued doses, besides causing nausea or vomiting, often accompanied by purging, occasion a slow or irregular pulse, dilatation of the capillaries, decrease in the rate of respiration, cold sweats, disordered vision, chilliness of the extremities, giddiness, and great weakness, followed by convulsions and insensibility. Syncope is apt to occur on sudden changes of posture by patients fully under the influence of the drug. Its cumulative action, or unexpected production of alarmingly acute symptoms, may arise either from an increase in the dose, the elimination of the drag being constant, or from a check in the elimination, the dose remaining unaltered, hence the caution with which digitalis should be administered in cases where the renal functions are disturbed. The experiments of various physiologists have shown that digitalis, by stimulating the sympathetic ganglia of the heart, causes the contraction of [its musculo-motor fibres, this effect being at first masked by a similar action on the pneumogastric nerves. By effecting more complete emptying of the ventricles in cases of cardiac disturbance, digitalis improves the circulation, bringing about in the lungs a more thorough oxidation of the blood. The consequent increased nutrition of the heart is promotive of hyper* trophy in that organ; small doses of digitalis are therefore an assistance in hypertrophy following upon cardiac injury. In cases of dilatation of the heart, on the 'other hand, large doses are required. The continued use of the drug when the heart has become sufficiently hypertrophied may render ventricular action excessive. Digitalis calms excitement of the heart not by acting as a narcotic or sedative but by stimulating its nerves, and enabling it to contract without laboured effort. In feeble con

ditions of the circulation it acts diuretically by increasing arterial tension, but its influence as a diuretic is not constant. lt» efficacy in epilepsy appears to be limited by its action on the circulation. In enteric fever, erysipelas, and acute rheumatism, it has been employed to reduce temperature. Its use as a sedative in pneumonia, delirium tremens, and some other diseases has been objected to on the ground that it cuts off the irritating blood supply only by an extreme degree of ventricular coutractfe-n. In arachnitis in children, in inflammation tending towards serous effusion, in dropsy, hemorrhage, cerebral anxmia, and occasionally in angina pectoris and nervous palpitation, it is a valuable remedy. Upon the uterus digitalis acts by stimulating the ganglia in which its motor power resides (W. Howship Dickenson, in Med. Chir. Trans, vol. mir Lond. 1856). In poisoning by digitalis, aconits and probably also Calabar bean may be resorted to.

A. L. J. Bsyle, Bibtiolrteerut dt Tnerapevticrut, torn. 111. pp. 1-372; Chrlsttson. A Trtatitt on Poitoiu, p. 886. 4th cd. ISM; Sir H. Holland, ifedieat .Votei and Hejteetiont, chap. xxlx. 3d ed., 1S5S; Trousseau et Pldoux Trniti dt Thera~ peutiova, vol. IL p. 744, 1862; T. L. Brunton, On Digitalis 1868; J. llllner Fotliere.UI. t/tgitatii, itt Mode of Action, and its Utc, 1871; Pcrcirn, Materia Uediea. 1871; Gtrrod. Valeria Uediea, 1814; O. W. Balfour, Clinical Lecture, us iu Diseases of the Heart and Aorta, pp. 117 and 304, U TC. IF. IL BJ

DIGNE, the chief town of the department of BassesAlpes, in France, about 70 miles north-east of Marseilles, in 44° 5' 32" N. lat and 6° 14' 6" E. long. It is built on a spur of the mountains juttiug out into a gorge traversed by the Bleonne, which in winter is a formidable torrent, but in summer is almost dry; and the neighbourhood is rich in orchards, which have long made the town famous in France for its preserved fruits and confections. The streets are narrow and tortuous, with the exception of the Boulevard Gassendi, at the upper end of which is a public garden, with a statue of the philosopher, who was born in the neighbouring village of Chantercier. The cathedral within the town is a building of very hybrid architecture, and is of less importance than the cathedral of Netre Dame, in the vicinity, which dates from the 12th century, and is numbered among tho historic monuments of France. The thermal springs ure not in much repute, and the bathing establishment is in a state of decay. Digne is identified with Dinia, the capital of the Avantici and Bodiontici. It early became an ecclesiastical see, and its bishops acquired the secular rank of barons of Lauzieres. Iu tho 16th century it suffered on four separate occasions from the Huguenot soldiery; and iu modern history it is known as tho place from which Napoleon issued his proclamation of March 1815. Population in 1872, 5300 in the town and 6877 in the commune.

DIJON (Divio, Dibio, or Divionense Castrum), the chief town of the department of C6te-d'Or in France, and formerly capital of the province of Burgundy, is situated at the foot of Mount Affrique, in a fertile plain, on the Burgundy canal, and at the confluence of the Ouche and Suzon, in 47* T9' 19" N. lat., and 5" 2' 5" E long. The streets are broad and well built of freestone, and there aro fifteen squares; an abundant supply of water is obtained from the valo of Suzon by means of a subterranean aqueduct nearly eight miles in length. Among the more noteworthy of the public edifices are the cathedral of St Benigne, in the Gothic style of tho 13th ccutury, with a spire erected in 1742; the church of Notre Dame built in 1331-1445, containing a group in stone, the Assumption of the Virgin, by Dubois, and a statue of the Black Virgin, celebrated in the Middle Ages; tho church of St Michel, of the 16th century; the general hospital, founded by Otho III. in li'06; the castle, commenced in 1478 by Louis XI., and finished in 1512 by Louis XLL, once a state prison, in which the duchess of Maine, MLrabeau, the Chevalier d'Eon, and Toussaiut Lonverture were confined, and since then a barrack for gendarmes; and the old palace of the dukes of Burgundy, or hotel de ville, rebuilt between the end of tho 17th and the end of the 18th century, in which aro an art collection, the archives, a museum of natural 'history, a school of arts, and the smile des gnrdes, containing the

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eommerce, and has faculties of law, science, iand literature. The ramparts that formerly surrounded tin town have been replaced by broad avenues. The principal industries are the manufacture of hosiery, woollen and cotton cloth, Paris lace, leather, candles, earthenware, mustard, confections, vinegar, and chemicals; iron and type-founding, printing and binding, brewing, saltpetre-refining, and nursery-gardening. Dijon does an important trade in cereals, and is the chief emporium for Burgundy wines. The population of the commune in 1872 was 42.C73; that of the town, 40,116.

Dijon was a fortified camp of the Tomans, and alnmt 274 was enlarged by Aurelian, In 731 it was taken and burnt by tho Saracens. Council* wore hold there in 1077, 1110. and 1109 or 1*200. Early in tho 12th century the town was almost entirely destroyed by fire, hot it was soon rebuilt. Till 1107 it was held by the counts of Dijon, and from 1179 to the death of Charles the Bold in 1477 it was the residence of the dukes of Burgundy ; it then earoe into tho possession of Ixmis 7.1.. who established there the BnrgundiaTi H rarlement." In 1513 Dijon was besieged by 20,000 Swiss, with whom a humiliating treaty was concluded. On October 81, 1870, tho town capitulated to General Werder; it was evacuated by the Germans on the 27th of December, and early in January 1571 became the head-quarters of the French eastern army under Bonrhaki. On the 1st of tho following February it was re""-sl by the Germans. Dijon is the birthplace of Bossuct, l Cazotte, the elder Crebillon, Daubenton, Jouffroy, Long. Bcruanl do la llonnoie, Guyton de ilorvcan, Piron, ltamcau, jmaise.

DILAPIDATIONS, in Eoglish law, is the name given th» waste committed by the incumbent of an ecclesiIrving. By the general law a tenant for life has no

power to cut down timber, destroy buildings, <tc. (voluuiary waste), or to let buildings fall into disrepair (permissive wa>te). In the eye of the law an incumbent is a tenant for life of his benefice, and any waste, voluntary or permissive, on his part must be made good by his administrators to his successor in office. The principles on which such dilapidations are to be ascertained, and the application of the money payable in respect thereof, depend partly on old ecclesiastical law and partly on recent Acts of Parliament Questions as to dilapidations usually arise in respect of the residence house and other buildings belonging to the living. Inclosures, hedges, ditches, and the like are included in things "of which the beneficed person hath the burden and charge of reparation." In a leading case (Boss ft \ Adcock, 37 Law Journal, CP. 290) it was said that tho court was acquainted with no precedent or decision extending the liability of the executors of a deceased incumbent to any species of waste beyond dilapidation of the houso, chancel, or other buildings or fences of the benefice. And it has been held that the mere mismanagement or miscultivation of the ecclesiastical lands will not give rise to an action for dilapidations. To place the law relating to dilapidations on a more satisfactory footing, the Act 34 and 35 Vict. c. 43 was passed. The buildings to which the Act applies are defined to be such houses of residence, chancels, walls, fences, and other buildings and things as the incumbent of the benefice is by law and custom bound to maintain in repair. In each diocese a surveyor is to be appointed by the archdeacons and rural deans subject to tho approval of the bishop; and such surveyor shall by tho direction of the bishop examine the buildings on the following occasions—via., 1, when the benefice is sequestrated; 2, when it is vacant; 3, at the request of the incumbent ot on complaint by the archdeacon, rural dean, or patron. The surveyor is to specify the works required, and to give an estimate of their probable cost. In the case of a vacant benefice, the new incumbent and the old incumbent or his representatives may lodge objections to the surveyor's report ou any grounds of fact or law, and the bishop, after consideration, may make an order for the repairs and their cost, for which the late incumbent or his representatives are liable. The sum so stated shall be a debt due from the late incumbent or his representatives to the new incumbent, who 6hall pay over the money when recovered to the governors of Queen Anne's Bounty. The governors pay for the works on execution on receipt of a certificate from the surveyor; and the surveyor, when the works have been completed to his satisfaction, shall give a certificate to that effect, the effect of which, so far as regards tho incumbent, will be to protect him from liability for dilapidations for the next five years. Unnecessary buildings belonging ton residence house may, by the authority of the bishop and with the consent of the patron, be removed. An amending statute (35 and 36 Vict. c. 96) relates chiefly to advances by the governors of Queen Anne's Bounty for the purposes of the Act.

DILIGENCE, in law, is the care which a person is bound to exercise in his relations with others. The possible degrees of diligence are of course numerous, and the samo degree is not required in all cases. Thus a mere depositary would not be held bound to the same degree of diligence as a person borrowing an article for his own use and benefit. Jurists, following the divisions of the civil law, have concurred in fixing three approximate standards of diligence—viz.,, ordinary, less than ordinary, and more than ordinary. Ordinary or common diligence is defined by Story (On Bailments) as " that degree of diligence which men in general exert in respect of their own concerns." So Sir IVilliam Jones:—" This care, which every person of commou prudence and capable of governing a family takes of h:s own concerns, is a proper measure of that which would uniformly be required in performing every contract, if there were not strong reasons for exacting in some of them a greater and permitting in others a less degree of attention" {Essay on Bailments). The highest degree of diligence would be that which only very prudent persons bestow on their own concerns; the lowest, that which even careless persons bestow on their own concerns. The want of these various degrees of diligence is negligence in corresponding degrees. These approximations indicate roughly the greater or less severity with which the law will judge the performance of different classes of contracts; but English judges have been inclined to repudiate the distinction as a useless refinement of the jurists. Thus Baron Rolfe could see no difference between negligence and gross negligence; it was the same thing with the addition of a vituperative epithet. See Negligence.

Diligence, in Scots law, is a general term for the process by which persons, lands, or effects are attached on execution, or in security for debt

DILKE, Snt Chabuss Wextwobth (1810-1869), Baronet, born in London, February 18, 1810, was the only son of Charles Wentworth Dilke, proprietor and editor of the Alhenceum, and was educated at Westminster school and Trinity Hall, Cambridge. He studied law, and in 1831 took his degree of LLB.; but he did not enter upon the practice of his profession. He assisted his father in his literary work, and afterwards gave up much of his time to several of the learned societies. He was for some years chairman of the council of the Society cf Arts, and took a prominent part in the affairs of the Royal Horticultural Society. He was one of the most zealous promoters of. the Great Exhibition (1851), and a member of the executive committee. At the close of the exhibition he was honoured by foreign sovereigns, and the Queen offered him knighthood, which, however, he did not accept; he also declined a large remuneration offered by the royal commission. In 1853 Dilke was one of the English cornmi jsioners at the New York Industrial Exhibition, and prepared a. report on it. Ho again declined to receive any money reward for his services. He was appointed one of the five royal commissioners for the Great Exhibition of 1862; and soon after the death of the Prince Consort he was created baronet by the Queen. In 1865 he entered parliament as member for Wallingford. In 18.69 he was sent to .Russia as representative of England at the Horticultural Exhibition held at St Petersburg. His health, however, had been for some time failing, and he died suddenly in that city, May 10, 1869. He was a fellow of the Society of Antiquaries, and a member of other learned bodies.

DILL (Anethum), a genu3 of umbelliferous plants having decompound leaves; umbels without involucre; yellow flowers, with calices incomplete above; and lenticular fruit, compressed from back to front, flattened at the margin, and presenting on each side three ridges. The common Bpecies, A. graveolens, is indigenous to the south of Europe, Egypt, and the Cape of Good Hope. It resembles fennel in appearance. Its root is long and fusiform; the stem is round, jointed, and about a yard high; the leaves have fragrant folioles; and the fruits are brown, oval, and concavo-convex. The plant flowers from June till August in England. The seeds are sown, preferably as soon as ripe, either broadcast or in drills between 6 and 12 inches asunder. The young plants should be thinned when three or four weeks old, so as to be at distances of about 10 inches. A sheltered spot and dry soil are needed for the production of the seed in the climate of England. The leaves of the dill are used in soups and sauces, and. as well as the umbe'". for flavouring pickles.

The seeds are employed for the preparation of dill-water and oil of dill (valued for their carminative properties), are largely consumed in the manufacture of gin, and, when ground, are eaten as a condiment in the East. See Botan Y, voL iv. p. 123.

DILLEN [Dnj.ENTCs'], Johaxn Jakob (1687-1747), a distinguished botanist, Was born at Darmstadt He was educated at the university of Giessen, where he received his doctor's diploma, but he early turned his attention from medicine to the study of plants. Whilst at Giessen he wrote several botanical papers for the Ephemerides Natures Curiosorum, and in 1719 he printed there his Catalogus Plantarum sponte circa Gissam nascentium, a little octavo volume illustrated with figures drawn and engraved by his own hand, and containing descriptions of many new genera. In the pieface he discusses the classifications of Rivinus, Tournefort, Knaut, and Ray, the last of which was that adopted by him. In 1718 Dillon became acquainted in Germany with the botanist William Sherard, who invited him to come to England. ■ Soon after his arrival there, in 1721, he took up his abode at Oxford, where Sherard resided. In 1724 he published an enlarged edition of Ray's Synopsis Stirpium Britannicarum. In accordance with the will of Sherard, who died in 1728, Dillen was appointed professor of botany at Oxford. He published in 1732, in two volumes folio, with 324 plates executed by himself, the Hortus Elthamensit, of which Linnaeus wrote—" Est opus botanicum quo absolutius mundus non vidit"- That naturalist spent a month with Dillen at Oxford in 1736, and afterwards dedicated to him his Critics' Botanica. In 1741 appeared the Historia Mttscorum of Dillen, to whom and his contemporary Micheli (1679-1731) cryptogamic botany owes its origin. He died April 2, 1747, in his sixtieth year. A print from his picture at Oxford is to be seen in Sim and Konig's Annals of Botany, vol. ii. His books and collection of mosses, with many drawings, were bought by his successor at Oxford, Dr Humphrey Sibthorp, and added to- the Sherardian Museum.

DILLINGEN, a town of Bavaria, in the circle of Schwaben-Neuburg, on the left bank of the Danube, 24 miles north-west of Augsburg. Its principal structures are the royal palace, formerly the residence of the bishops of Augsburg, the royal gymnasium and Latin school, with a library of 75,000 volumes, five churches, two episcopal seminaries, a Capuchin monastery, a Franciscan nunnery, and a deaf and dumb asylum. The university, founded in 1549, was abolished in 1804, being converted into a lyceum. The inhabitants, who in 1876 numbered 5029, are engaged in cattle-rearing, the cultivation of corn, hops, and fruit, ship-building and the shipping trade, and the manufacture of cloth, paper, and cutlery. Dillingen was taken by the Swedes in 1632 and 1648>by the Austrians in 1702, and on the 18th July 1800 by the French.

DIMENSIONS. In geometry a line is said to be of one dimension, a surface of two, and a solid of three dimensions. The use of the word is extended to algebraical terms, which are said to be of n dimensions with respect to any quantity when that quantity enters to the nth power.

11 the term contains several variables, x, y, s, 4c, and if the sum of the indices of these variables is n, the term is said to be of n dimensions with respect to ihs system of variables x, y, t.

If all the terms of an equation are of n dimensions with respect to the system, of variables *, y, t, the equation is said to be homogeneous of n dimension's with respect to that system of variables.

The equation mayor may not be homogeneous with respect to another system of variables which occur in it, as p, q, r.

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