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Brunswick in the south. There are several well-marked | upper jaw of the male being longest. It is a native of the varieties differing greatly in size, and in the form the highlands of Central Asia from the Himalayas to Peking, antlers—the largest forms occurring furthest north ; while being found at an elevation of 8000 feet, and in its habit by many writers the American reindeer, wbich has never resembling such mountain species as the chamois. It is been domesticated, is regarded as a distinct species. The exceedingly shy and difficult of approach, and is hunted antlers, which are loug and branching, and considerably solely for its musk—an unctuous brown secretion, possespalmated, are present in both sexes, although in the female sing a most penetrating and enduring odour, extremely they are more slender and less branched than in the males. disagreeable when present in large quantities, but forming In the latter they appear at a much earlier age than in any a pleasant perfume when used sparingly. The substance other species of deer, and Darwin conjectures that in is contained in a bag, almost the size of a hen's egg, this circumstance a key to their exceptional appearance in situated on the abdomen, and secreted in greatest quantity the female may be found. The reindeer has long been duriug the rutting season. The hunters cut off the bag, and domesticated in Scandinavia, ånd is of indispensable import close the opening, and after drying, it is ready for sale. ance to the Lapland race, to whom it serves at once as a Fossil Deer.- Remains of many extinct species of deer substitute for the horse, cow, sheep, and goat. As a beast belonging to existing genera have been found in Postof burden it is capable of drawing a weight of 300 Db, while Pliocene and other recent deposits; while the remains of its fleetness and endurance are still more remarkable. extinct genera occur in both hemispheres, but do not Harnessed to a sledge it will travel without difficulty 100 extend further back than the Upper Miocene. The deer miles a day over the frozen snow, its broad and deeply family, so far as yet discovered, is thus of comparatively cleft hoofs being admirably adapted for travelling over such recent origin, and is probably, as Mr Wallace suggests, a surface. During summer the Lapland reindeer feeds an Old World group, which during the Miocene period chiefly on the young shoots of the willow and birch ; and passed to North America and subsequently to the southern as at this season migration to the coast seems necessary to continent. The best preserved species of fossil deer is the the well-being of the species, the Laplander, with his family gigantic Irish Elk (Cervus megaceros). It is not a true elk, and herds, sojourns for several months in the neighbourhood but is intermediate between the fallow deer and reindeer, of the sea. Ir winter its food consists chiefly of the and is found in great abundance and perfection in the lake reindeer moss and other lichens, which it makes use of its deposits of Ireland. It occurs also in the Isle of Man, in hoofs in seeking for beneath the snow. The wild reindeer Scotland, and in some of the English caverns. The antlers grows to a much greater size than the tame breed, but in of a specimen of this species in Dublin weigh about 80 t), Northern Europe the former are being gradually reduced and their span is twice that of the living elk. It appean through the natives entrapping and domesticating them. to have been contemporaneous with the extinct mammoth The tame breed found in Northern Asia is much larger and rhinoceros, but it is still doubtful whether it co-existed than the Lapland form, and is there used to ride on. There with man. In Kert's Hole, near Torquay, the base of an are two distinct varieties of the American reindeer—the antler, partly gnawed, was found ; and this, according to Barren Ground Caribou, and the Woodland Caribou. The Owen, probably belonged to the most gigantic of our former, which is the larger and more widely distributed of English cervine animals.

(J. GI.) the two, frequents in summer the shores of the Arctic Sea, DEFAMATION, saying or writing something of another, retiring to the woods in autumn to feed on the tree and calculated to injure kis reputation or expose him to public other lichens. The latter occupies a very limited tract hatred, contempt, and ridicule. See LIBEL and SLANDER. of woodland country, , and, unlike the Barren Ground DEFENDER OF THE FAITH (Fidei Defensor), a form, migrates southward in spring. The American rein- peculiar title belonging to the sovereign of England, in deers travel in great herds, and being both unsuspirious the same way that Catholicus belongs to the king of Spain, and curious they fall ready victims to the bow and arrow and Christianissimus to the king of France. Although or the cunning snare of the Indian, to whom their carcases certain charters have been appealed to in proof of an earlier form the chief source of food, clothing, tents, and tools. use of the title, it appears to have been first conferred by Remains of the reindeer are found in caves and other Post Leo. X. on Henry VIII. in 1521 for writing against Luther, Pliocene deposits as far south as the south of France, this It was afterwards confirmed by Clement VII. When boreal species having been enabled to spread over Southern Henry suppressed the religious houses at the time of the Europe, owing to the access of cold during the glacial period. Reformation, the Pope not only deprived him of this desigIt appears to have continued to exist in Scotland down nation, but also deposed him; in the thirty-fifth year of even to the 12th century.

his reign, however, the title of “ Defender of the Faith " The Muntjac (Cervulus vaginalis) has its two pronged was confirmed by Parliament, and has continued to be used horns placed on permanent bony pedestals 3 inches in by all his successors on the English throne. length, and the male is further furnished with long canines DEFFAND, MARIA DE VICHY-CHAMROND, MARQUISE in the upper jaw. It is a native of Java, where it may DU (1697-1780), a celebrated leader in the fashionable occasionally be seen in the inclosures of Europeans, but, literary society of Paris during the greater part of the 18th according to Dr Horsfield, it is impatient of confinement, century, was born in Burgundy of a noble family in 1697. and not fit for the same degree of domestication as the Educated at a convent in Paris, she there displayed, along stag. Its flesh forms excellent venison. There are four with great intelligence, the sceptical and cynical tum of species of muntjacs inhabiting the forest districts from mind which so well suited the part she was afterwards to India to China, and southward to Java and the Philippine Ell in the philosophical circles of Paris. Her parents, Lslands.

alarmed at the freedom of her views, arranged that Massillon The Musk Deer (Moschus moschiferus) differs from the should visit and reason with her, but this seems to have true deer in the absence of horns, and in the presence of had little effect. They married her at twenty-one years of the musk-bag, and is now usually regarded as the type of age to the Marquis du Deffand without consulting her a distinct family-Moschide. The young, however, are inclination. The union proved an unhappy one, and spotted as in the Cervidoe, and it is doubtful whether tho resulted in a speedy separation. Madame du Deffand, differences a'ready mentioned are sufficient to warrant its young and beautiful, did not, according to the common separation from the other deer. Canine teeth are present belief, succeed in keeping herself uncontaminated by the in the upper and lower jaws of both sexes, those in the labounding vice of the age, and it is said that she was foi

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a time the mistiess of the regent. She was afterwards | Crapegounorum (A satire on the clergy) and A Treatise reconciled to her husband, but it proved impossible for againtst the Turks, are attributed to him before the accession them to live together, and a second and final separation of James II., but there seems to be no publication of his took place. Without heart and without. enthusiasm, which is certainly genuine before The Character of Dr Madame du Deffand was incapable of any strong attach Annesley, the family minister, published in 1697. He bad, ment, but her intelligence, her cynicism, and her esprit however, before this (if we may trust tradition) played an made her the centre of attraction to a circle which included active part in public affairs. He had taken up arms in nearly all the famous philosophers and literary men in Monmouth's expedition, and is supposed to have owed his Paris, besides not a few distinguished visitors from abroad. | lucky escape from the clutches of the kiuy's troops and the In 1752 she became blind, and soon afterwards she took law, into which not a few of his school-fellows fell, to the up her abnde in apartments in the convent of St Joseph in fact of his being a Londoner, and therefure a stranger in the Rue St Dominique, which had a separate entrance from the west country. On January 26, 1688, he was admitted the street. This became the frequent resort of such men a liveryman of the city of London, liaving claimed his as Choiseul, Bouflers, Montesquieu, Voltaire, D'Alembert, freedom by birth. Since his western escapade he had David Hume, and Horace Walpole. In 1764 the society taken to the business of wholesale hosiery. At the entry was split into two parties by the defection of her companion of William and Mary into London he is said to have served Mademoiselle de L'Espinasse, who took with her D'Alembert as a volunteer trooper “ gallantly mounted and richly and several others. Madame du Deffond had most affinity accoutred." In these days he lived at Tooting, and was inof nature with Horace Walpole, who paid several visits to strumental in forming a dissenting congregation at that Paris expressly for the purpose of enjoying her society, and place. His business operations at this period appear to who maintained a close and most interesting correspondence have been extensive and variunx. He would seem both with her for fifteen years. She died on the 24th September now and later to have been a sort of cuminaission merchant, 1780. Of her innumerable witty sayings probably the especially in Spanish and Portuguese quoils, and at some best, and certainly the best known, is her remark on the time or other le visited Spain ou business. Later wc hear Cardival de Polignac's account of St Denis's miraculous him spoken of as “a civet-cat merchant," but as be cap walk of two miles with his head in his hands,—“Il n'y a hardly have kept a menagerie of these animals it is odd que lo premier pas qui conte."

that no one has supposed that the civet-cat was the sigu of * The correspondence of Madame du Deffand with D'Alembert, his place of business (it was a very usual one) rather than Henault, Montesquicu, and others was published at Paris in 1809. I the stavle of his trade. In 1692 his mercautile operations Her letters to Horace Walpole, edited, with a biographical sketch, by Miss Berry, were published at London from the originals in

came to a disastrous. close, and he failed for £17,000. Strawberry Hill in 1810.

By his own account the disaster would seem to have arisen DEFOE, DANIEL (1661-1731), was born in London in from relying too much on credit. His misfortunes made the year 1661, in the parish of St Giles, Cripplegate. | him write both feelingly and forcibly on the bankrupicy Neither the exact date nor place of his birth is known, nor laws; and although his creditors acrepiled a composia is his baptisin recorded, probably because he was of a non- tion, he afterwards honourably paid them in full, a fact conformist family. Hardly anything is known of his attested by independent and not very frierdly witnesses. ancestors ; his grandfather, Daniel Foe, is said to have been Subsequently, he undertook first the secretaryslip aud a squire or wealthy yeoman at Elton, in Huntingdonsluire then the managership and chief ownership of some tile(not Northamptonshire, as nore generally stated), and works at Tilbury, but here also he was unfortunate, and to have kept a pack of hounds; but the authority for his imprisonment (of which more hereafter) in 1703 brought the former statement seems to be mainly traditional, and the works to a stand-still, and thereby lost him £3000 for the latter we have merely an anecdote in one of Defoe's From this time forward we hear of no settled business in Lewepaper articles, which is at least as likely to have been which he engaged. He evidently, however, continued to fiction as fact. Attempts have been made, but merely undertake commissions, and made his political visits to fancifully, to trace the name to Vaux, Fawkes, or even Scotland an occasion for opening connections of this kind Devereux. As to the variation Defoe or Foe it is to be with that country. In the last thirty years of his life noticed that its owner signed either indifferently till a late business played but a subordinate part, though he seems to period of his life, and that his initials where they occur are have derived more profit from it than from his earlier sometimes 'D. F. and sometimes D. D. F. Mr Lee's conventures. It was probably at tho time of his troubles in jecture, that the later form originated in his being called 1692 that he had occasion to visit Bristol, wbere-according Dr D. Foe to distinguish him from his father, seems not to a local tradition-he lay perdu for fear of bailiffs all the unlikely. It may be added that three autograph letters of week, but emerged in gorgeous raiment on Sunday, whence his are extant, all addressed in 1705 to the same person, and he was known by the nickname of “the Sunday gentle signed respectively D. Foe, de Foe, and Daniel Defoe.

man." James Foe, the father of the author of Robinson Crusoe, It was not as a business man that Defoe was to make was a butcher and a citizen of London. Of his mother his mark, though his business experiences coloured to some nothing is known. Daniel was chiefly educated at a famous extent the literary productions to which he owes his fame. dissenting academy, Mr Morton's of Stoke Newington, The course of his life was determined about the middle of where many of the celebrated nonconformists of the time the reign of William III, by his introduction (we know not were brought up. It is noteworthy that one of his school how) to William himself and to other influential persons. fellows suggested the unusual name of Crusoe. In after He frequently boasts of his personal intimacy with the life Defoe frequently asserted the sufficiency of his educa- “ glorious and immortal” king (epithets, by the way, to tion and the excellence of the methods observed by his the invention of which he has considerable claim), and in teacher. Judging from his writings his stock of general | 1695 he was appointed accountant to the commissioners of information must have been far larger than that of most the glass duty, which office he held for four years. During regularly educated men of his day; but it is probable that this time he produced (Jantary 1698) his Essay on Projects, his attainments were in no particular line very exquisite or one of the first and not the least noteworthy of his works. profound. With very few exceptions all the known events This essay contains suggestions on banks, road-management, of Defoe's life are connected with authorship. In the friendly and insurance societies of various kinds, idiot older catalogues of his works two pamphlets, Speculum I asylums, bankruptcy, academies in the French sense), military colleges, high schools for women, &c. It displays his Reasons against Abolishing the Church of England. He Defoo's lively and lucid style in full vigour, and abounds will soon see the difference. Ironical or not, however, it with ingenious thoughts and apt illustrations, though it was unlikely that the high-churchmen and their leader illustrates also the unsystematic character of his mind. In Nottingham (the Don Dismal of Swift) would let such a the same year Defoe wrote the first of a long series of performance pass unnoticed. The author was soon pamphlets on the then burning question of occasional discovered ; and, as he absconded, an advertisement was conformity. In this, for the first time, he showed the issued offering a reward for his apprehension, and giving us wnlucky independence which, in so many other instances, the only personal description we possess of him, as "a united all parties against him. On the one hand he pointed middle-sized spare man about forty years old, of á brown out to the dissenters the scandalous inconsistency of their complexion and dark brown-coloured hair, but wears a wig ; playing fast and loose with sacred things, and on the other a hooked nose, a sharp chin, grey eyes, and a large mole he denuunced the impropriety of requiring tests at all. near his mouth.” In this conjuncture Defoe had really no In direct support of the Government he published, towards friends, for the dissenters were as much alarmed at his the close of the reign, a Defence of Standing Armies, against book as the high-flyers were irritated. He surrendered, Trenchard, and a set of pamphlets on the Partition and his defence appears to have been injudiciously con Treaty Thus in political matters he had the same fate ducted; at any rate he was fined 200 marks, and condemned as in ecclesiastical; for the Whigs were no more prepared to be pilloried three times, to be imprisoned indefinitely, and than the Tories to support William through thick and thin. to find sureties for his good behaviour during seven years. He also dealt with the questions of stock-jobbing and of His sojourn in the pillory, however, was rather a triumph electioneering corruption. But his most remarkable than a punishment, for the populace took his side; and his publication at this time—the publication, indeed, as tho Kymn to the Pillory, which he soon after published, is one author of which he became famous—was The True-Born of the best of his poetical works. Unluckily for him hig Englishman, a satire in rough but extremely vigorous verse condemnation had the indirect effect of destroying his busion the national objection to William as a foreigner, and on ness. He remained in prison until August 1704, and then the claim of purity of blood for a nation which Defoe owed his release to the intercession of Harley, who reprechooses to represent as crossed and dashed with all the sented his case to the queen, and obtained for him not only strains and races in Europe. He also took & prominent liberty but pecuniary relief and employment, which, of one part in the proceedings which followed the famous Kentish kind or another, lasted until the termination of Anne's petition, and was the author, and some say the presenter, reiga. Defoe was uniformly grateful to the minister, and of the equally famous Legion Memorial, which asserted in his language respecting him is in curious variance with that the strongest terms the supremacy of the electors over the generally used. There can be little doubt that, independelected, and of which even an irate House of Commons did | ently of gratitude, Harley's moderation in a time of the not dare to take any great notice. The theory of the in- extremest party-insanity was no little recommendation to defeasible supremacy of the freeholders of England, whose Defoe. During his imprisonment the latter was by no delegates merely (according to this theory) the Commons means idle. A spurious edition of bis works having been were, was one of Defoe's favourite political tenets, and he issued, he himself produced a collection of twenty-two returned to it in a most powerfully written tract entitled treatises, to which some time afterwards he added a second The Original Power of the Collective Body of the People group of eighteen more. He also wrote in prison many of England examined and asserted. At the same time he short pamphlets, chiefly controversial, published a curious was occupied in a controversy on the conformity question work on the famous storm of November 26,1703, and started with the well-known John How (usually spelt Howo at perhaps the most remarkable of all his projects, The Review. present), and wrote several minor political tracts.

This was & paper which was issued during the greater The death of William was a great misfortune to Defoe, part of its life three times a week. It was entirely written and he soon felt the power of his adversaries. After by Defoe, and extends to eight complete volumes and somo publishing The Mock Mourners, intended to satirize and few score numbers of a second issue. He did no: confine rebake the outbreak of Jacobite jo; at the king's death, he himself to news, but threw his writing into the form of turned his attention once more io ecclesiastical subjects, something very like finished essays on questions of policy, and, in an evil hour for himself, wrote the famous Shortest trade, and domestic concerns ; while he also introduced a Way with the Dissenters. The traditional criticism of this so-called “Scandal Club," in which minor questions of remarkable pamphlet is a most curious example of the way manners and morals were treated in a way which undoubtin which thoroughly inappropriate descriptions of books edly suggested the Tatlers and Spectators which followed. pass from mouth to mouth. Every commentator (with It is probable that if the five points of bulk, rapidity of the single exception of Mr Chedwick) has dilated upon production, variety of matter, originality of design, and its “ exquisite irony." Now, the fact of the matter is, that excellence of style are taken together, hardly any author in The Shortest Way there is no irony at all, and, as can show a work of equal magnitude. It is unlucky that Defoe's adversaries acutely remarked, irony would never only one complete copy of the work is known to exist, and have been pleaded had not the author got into trouble, when that is in a private library. After his release he went to of course it suited him faire flèche de tout bois. The Bury St Edmunds for change of air, though he did not inpampalet is simply an exposition in the plainest and most terrupt either his Review or his occasional pamphlets. One forcible terms of the extreme “high-flying” position, and of these, Giving Alms no Charity, and Employing the Poor every line of it might have been endorsed, and was a Grievance to the Nation, is for the time an extraordinarily endorsed, by consistent bigh-churchmen. The author's far-sighted performance. It denounces on the one hand object clearly was by this naked presentation to awaken indiscriminate alms-giving, and on the other the folly of the dissenters to a sense of their danger, and to startle national work-shops, the institution of which on a parochial moderate churchmen by showing them to what end their system had been proposed by Sir Humphrey Mackworth. favourite doctrines necessarily led. For neither of these In 1705 appeared The Consolidator, or Memoirs of purposes was irony necessary, and irony, we repeat, there Sundry Transactions from the World in the Mom, a political is none. If any lingering doubt from the consensus of satire which is supposed to have given some hints for authority on the other side remain, let the student read The Gulliver ; and at the end of the year Defoe performed a Shortest Way and then turn to Swift's Mudest Proposal or secret mission (the first of several of the kind) for Harley.

While on one of these in the west of England he was volume of Robinson Crusoe. The first edition of this was molested, though with no serious result, by the zealous published on the 25th of April 1719. It ran through font country justices. In 1705 also appeared the famous Mrs editions in as many months, and then in August appeared Veal. As is well known, this admirablo fiction is said the second part Twelve months afterwards the third part, to have been composed for a bookseller, to help off an or Serious Reflections, appeared. This last part is now unsaleable translation of Drelincourt on Death. Mr Lee, hardly ever reprinted. Its connection, indeed, with the however, has thrown some doubts on this story. Defoe's next two former is little more than nominal, Crusoe being considerable work was Jure Divino, a poetical argument simply made the mouth-piece of Defoe's sentiments on in some 10,000 terribly bad verses, and soon afterwards various points of morals and religion. Meanwhile the first (1706) he began to be largely employed in promoting the two parts were reprinted as a feuilleton in Heathcote's lirunion with Scotland. Not only did he write pamphlets as telligencer, perhaps the earliest instance of the appearance usual on the project, and vigorously recommend it in The of such a work in such a form. Crusoe was immediately Revier, but in October 1706 he was sent on a political popular, and various wild stories were set_afloat of its mission to Scotland by Godolphin, to whom Harley had having been written by Lord Oxford in the Tower, and of recommended him. He resided in Edinburgh for nearly its being simply a piratical utilization of Alexander Selkirk's sixteen months, and his services to the Government were papers. It is sufficient to say that all such stories are not rewarded by a regular salary. He seems to have devoted only intrinsically of the wildest improbability, but also himself to commercial and literary as well as to political possess not a tittle of evidence in their favour. A curious matters, and prepared at this time his elaborate History of idea, recently revived by the late Mr H. Kingsley, is that the Union, which appeared in 1709. In this latter year the adventures of Robinson are allegorical and relate to occurred the famous Sacheverel sermon, and Defoe wrote Defoe's own life. This idea was certainly entertained to several tracts on the occasion. In 1710 Harley returned some extent at the time, and derives some colour of justifito power, and Defoe was placed in a somewhat awkward cation from words of Defoe's, but there seems to be no position. , To Harley himself he was bound by gratitude serious foundation for it. The book was alınost immediately and by a substantial agreement in principle, but with the imitated; of such imitations Philip Quarll is the only one rest of the Tory ministry he had no sympathy. He seems, now known even by name. Contemporaneously with the in fact, to liare agreed with the foreign policy of the Tories later parts of Crusoe appeared The Dumb Philosopher, or and with the home policy of the Whigs, and naturally Dickory Cronke. It is a short and rather dull book, incurred the reproach of time-serving and the hearty abuse of something the same type as the Serious Reflections. of both parties. At the end of 1710 he again visited In 1720 cameforth The Life and Adventures of Mr Duncan Scotland. In the negotiations concerning the peace of Campbell

. This, unlike the two former, was not entirely a Utrecht, Defoe strongly supported the ministerial side, to work of imagination, inasmuch as its hero, the fortune-teller, the intense wrath of the Whigs, and this wrath was dis was a real person. There are amusing passages in the played in an attempted prosecution against some pamphlets story, but it is too desultory to rank with Defoe's best. In of his on the all-important question of the succession, but the same prolific year appeared two wholly or partially the influence of Harley saved him. He continued, how- fictitious histories, each of which might have made a repuever, to take the side of the dissenters in the questions tation for any man. The first was the famous Memoirs of affecting religious liberty, which played such a prominent a Cavalier, which, as has been often repeated, Lord part towards the close of Anne's reign. He naturally Chatham believed to be true history, and which Mr Leo Bhared Harley's downfall; and, though the loss of his salary believes to be the embodiment at least of authentic private might seem a poor reward for his constant support of the memoirs. It is more probable, however, that Defoe, with Hanoverian claim, it was little more than his ambiguous, bis extensive acquaintance with recent English history, and not to say trimming, position must have led him to expect. his astonishing power of working up details

, was fully equal He was violently attacked on all sides, and at last published to the task of its unassisted composition. As a model of in 1715 an apologia entitled An Appeal to Honour and historical work of a certain kind it is hardly surpassable, Justice, in which he defends his political conduct, and and many separate passages-accounts of battles and skirwhich furnishes us with the main authority for the details mishes—have never been equalled except by Mr Carlyle. of his life. With this publication his political work was Captain Singleton, the last work of the year, has been unformerly supposed to have ended; but in 1864 six letters justly depreciated by most of the commentators. The record were discovered in the Record Office from Defoe to a of the journey across Africa, with its surprising anticipations Government official, Mr Delafaye, which establisbed the of recent discoveries (anticipations which were commented fact that in 1718 at least Defoe was doing not only political on by Dr Birdwood in a paper read before the Bombay work, but political work of a somewbat equivocal kind Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society in 1863, and which that he was, in fact, sub-editiug the Jacobite Mist's Journal, are probably due to Defoe's intercourse with Portugal) under a secret agreement with the Government that he yields in interest to no work of the kind known to us; and should tone down the sentiments and omit objectionable the semi-piratical Quaker who accompanies Singleton in items. He seems to have performed tho same not very his buccaneering expeditions is a character thoroughly honourable office in the case of two other journals, Dormer's deserving of life. It may be mentioned that there is also Letter and the Mercurius Politicus; and, if we may trust a Quaker who plays a very creditable part in Roxana, and Mr Lee, he wrote in these and other papers till o -arly the that Defoe seems to have been well affected to the Friends. ond of his life.

In estimating this wonderful productiveness on the part of However this may be, the interest of Defoe's life from a man sixty years old, it should be remembered that it was this time forward is very far from political. He was now a habit of Defoe's to keep his works in manuscript somea man of Sfty-five years of age; he had, up to this period, times for long periods. written nothing but what may be called occasional litera In 1721 nothing of importance was produced, but in the ture, and, except the History of the Union and Jure Divino, next twelvemonth three capital works appeared. These nothing of any great length. In 1715 appeared the first were The Fortunes and Misfortunes of Moll Flanders, The volume of The Family Instructor, which was subsequently | Journal of the Plague Year, and The History of Colonel continued, and which was very popular during the last Jack., Moll Flanders (as a whole) may be placed next century. Three years afterwards came forth the first to Robinson Crusoe in order of merit, or bracketted for

that position with the somewhat similar Roxana. Both | Nobody's Business, or Private Abuses Public Grievances, are triumphs of novel-writing. Both have subjects of exemplified in the Pride, Insolence, and Exorbitant IPages & rather more than questionable character, but both display of our Women-Servants, Footmen, do. This subject was the remarkable art with which Defoe handles such a very favourite one with Defoe, and in the pamphlet subjects. It is not true, as is sometimes said, that he showed the immaturity of his political views by advocate the difference of the two is the difference between grossing legislative interference in these matters. Like all his and polished vice. The real difference is much more one work of this sort, however, it is extremely amusing reading. of morals than of manners. Moll is by no means of Towards the end of this same year The Complete English the lowest class. Notwithstanding the greater degradation Tradesman, which may be supposed to sum up the exinto which she falls, and her originally dependent position, perience of his business life, appeared. and its second she has been well educated, and has consorted with persons volume followed two years afterwards. This book has been of gentle birth. She displays throughout much greater variously judged. It is generally and traditionally praised, real malinement of feeling than the more high-flying Roxana, but those who have read it will be more disposed to agree and is et any rate flesh and blood, if the flesh be somewhat with Charles Lamb, who considers it “ of a vile and debas. frall and the blood somewhat hot. Neither of the two ing tendency,” and thinks it “almost impossible to suppose heroines has any but the rudiments of a moral sense ; but the author in earnest.” It is certainly clear to those who Roxana, both in her original transgression and in her sub- know it what our foreign critics mean by the reproach of sequent conduct, is actuated merely by avarice and selfish." shop-keeping;” and the intolerable meanness advocated ness—vices which are peculiarly offensive in connection for the sake of the paltriest gains, the entire ignoring of with her other failing, and which make her thoroughly any pursuit in life except money-getting, and the reprerepulsive. The art of both stories is great, and as regards sentation of the whole duty of man as consisting first in the the episode in Roxana of the daughter Susannah is con- attainment of a competent fortune, and next, when that forsummate; but the transitions of the later plot are less natural tune has been attained, in spending not more than half of it, than those in Moll Flanders. It is only fair to notice that are certainly repulsive enough. But there are no reasons while the latter, according to Defoe's more usual practice, for thinking the performance ironical or insincere, and it is allowed to repent and end happily, Roxana is brought to cannot be doubted that Defoe would have been honestly complete misery ; Defoe's morality, therefore, required unable even to understand Lamb's indignation. In 1706 mors repulsiveness in one case than in the other. The came forth The Political History of the Devil. This is a Journal of the Plague Year, more usually called, from the curious book, partly explanatory of Defoe's ideas on motitle of the second edition, A History of the Plague, has rality, and partly belonging to a series of demonological perhaps lacked less of its due meed of admiration than any works which he wrote, and of which the chief others are of its author's minor works. Here also the accuracy and A System of Magic, and An Essay on the History of apparent veracity of the details is so great that many Apparitions. In all these works his treatment is on the persons have taken it for an authentic record, while others whole rational and sensible ; but in The History of the Devil have contended for the existence of such a record as he is somewhat hampered by an insufficiently worked-out its basis. But it appears that here too the genius of theory as to the nature and personal existence of his hero, Mrs Veal's creator must, in the absence of all evi. and the manner in which he handles the subject is an odd dence to the contrary, be allowed sufficient for the task. and not altogether satisfactory mixture of irony and earnestThe History of Colonel Jack is an unequal book. There is ness. There are many very amusing things in the book, hardly in Robinson Crusoe a scene equal, and there is con- but to speak of its "extraordinary brilliancy and wit" (as sequently not in English literature a scene superior, to that Mr H. Kingsley has done) is certainly inappropriate. The praised by Lamb, and extracted in Knight's Half Hours works which have just been mentioned, together with A Plan with the Best Authors,—the scene where the youthful pick of English Commerce, containing very enlightened views on pocket first exercises his trade, and then for a time loses export trade, appeared in 1727-8. During the whole of the his ill-gotten (though for his part he knows not the meaning years from 1715 to 1728 Defoe had issued pamphlets and of the word il)-gotten) gains. But great part of the book, minor works far too numerous to mention. The only one of and especially the latter portion, is dull; and in fact it may them perhaps which requires special notice is Religious be generally remarked of Defoe that the conclusions of his Courtship (1722), a curious series of dialogues displaying tales are not equal to the beginning, perhaps from the Defoe's unaffected religiosity, and at the same time the rather restless indefatigability with which he undertook one work meddling intrusiveness with which he applied his realmost before finishing another. Roxana, or the Fortunate ligious notions. Thiş latter point was more flagrantly Mistress, already commented on, appeared in 1724; and illustrated in one of his latest works, The Treatise conin the same year came forth the first volume of A Tour cerning the Use and Abuse of the Marriage Bed (1727). through the whole Island of Great Britain, which was This, which was originally issued with a much more offen completed in the two following years. Much of the in sive name, has been called “ an excellent book with an formation in this was derived from personal experience, improper title.” It might more properly be called an illfor Defoe claims to have made many more tours and visits judged work, with a title which gives fair warning of about England than those of which we have record; but the its contents. The Memoirs of Captain Carleton (1728) major part must necessarily have been dexterous compila have been long attributed to Defoe. There is, however, a tion. In 1725 appeared A New Voyage round the World, well-known anecdote of Johnson which makes this extremely apparently entirely due to the author's own fertile imagina- unlikely; it is now known that an actual officer of the tion and extensive reading. It is full of his peculiar name did exist and serve ; and the internal evidence is, we verisimilitude, and has al the interest of Anson's or think, strongly against Defoe's authorship. These Memoirs Dampier's voyages, together with a charm of style superior have been also attributed to Swift, with greater probability even to that of the latter, and far beyond anything which as far as style is concerned. The Life of Mother Ross, rethe soi-disant chaplain of the “Centurion” could attain to. printed in Bohn's edition of Defoe, has no claim whatever The journey by land across South America is of especial to be considered his. interest, and forms an admirable pendant to the African There is little to be said of Defoe's private life during travels in Singleton. In the same year Defoe wrote a this period. He must in some way or other have obtained parious little pamphlet entitled Everybody's Business is la considerable income In 1724 he had built himself a large

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