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motion at right angles across the work, so that the position stone with it. The bell is then moved over the site on of the bell can be altered with the greatest ease so as to which it is to be placed ; it is then lowered until it bas bring it over any spot within the area of the staging. nearly reached its bed, on which it is finally deposited.

In proceeding to work, the men take their seats in the The lowis is then removed and the bell raised for another bell from a boat, and the bell is then lowered to the required stone ; and with trained workmen it is surprising how depth. If the work be that of building a wall a stone is expeditiously the bell is moved from place to place, and lowered at the same time. The changes in the position of stone after stone is built in the walls. The staff of men the bell are all made according to signs given by the divers required to work the bell is two divers, one watchman, by strokes of a hammer on the bell, which experience has four men working the air-pump, and four working the bell shown can be heard at any depth at which the diving bell carriage, besides the men. required to bring forward and has been employed. The signals are—one stroke, more send down the stones. The men engaged generally work air ; two, hold on ; three, raise ; four, lower ; five, north ; six, in shifts of from 3 to 6 hours according to the depth, and south ; seven, east; eight, west. These signals are narrowly the diving work may be continued as long as in ordinary observed by a watchman stationed in a boat, and reported day-work, as in clear water the light is good to the to the men working the bell carriage. The rule for the greatest depth at which the bell is used in harbour supply of air both to the bell and diving dress is to give it building. 80 freely that there shall be a constant escape of air rising When engaged in blasting, the bore is made in the to the surface in air-bubbles all the time the men are ordinary way, and charged with a shot inclosed in a under water. After being lowered, the bell is first moved water-tight canvas case, to which is attached a length of 6 over the stone to be laid ; the divers then unbook the or 8 feet of patent fuse. The bell is then moved from lowering chain from the lewis in the stone, and at the above the bore, and the fuse ignited, and when the shot is same time make fast the stone to the tackle within the fired the smoke rises to the surface clear of the bell. bell, which is at once signalled to be raised, and carries the When employed for removing rock or boulder stones-for

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Fig. 4.—Longitudinal Section of Diving Bell Lighter (56 feet long and 24 feet beam). example, in a river navigation,—it is of advantage that the for raising the boulders as the divers sling them. It is of bell be capable of being easily transported, and in that caso course attended with greater trouble and risk to the divers it is swung from a barge or lighter, which contains the to work the bell from a lighter than from a stage; bat, on machinery for working the bell and air-pumps, and a crane tbe other hand, the convenience in being enabled to trans

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Pra. 5.- Plan of Bell Lighter (56 feet long and 24 feet beam). port it from place to place, in a river navigation, is a Figs. 4 and 8 show the disposition of the various great advantage.

appliances in the most recent bell-lighter built by Meesra

Simons of Renfrew for the River Clyde, which was com- | late Sir Charles Pasley, which will be found fully describe municated by Mr Deas, the engineer, to the Clyde Trustees. in the Minutes of Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Fig. 4 is a longitudinal section, and fig. 5 a plan in which Engineers. The long continued experience gained in a is the bell, 6 the bell crab, c the air-pumps, and d the diving while these operations were in progress suggested crane for lifting stones, &c., slung by the divers.

improvements and alterations which had a great effect in The large cost of a diving bell limits its use to bringing the diving dresss to its present perfection as works of magnitude, especially as many submarine now manufactured by Siebe, Heinke, Barnett, and other works can be done better by the diving dress, which is makers. much less expersive; but there are certain operations, such | The diving dress, as will be understoood from fig. 6, as the clearing and levelling of foundations, for which the bell is peculiarly well adapted, that still enable of the diver, the upper porit to take its place as one of the most useful appli- tion a being the "helmet," ances of the marine engineer. Mr B. B. Stoney has, the intermediate portion b in an interesting paper in the Minutes of Proceedings the “breast-plate, and tbe of the Institution of Civil Engineers, described a diving lower portion c the "dress." bell, or chamber, 20 feet square, with which he success. The hose by which the air fully built the foundation of the quays of Dublin. Mr | | is supplied is shown at d, Stoney's apparatus does not come under the article | and e is the “life” or “sigdiving, but belongs more properly to the subject of the nal” line, wbich is attached compressed air cylinders used in bridge building, which to the diver's waist, and by are described under the article BRIDGE.

which he makes signals and Diving Dress.—The diving dress is peculiarly well fitted is hauled to the surface. for euch works as the repair or overhaul of rollers and sluices | The water-proof material of of lock-gates, cleaning or repairing ships' bottoms, descend- which the dress is made is ing into the hatches of wrecks to recover property, and, in very generally sheet indiashort, everything that cannot be done from the interior of rubber covered on both a bell. The inexpensiveness also of the diving dress, sides with tanned twill to dispensing with all costly staging, and its ease of transport protect the india-rubber and appliance, are much in favour of its use. It is, indeed, from injury. The cuffs fit so convenient in the repair of propellers, examining ships' tightly round the wrists, bottoms, recovering anchors, &c., that all ships in Her leaving the hands free, and Majesty's 'navy of sufficient size to be commanded by india-rubber bands slipped captains are now supplied with a diving dress or apparatus, over thein render the joint and bear a certain number of divers in their complements; water-tight. The breastand all sea-going flagships and iron-clads on foreign stations plate 6 is made of tinned carry two sets of diving apparatus, and are allowed a copper with an outer edge suitable number of trained divers.

of brass, which has screws

Fig. 6.—Diving Dress. The invention of the diving dress, like that of most use fitted to it projecting upwards and passing through corful appliances, was gradual, and the work of many minds. responding holes in the collar of the dress. On the top Some early proposals, such as that already referred to in of this, and with holes in it corresponding to the screws, the quotation from Dr Halley's paper in 1721, and others four pieces of a metal band are firmly screwed down of more modern date, were made for providing the diver by wing nuts, nipping the soft material of the collar with a dress to enable him with safety to carry on liis between the metal of the breast-plate and band, and thus work, for an account of which the reader is referred to a ensuring a water-tight joint. On the front of the breastpaper by Mr J. W. Heinke in the Minutes of Proceedings plate two studs are fastened for securing the back and front of the Institution of Civil Engineers. But to Mr A. Siebe weights g. Some makers put a valve k on the front of the is due the credit of being the first to introduce a dress breast-plate, by means of which the diver can regulate the which was supplied with a constant stream of fresh air, and pressure inside his dress at will, and in this way has the may be said to have been the precursor of the dress now power, by simply inflating his dress more or less, of making in use. We allude to what was called the “open dress" himself of any specific gravity, so as to float at any desired invented in 1829, which consisted of a helmet and water depth or rise to the surface without the assistauce of the proof jacket, under which, and fitting more closely to the | attendant. This arrangement in the hands of a skilled body, were worn trousers reaching to the arm-pits, and diver is undoubtedly a great convenience. But it is still & between the jacket and trousers the air pumped in at the matter of difference of opinion whether it is not safer to helmet was allowed to force its way and escape to the trust to being hauled up by the watchman on the surface, surface as in the diving bell, and hence it was called whose duty it is to hold the life or signal line in one hand, " open." Although some divers of the old school are said and the air hose in the other, while the diver is at work, still to give a preference to the open dress, its danger and to attend to whatever signal he may give by pulling became manifest'; for if a diver stumbled and fell on his the life line. The inconvenience of the air bubbling up in Pace or side, the water entered his dress, and unless quickly front of the bulls' eyes, and the danger of inexperienced brought to the surface he was in danger of being drowned divers becoming giddy aud turning the valve the wrong -a necessary requirement of the open dress being that he way, have induced some makers to do away with this useshould remain in an upright or gently stooping posi- ful valve, and to substitute at the back of the helmet a tion. To meet this defect, Mr Siebe, in 1837, introduced valve which the diver can regulate by the pressure of his the “close” dress, which is now almost universally used. hand, but which rights itself the moment his hand is Various minor improvements were introduced between removed. The neck of the breast-plate is fitted with a 1839 and 1843 connected with the removal of the wreck “segmental screw bayonet joint” (introduced by Messrs of the “Royal George" ship of war, conducted by the Siebe), and to this the helmet, the neck of which is fitted Pol. xxxvii. p. 389. • Vol. xv. p. 309.

• Vol. xv. p. 328.

VIL – 38

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with a corresponding screw, can be attached or removed by Captain Eads' states that at the Mississippi bridge candles one eighth of a turn. The helmet, a side view of which is were at first employed, which, under a pressure of 100 feet, given in fig. 7, is made of tinned copper, and fitted in front were found to be burnt down in about three-fifths of the with three strong

time required in the open air; under a pressure of 80 feet it plate-glass win

was found that a candle if blown out by the breath would dows, or bulls'

immediately reignite ; and at the depth of 1084 feet a eyes, in brass

candle was blown out thirteen consecutive times in the frames protected

course of half a minute, and each time excepting the last with guards.

was reignited. Messrs Heinke

The depth at which diving can be safely conducted is a introduced slid

question of importance. The ordinary depth at which the ing covers to draw

diving bell has been employed in harbour works is from 30 over these win.

to 35 feet, and it has been used in 60 feet at Dover. dows in case of

With the diving dress much greater depths have been their getting bro

attained. Mr Siebe relates that in removing the cargo of ken. The front

the ship “ Cape Horn,” wrecked off the coast of South eye piece is made

America, a diver named Hooper made 7 descents to a depth so that it can be

of 201 feet, and at one time remained 42 minutes, supunscrewed, and

posed to be the greatest diving feat ever achieved. Ñ. in this way the

Frendenberg states that in the repair of a pump in the diver on ascend

Scharloy zinc mines in Silesia two divers went down the ing can rest him

pump well to a depth of 85 feet, remaining from periods self for a short Fig. 7.-Diver's Helmet.

varying from 15 minutes to two hours. In the knowledge timeorgiveorders

of the author the greatest depth at which the diving dress was without removing the rest of his dress. Messrs Barnett have used in the open sea was in the Firth of Forth. A Royal introduced instead of this a hinged glazed frame, which Commission on the Operation of the Acts relating to the fits tightly into a conical vulcanized india-rubber seat like Trawling for Herring on the coast of Scotland " resolved the ordinary port hole of a ship, so that it can be opened by to obtain the herring spawn from various portions iof the the diver himself the moment his head is above water, and exposed parts of the firth, and this daty was successfully being attached to the helmet it cannot be dropped acciden- accomplished in depths of from 14 to 16 fathoms, from the tally into the sea or otherwise mislaid. An outlet valve a deck of the “ Princess Royal" cutter, under the command is fixed at the back of the helmet, which, opening outwards, of Mr Macdonald. permits the escape of the foul air but prevents the entrance The writer is indebted to Mr P. J. Messent, the engineer of water. The inlet valve 6 to which the hose is attached of the Tyne piers, for the following notes of his experience is also fixed at the back of the helmet, and is so constructed at that work. “On the Tyne Pier works helmet and bell as freely to admit the air from the force pump; but should divers are employed simultaneously—the former for excavatanything occur to the hose or pumps the valve at once shuts, ing for and fixing the feet of the piles of which the staging inclosing a sufficient supply of air in the dress to support is formed, the bell divers for levelling the foundations and the diver till he can be hauled to the surface. The air fixing the blocks of which the pier is composerl

. The after entering by the inlet valve is conducted in tubes c to helmet diver has greatest power in lifting. He can exert the front of the helmet, so that the diver has the but a few pounds of force in pulling downwards (unless be advantage of inhaling fresh air, and the front glasses are can fasten himself down) on account of his buoyancy, and kept free from the condensation of his breath which would for the same reason he cannot pull or push horizontally otherwise take place. On each side of the helmet is with much force unless he has a fulcrum or stop for his a hook over which the cords pass which carry the front feet or body. Thus, in boring an augur hole in a pile he and back weights, and a brass stud to one of which the life would have to lash himself to it, unless there was a proline, and to the other the air tube, are attached ; d d is the jecting rock or stone that he could get his foot against. joint by which the helmet is screwed upon the breast-plate. In the use of a hammer and other tools for striking he is The back and front weights weigh about 40 id each, and restricted by the water," but Mr Messent has known good are held close to the diver's body by means of a lashing ! men do fair work with a hammer and chisel. It is passing under his arm-pits. The boots are made of stout | difficult for them to walk against even a moderate tide, and leather, with leaden soles, secured by two buckles and men who by accident get on the (lee) tide side of their straps, each boot weighing about 20 mb.

work, generally have to be hauled up to their boat and The cost of a diving dress, with all its appliances, is lowered down again in order to get on the (windward) about £140.

tideward side of it; again experience enables many of these The sponge, pearl, and coral fisheries, originally carried difficulties to be met or modified, but it is advantageous to on only by naked divers, as already noticed, are now con- bear them in mind in arranging work for divers. Most of ducted to a great extent by the help of artificial aids ; the divers at the Tyne have been made or instructed on the and, according to Mr Siebe, upwards of 300 sets of diving works, and of the men who have tried helmet diving not dresses are employed in the Mediterranean sponge fisheries more than one out of three or four succeed or become alone, and they are being introduced in the Bahamas, divers, the failure being sometimes from physical causes, Bermudas, Ceylon, the West Indian Islands, and on the but more often from want of head. There is less difficulty coast of Australia.

in making bell-divers, probably on account of their work As already stated, at moderate depths not exceeding ing in company, there being always two men in a bell

, and 30 to 40 feet, and with clear water, sufficient light is the same amount of self-reliance is not needed. transmitted to enable the diver to perform any ordinary work, and in working in turbid water with the diving bell candles are employed. Mr Siebe has also constructed an

* Reports by Captain James B. Eads to the President and Directors electric lamp and an oil lamp which can be employed where

of the Illinois and St Louis Bridge Company. light requires to be used by divers at great depths. 343.

: Minutes of Proceedings of Inst. of Civil Engineers, vol xlv. A


The practice of diving obliges the diver to conduct his | Eustachian tube is a long and narrow passage ; at its com. work under a pressure greater than that of the atmosphere mencement in the ear it has a bony structure, but towards at the surface of the earth. All diving work is done under its termination in the pharynx behind the nostrils, it an abnormal atmospheric pressure, which increases with the becomés soft, so that its walls can be forced together. depth at which the diver is submerged in water. This | It admits an easy passage from the ear to the pharynx; pressure, when he is submerged to the depth of 33 feet, is but when any pressure arises in the opposite directwice that of the normal superficial atmospheric pressure. tion, it acts in some degree like a vaive, shutting the At greater depths the pressure is proportionately increased, passage, until the increasing pressure agaiu forces it open. and ultimately becomes so great that life conld not Some time then elapses before all this can be accomplished; be maintained. To descend even to the moderate depth and during this time the external air, pressing with full of 30 or 40 feet, which is about the maximum required for force on the tympanic membrane, produces the pain which ordinary engineering sea works, demands some practice is felt. When the Eustachian tube opens, it is generally and nerve on the part of the diver, but when greater all of a sudden, and with a slight explosion or pop, which depths have to be explored, in raising sunk vessels, for is followed by instant relief from the pain. This relief may example, the energy and power of endurance of the diver often be produced by filling the mouth, or gulping the are much more severely taxed, and it seems not uninterest- | air and passing it into the tube. ing, before concluding this article, to refer to the effect which That the above is what really takes place may be shown the work has on the health of the diver, as well as on some experimentally by shutting the mouth and nostrils, and physiological facts of interest in general science.

exhausting the air from them by the action of the lungs. The sensations experienced in a diving bell are common, The air in the tympanic cavity immediately rushing through it is believed, to all divers. According to the writer's ex- | the Eustachian tube into the mouth, the external air acts perience, very soon after the lips of the bell have touched on the tympanic membrane and produces a slight sensation the surface of the water pain is felt in the ears and above of deafness, such as is felt in the bell. But if, instead of the eyes, which continues with greater or less intensity exhausting the air, we attempt to compress it, and force it according to the rate of descent until the bell has attained tlırough the tube into the tympanic cavity, at first no the bottom. So long as the bell continues there no pain is effect is produced; but after exerting a considerable felt, the only feeling being that of depression due to the pressure a slight pop is felt, and a little pain in the ear, depth to which the diver is submerged. As soon as the which is just the sudden opening of the tube. upward movement commences the pain in the ears and The pain above the eyes is doubtless due to the inequality above the eyes returns, and continues till the surface is between the pressure of the air on the surface of the forereached. The motion of the bell is very gradual, sometimes head and that of the air in the frontal sinuses, or air spaces not exceeding 3 feet per minute, but even at that slow rate in the frontal and other bones which form the boundaries the head does not accommodate itself to the increase of of the orbits. The return of the disagreeable sensations pressure so as to avoid inconvenience. Aeronauts do not during the upward ascent of the bell is due to the pressure suffer to the same extent in their ascents in balloons, because on the outer surface of the tympanic membrane and of the the alteration of pressure is much more gradual in passing forehead being diminished, before the air within the through the atmosphere than through a medium having tympanic ca vity and the air spaces in the bones of the the density of water.

orbits has accommodated itself to the diminished external Several suggestions have been offered as accounting for pressure. the sensations which are experienced in diving, and the It may further be interesting to notice that any upward following explanation, which the author has submitted to motion is accompanied by a thick mist within the bell, Professor Turner of Edinburgh, is believed to afford the which disappears when it is stationary or moving down true solution.

wards. The explanation is that the air inside the bell, Under the ordinary atmospheric conditions, the air when it is ascending, being relieved of pressure, expands, poresses not only on the surface of the body, but into every and its temperature is lowered ; and as the air inside is cavity within the body which communicates with the sur- about the point of saturation, the fall of temperature proface, so that the pressure, both externally and internally, is duces condensation, which becomes visible in the form of exactly balanced. In passing into a denser atmosphere vapour or mist. An analogous phenomenon takes place in the increased pressure operates externally more rapidly | commencing to exhaust the receiver of an air-pump. than it does internally, more especially if the communica | The question of the effect produced on the health of the tion of the internal cavities with the surface is by tortuous men employed in diving is of interest and importance. passages; and so long as this inequality in the pressure So far as the author's experience goes, he is not aware that exists the disagreeable sensations in the ears and above the divers suffer from prosecuting their submarine work under eyes will continue. The pain in the ears arises from the the pressure of one or two atmospheres to which they are effect of the condensed air acting externally on the subjected in ordinary harbour works, the men selected for tympanic membrane of the ear, before the air within the such duty being generally healthy young men of athletic tympanic cavity has acquired the same density to counter make. Indeed, it is well known that to some constitutions, balance it. The tympanic membrane stretches across the and in some forms of disease, subjection to moderate bottom of the passage or meatus, which leads from the increase of atmospheric pressure proves beneficial. But outer ear into the side of the head (see ANATOMY, fig. 80.) when greater depths and high pressures have to be sustained This passage is in direct communication with the atmo- the case may be very different. sphere, the pressure of which, therefore, acts instantaneously Mr Siebe, who states the greatest depth to which a diver on the tympanic membrane. But on its inside the has descended to be 201 feet, with a pressure of 87 lb on tympanic membrane bounds the tympanic cavity, which the square inch (but who states 150 feet as the limit for has no communcation with the external air, excepting by safe work), has given various directions, the result of his the Eustachian tube, which leads from the cavity into the experience, as to the selection of men for deep diving, and pharynx immediately behind the nose. Through this tube, advises that men should not be employed who are of full therefore, the condensed air must pass from the pharynx to habit of body, who suffer from headache or deafness, who supply what is necessary within the cavity for restoring have at any time had spitting of blood or palpitation of the same equilibrium within and without. But the the heart, who are pale and whose circulation is languid

or who are of intemperate habits. He also says that the consent of the parties. No legal process was required, rate of descent and ascent must depend very much on the although the abuse of the power of divorce was sometimes constitution and experience of the diver, about 2 feet & punished. If a wife had not passed under the manus of second for a strong man for depths not exceeding 80 feet, her busband, her father might withdraw her from the union and for descending to greater depths additional care must against the wishes of both parties. A constitution of be used. The greatest pressures to which men are subjected Antoninus Pius limited this power. Until the time of in engineering works are experienced in the compressed air Justinian divorce by consent of both parties does not cylinders used in bridge building (see article BRIDGE). appear to have been subject to any restriction. Justinian, Åt Saltash bridge it was found that the men could not however, allowed it only in three specified cases, viz., for imwork long shifts at the depth of 86 feet without serious potency, or when either party desired to enter on a mouastic inconvenience—some of them, after working seven hours, life or was for a long time in captivity. “At a later period being slightly paralyzed, but in two or three days they Justinian enacted that persons dissolving a marriage by quite recovered. With three hours' shifts the men could mutual consent should forfeit all their property and be conwork for several months consecutively.

fined for life to a monastery, which was to receive a third At Londonderry bridge, where the men wrought under a of the forfeited property, the remaining two-thirds going to pressure of 75 feet, or about two atmospheres, Sir John the children of the marriage. This severity, so much at Hawkshaw found that there was considerable difference in variance with the Roman spirit, indicates the growing the relative ability of men to staud the pressure. He had power of the clergy (ut non Dei judicium contemnatur). found Irishmen less able to stand the work than English. (Hunter's Roman Law, p. 500.) These prohibitions were men, one of the effects being that the joints began to swell. repealed in the next reign. Divorce by the husband In other cases no evil resulted.

against the wish of his wife was a power much more likely Captain Eads, the engineer of the St Louis bridge, built to be abused than that of dissolving marriage by mutual across the Mississippi in 1870, gives some interesting in consent. Although the legal right was recognized, it is formation, in his reports to the directors of the Illinois and said not to have been acted on for a period of 500 years, St Louis Bridge Company, on the effect of working under and Spurius Carvilius is said to have been the first who high pressure on the men. The maximum depth to which put away his wife for barrenness. Harshness in the the cylinders had to be sunk was 1104 feet below summer exercise of the power was condemned by public opinion, and water level, and the greatest pressure ander which the sometimes punished by the authority of censors. L. men worked was 50 or 51 it on the square inch. When Antonius, a senator, was expelled from the senate for a the depth of 60 feet had been reacbed some of the men harsh divorce of a young wife. The wife who had not were affected by paralysis of the lower limbs, which come under the manus of the sband had the same power usually passed off in a day or two. At greater depths the of repudiating the marriage at will. Later legislation symptoms were more severe. The duration of working in curbed this excessive licence. By the lex Julia et Papia the air chamber was gradually shortened from four hours Poppæa, a husband divorcing a wife for adultery might relo one hour. The total number of men employed in tain one-sixth of her dowry; for any smaller offence, only working under pressure was 352, of whom 30 were seriously one-eighth. When a husband was guilty of adultery be affected and 12 cases proved fatal.

(D. s.) had to repay the dowry at once; if the fault were less DIVISION. See Logic.

serious, in six months. Constantine allowed the wife to DIVORCE is the dissolution of the relationship of divorce the husband in the following cases :- 1, for murder; marriage. Few social questions are surrounded with 2, for being a preparer of poison ; 3, for violating tombs. greater difficulty than this. For what causes divorce | Just causes for repudiation by the husband were-1, should be granted, and whether complete divorce should adultery ; 2, preparing poisons ; 3, being a procuress. A be granted at all in the sense of authorizing the spouses to wife divorcing her husband for other than the specified contract new marriages, are points on which civilized grounds forfeited the dowry, and might be punished by societies have arrived at very different conclusions. deportation. Similarly a husband lost his interest in tho Modern practice and opinion are to be traced mainly to dowry of his wife by an injurious divorce. Similar protwo sources of principle, viz., Roman law and the Christian visions are to be found in the legislation of Honorius and religion. The effect of the spread of Christianity was to Theodorus (421 A.D.), of Theodosius and Valentinian (449 reinvest marriage with the religious character .um which | A.D.) Justinian settled the grounds of divorce as follows: in the later law of Rome it had completely escaped ; and -The wife could divorce her husband—1, for conspiracy the history of divorce in modern times has been the gradual / against the empire ; 2, attempting her life ; 3, attempting decay of the restrictions which were thought appropriate to to induce her to commit adultery ; 4, wrongfully accusing the religious character of the institution of marriage. At her of adultery ; 5, taking a paramour to his house or frethe same time these restrictions have nowbere disappeared. quenting any other house in the same town with a The opinion of society visibly fluctuates between the belief paramour. On a divorce for these reasons a wife recovered that marriage is a civil contract only and the belief that it her dowry, and obtained the husband's portion as well. If is a contract of a peculiarly sacred character, the dissolution she divorced for other reasons she forfeited her dowry, and of which must not be lightly, if at all, permitted by human could not marry for five years, as in the legislation of legislation. · Again, divorce appears to be regarded some Theodosius and Valentiuian. So a husband might justly times as a penalty against the offending spouse, sometimes divorce his wife for—1, concealment of plots against the as a right to which the innocent spouse is entitled. It empire ; 2, adultery ; 3, attempting her husband's life, or will be granted only if a matrimonial offence is proved to concealing plots against him ; 4, going to baths or banquets have been committed, but it will not be granted if such with other men ; 5, remaining from home against her an offence has been committed on both sides. Hence a certain husband's wish ; 6, going to circus, theatre, or amphitheatre amount of inconsistency in legislation about divorce, wbich against his wish. In such cases the husband retains the is in no system more remarkable than in our own, founded dowry for life, or if he has no children absolutely. In as it is on the doctrines of the canon law, modified by the other cases penalties as fixed by previous legislation of opinions of secular judges, and altered by Acts of Parliament. Theodosius and Valentinian apply. The grounds for

In Roman law marriage was regarded as a voluntary divorce specified in these various enactments are an into unioa which might be terminated at any time by the resting commentary on coptemporary manners

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