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courageous dog will often tremble at the sudden rustle of | a leaf. While the possession of such faculties has rendered him fit above all other animals for the companionship of man, the physical and intellectual qualities characteristic of the various breeds have been seized upon and developed to their utmost by man, so as to enable him to use the dog for a great variety of purposes; what these are will appear in the following necessarily brief account of the more important breeds of dogs.
According to Professor Fitzinger, there are at least 189 distinct varieties of the domestic dog, and when it is considered that the origin of many if not most of these is uncertain, it is not surprising that considerable difference of opinion should exist as to the most natural mode of grouping them together. Their arrangement into the following six races, founded to a certain extent on the form and development of the ears, probably affords au approximation to a natural classification, viz., Wolf-dogs, Greyhounds, Spaniels, Hounds, Mastiffs, and Terriers.
L Wolf-dogs.—Throughout the northern regions of both hemispheres there are several breeds of semi-domesticated wolf-like dogs having nearly erect ears, and long woolly hair; these include among others the dogs of the Esquimaux and the Kamtchadales. The Esquimaux Dog is usually of a black and whito colour, nearly as large as a mastiff, with a fine bushy tail, and sharp pointed muzzle. It is of the greatest value to the inhabitants of the boreal regions of America in hunting the seal, bear, and reindeer; while it is equally useful as a beast of burden.'carrying loads on its back—a kind of work for which dogs are by no means well suited—and drawing sledges over the snow. On a good road half a dozen of these dogs will draw, it is said, from 8 to 10 cwts., at the rate of 7 miles an hour; and Kane, the Arctic traveller, tells how that number of dogs, well worn by previous travel, carried him with a fully burdened sledge, between seven and eight hundred miles during the first fortnight after leaving his ship—a mean rate of 57 miles a day. According to the eame authority, the training of these dogs is of the most ungracious sort "I never heard," he says, "a kind accent from the Esquimaux to his dog. The driver's whip of walrus hide, tome 20 feet long, a stone or a lump of ice skilfully directed, an imprecation loud and sharp, made emphatic by the fist or foot, and a grudged ration of seal's meat, make up the winter's entertainment of an Esquimaux team." Owing to the ill-treatment to which they are thus habitually subjected, they are highly irritable and difficult to manage, and in sleighing it is necessary to have a well-trained dog as leader, to whom the driver speaks, and by whom the other dogs in the team are guided. They readily relapse into the wild state, and have been known thus to hunt the reindeer in packs like wolves. These dogs have borne a prominent part in Arctic exploration, and much of the difficult work done in this field would have been well-nigh impossible without them. The Kamtchatka dogs are also used for sledging, and are famed for their swiftness and endurance. During summer they run at large and cater for themselves, returning in winter to their masters, who feed them principally with the heads of dried fish.
The Sheep-dog.—In Eastern countries where the sheep follow the shepherd, the duties that fall upon the dog are simpler, and require less intelligence, than those performed by the European breeds. Their task is chiefly to defend the flocks and herds from wild beasts and robbers, and for this purpose the wolf-like Turkoman Watch-dog and the Sheep-dog of Natolia are, by their great strength and courage, eminently fitted. The former is described by Sir J. M'Neill as a shaggy animal, nearly as large as the Newfoundland dog, and very fierce and powerful, the dam of the specimen he describes having killed a full-grown wolf
without assistance. The sheep-dog of Europe is generally classed among the wolf-like dogs, owing to the erect or semi-erect character of its ears, its pointed nose, and shaggy covering; and Buffon, for such reasons, regarded it as nearest to the primitive type of the domestic dog. It is more reasonable to suppose with Martin (Hittory of the Dog) that those points "only indicate purity of breed unalloyed by admixture with other varieties." The fact that its life is spent almost entirely out of doors, and that it has little or no opportunity of mixing with dogs other than of its own kind, would tend to preserve uniformity in external appearance; while its high cerebral development and intelligence prove beyond a doubt that the breed of sheep-dogs is one of the most highly improved, and in this respect remotest from the primitive type. Its whole intellect is devoted to the one duty of tending its master's flocks, and in the performance of this it is equally sagacious, vigilant, and patient At a word, or even a look, from its master, it will gather the sheep, scattered for miles around, to one place. During and after the snowstorms to which highland districts are so frequently exposed, the sheep-dog is invaluable in saving its master's property from almost total destruction. Without it the Highlands of Scotland would be almost useless for sheep-farming purposes. "It would require," says the Ettrick Shepherd, "more hands to manage a stock of sheep, gather them from the hills, force them into houses and folds, and drive them to markets, than the profits of' the whole stock would be capable of maintainine." The sheep-dog stands about
15 inches high, is covered with long shaggy hair of a black colour varied with dark grey or fulvous brown, and its tail is of moderate length, slightly recurved and busby. In disposition it is quiet; and although not quarrelsome, it shows great courage in defending its charge. It will not wantonly attack a stranger, but evidently regards him with suspicion, and rejects all friendly advances. There are three varieties of the sheep-dog found in Great Britain, viz.—the Scottish Collie, standing only from 12 to 14 inches high, and regarded as the purest and most intelligent; the Southern Sheep-dog, of larger size, but with shorter fur, and having the tail often very short—a peculiarity which, according to Bell. "appears to be perpetuated from parents whose tails have been cut;" and the Drover's Dog or Cur, generally black and white in colour, and taller in its limbs than the others. It is employed in driving sheep and cattle to the city markets, and in the discharge of this duty shows intelligence quite equal to that of the other vareties ; although in the treatment of the herds under its charge, it often displays a more savage disposition. The sheep-dogs of South America are so trained as to unite in themselves the duties of dog and shepherd. "When riding," says Darwin, " it is a common thing to meet a large flock of sheep, guarded by one or two ilogs, at the distance of noroe milaa from any house or man." And on inquiry he found out the method by which this friendship between dog and sheep had been established. The dog when a puppy is removed from its mother, and is no longer allowed to associate with other dogs, or even with the children of the family. It is kept in the sheep pen, and suckled by a ewe. Generally also it is castrated and thus has little or no community of feeling with its kind. Brought up among the sheep it shows no desire to leave the flock, but assumes the position of leader. "It is amusing," says the above writer, "to observe, when approaching a flock, how the dog immediately advances barking, and the sheep all close in his rear as if round the oldest ram." It comes home daily for food, on receipt of which it immediately returns to the flock; and this it is often taught to bring home in the evening.
The Newfoundland and Great St Bernard or Alpine Dogs occupy an uncertain position, forming, according to some authors, a group by themselves, and being classed by others among the wolf-like dogs, although in their large and pendulous ears they differ widely from the typical forms already noticed. •
The Newfoundland Dog is believed to have been brought to England from the island to which it owes its name, but probably owing to partial crossing, it differs somewhat from the original American breed, the latter being smaller in size, with the muzzle less blunted, and almost totally black in colour. In Newfoundland and Labrador these dogs tire used as beasts of burden, drawing considerable loads of wood and provisions on sledges. The feet are partially webbed, and consequently they are unrivalled as water-dogs, and although their weakness of scent and comparative slowness of foot renders them useless to the hunter, yet in a country of fens and morasses, the sportsman finds them of the greatest service in rescuing birds that have fallen into the water; nor do they hesitate in their eagerness for retrieving to make their way through the roughest cover. The English variety of Newfoundland Dog is a noble creature, standing 30 inches high at the shoulders,
Fia 2.—Newfoundland Dog.
its hair waved or curly and of a black and white colour in nearly equal proportions, its tail massive and bushy and curled upwards at the extremity. Equally noble in disposition, it does not allow the annoyance of smaller dogs to disturb its serenity, while its patience with children is not reedily exhausted. In defence of its master's property it will fly with bull-dog ferocity at any intruder, while it will battle with the waters to save him from drowning. Its services in the saving of life are well known. When kept in confinement its temper is more variable, and in a fit of irritation these dogs have been known to attack those for whom they have previously shown the greatest regard; but
even in confinement such cases are altogether exceptional. This breed is supposed by some not to be indigenous to North America, but to have been introduced either on the first discovery of Newfoundland by the Norwegians about the year 1000, or on its re-discovery by Cabot in 1497. The Norwegians, according to Martin, have dogs closely resembling the Newfoundland breed, which are used in hunting bears and wolves, and which are armed with spiked collars in order to protect them from the wolves which seek to seize them by the throat The Great St Bernard Dog of the present day is a powerful animal, as large as a mastiff, with close short hair and pendulous ears, and varying in colour, in one case being described as "sandy red or tawny" with black muzzle, in another as " more or less marked with grey, liver colour, and black clouds." Previous to 1820 there existed another breed of these dogs, closely allied. in form and size to the Newfoundland, but in that year the greater portion of them died of an epidemic, which necessitated the introduction of the present variety. These dogs are kept by the monks of the Hospice of St Bernard, in their convent, situated on one of the most dangerous passes between Switzerland and Italy, near the top of the Great St Bernard, where they are trained to the work of rescuing travellers who, overtaken by the snowstorm, may have lost their way, or sunk benumbed by the cold. On such occasions these sagacious and powerful dogs set out from the convent in pairs, one bearing a flask of spirits attached to his neck, the other with a cloak. Should they come upon the baffled yet struggling traveller, they conduct him to the convent; but should he have succumbed and be covered bv the snow, their keen scent detects his presence although buried several feet beneath the surface. By loud barking—and a young dog of this breed kept many years ago in the suburbs of Edinburgh was able to make itself heard a mile away—they I pprise the monks of the need of succour, while with their feet they attempt to clear away the snow from the body. In this way these dogs are instrumental in saving many lives every year, although often at the sacrifice of their own; one dog which thus met its death bore a medal stating that it had been the means of saving twenty-two lives.
IL Greyhounds.—Representations on Egyptian monuments prove the existence.of the greyhound race of dogs at least 3000 years ago, and the silky-haired breeds existing in Egypt, Arabia, and Persia at the present day are probably the slightly modified descendants of those ancient forms. The numerous varieties of this race may be conveniently grouped into the wire-haired and smooth-haired breeds,—of the first of which the Irish Greyhound or Wolfdog is an example. In former times this magnificent breed was employed in Ireland in hunting the wolf and the stag, but the extirpation of these beasts of chase led to the neglect and consequent degeneracy of the breed, and it has now become extinct in that country. It was probably introduced from the sister isle into Scotland, where its modified descendant, the Scottish Deerhound, in hunting the stag still bears testimony to the great strength and agility of its progenitor. The Old English Greyhound was only allowed to be kept by the nobles and princes, and the killing of it was, under the old game laws, a felony punishable by death. It was employed in conning the red deer and fallow deer, and Queen Elizabeth is said to have witnessed, on one occasion, the pulling down of 16 bucks by greyhounds. These must have been much more powerful animals than the modern English breed, which, however, is regarded as the finest of the smooth-haired greyhounds. In speed and wind it is unrivalled, all other points having been sacrificed to these by breeders. It has | thus almost lost the power of scent, and is the only dog 1 that hunts by sight alone, hence probably the name gate
while on hilly ground it is probably superior to it Every part of its body is suggestive of activity and speed—the# long and pointed muzzle, the narrow head, thin neck, chest deep and flanks contracted, long slender legs, and the tail narrow and curved upwards. It is exceedingly docile, good-tempered, and affectionate. The colour varies in different breeds, and even in individuals of the same breed. Bell suggests that the greyhound may owe its name to the prevailing colour of the original stock; while others, with more probability, derive it from the ancient British grech or greg, a dog. The Italian greyhound is a small but exceedingly elegant and delicate breed, relegated in this country to the parlour as a ladies' pet. The Lurcher is supposed to be the result of a cross between the rough greyhound and the sheep-dog, having the sharp, pointed muzzle of the former, and owing its diminished height but greater stoutness to the latter. It resembles the sheep-dog still more in its great intelligence, and in devotion to its master. That master is usually the poacher, and in his illegal pursuit of game, t'jo keeness of scent, the cunning, and the absolute silence of this dog render it the most suitable of all for such nocturnal work. It waylays the rabbit returning to its bHrrow, its cunning circumvents the hare where its speed would not avail, and it has strength sufficient to pull down the fallow deer. According to Colonel Smith these dogs sometimes run wild when their owners are captured and imprisoned, and when thus catering for themselves they have been regularly hunted with hounds.
III. Spahiel&—The spaniels are characterized by large pendulous ears, long silky hair often curled and shaggy, and acute scent. In cerebral development, and, consequently in intelligence, they are probably superior to all other dogs, while they are unrivalled in docility and in devotion to man's service. They include the Common Spaniel, the Water Dog, and the Setter, besides numerous fancy varieties, as King Charles's Spaniel, the Blenheim Spaniel, and the Maltese Dog. The Spaniel is the favourite of the sportsman, entering more than any other dog into his master's feelings, and seeming to enjoy the sport for its own sake. It is elegant in form, with remarkably long ears, and beautifully waved hair, usually of a red and white colour. It takes readily to the water, and has been known to exhibit a remarkable propensity, as well as great dexterity, in fish-catching. The Water Dog is larger than the spaniel, and is covered with abundant curly hair. Its colour is generally a mixture of black and white. From its aquatio habits it is of great service to the water-fowl sportsman as a retriever. It is readily taught to fetch and carry, and the sagacity which it shows in finding any article it has once seen, but which has afterwards been lost or
it has scented game rendering it specially serviceable. This habit, 'ike that of pointing, is probably, as Darwin suggests, "merely the exaggerated pause of an animal about to spring on its prey." It is generally white in colour, with large liver-coloured spots.
IV. Hounds.—Hounds are those dogs with long pendulous ears, close hair, and long deep muzzle which hunt by scent. They include the Bloodhound, Staghound, Foxhound, Harrier or Beagle, and Pointer.
The Bloodhound, regarded by many as the original stock from which rll the other varieties of British hounds have been derived, is now rare!/ to be met with in entire purity. Its distinguishing features are long, smooth, and pendulous ears, from 8 to 9 inches in length, full muzzle, broad breast, muscular limbs, and a deep sonorous voice. The prevailing colour is a reddish tan, darkening towards tho upper part, and often varied with large black spots. It stands about 28 inches high. The bloodhound is remarkable for the acnteness of its scent, Us discrimination in keeping to the particular scent on which it is first laid, and the intelligence and pertinacity with which it pursues its object to a successful issue. These qualities have been taken advantage of not only in the chase, but also in pursuit of felons and fugitivss of every kini According to Strabo, these dogs were used in an attack upon the Gauls. In the clan feuds of the Scottish Highlands, and in the frequent wars between England and Scotland, they were regularly employed in tracking fugitive warriors, and were thus employed, according to early chroniclers, in pursuit of Wallace and Bruce. The former is said to have put the Sleuth-hound, as it was called, off the scent by killing a suspected follower, on whose corpse the hound stood,
"Nor farther moved fra time »he found the blood." For a similar purpose captives were often killed. Bruce is said to have baffled his dogged pursuer as effectually, though less cruelly, by wading some distance down a stream, and then ascending a tree by a branch which overhung the water, and thus breaking the scent. In the histories of border feuds these dogs constantly appear as employed in the pursuit of enemies, and the renown of the warrior was great who,
"By wily turns and desperate bounds,
In suppressing the Irish rebellion in the time of Queen Elizabeth, the earl of Essex had, it is said, 800 of these animals accompanying the army, while in later times they became the terror of deer-stealers. and for this purpose were kept by the earis, of Bacciench so late as the 18th century, and even at the present time their remarkable power of seen; is occasionally employed with success in the detection of murder. The Cuban Bloodhound is of Spanish descent, and differs considerably in form from the English variety, having email, though pendulous ears, with the nose more pointed, and with a more ferocious appearance. Its employment in the capture of runaway slaves, and in the cruelties connected with the suppression of negro insurrections, has brought the animal into the evil repute which more properly belongs to the inhuman masters, who thus prostituted the courage, sagacity, and pertinacity of this noble dog to such revolting purposes.
The Staghbund has been generally regarded as the result of a cross between the slow-paced old southern hound
III., who was himself ardently attached to the sport of stag-hunting, packs of these dogs were maintained in several parts of the country, but since the death of that monarch this form of hunting has declined, and the total extinction of these dogs at no distant date seems probable. The Foxhound is the huntinz-dog upon which the breeder has bestowed the greatest pains, and. according to Bell (British Quadrupeds), his efforts have been rewarded "by the attainment of the highest possible degree of excellence in tho union of fine scent, fleetness. strengtc, perseverance, and temper." It stands usually from 20 to 22 inches high at tho shoulders, and is of a white colour, marked with large clouds of black and tan. Its speed is such that a foxhound has been known to get over I miles in 7 minuter, while its endurance has been shown in such cases as the 10 hours' continuous run performed by the duke of Richmond's hounds in 1738 before killing the fox, during which many of the sportsmen tired three horses, and several of the latter died during the chase. The Harrier is smaller
perfect unless used to one scent and one style of hunting." A still smaller hound is the Beagjr • from 12 to 14 inches high, the most diminutive of the hunting dogs. It was formerly a great favourite, being used in hunting the hare, but in this it has been almost wholly superseded by the harrier. It is much slower than the foxhound or harrier, but in spito of this its exquisite scent and its perseverance seldom fail to secure for it the object of its chase, although it may bs after a leisurely hunt of 3 or 4 hours. The voice of the beagle is highly musical, and on this account a certain number of them were formerly added to each pack of hounds as a band now is to a regiment of soldiers. Diminutive packs, from 9 to 10 inches high, have been kept, and O'Connell used to beguile his winter leisure with a dozen of these tiny favourites. The Pointer is related to the hounds, and is supposed to be derived from an old Spanish breed. It is a beautiful, smooth-haired dog. coloured somewhat like a foxhound, active in its movement, and patient of fatigue. It owes its name to its habit of standing fixed at tho scent of game, and this, like the crouching of the setter, whether due to long-continued training alone, or to the modification and exaggeration by man of the instinctive start of surprise common to all dogs, when first aware of their prey, is now inherited, the puppy pointing before his training has begun. The strength of this pointing propensity was never more signally shown than in the case, told by Daniel, of two pointers which stood immovable as statues during the hour and a quarter occupied in sketching them. The Dalmatian Dog is a remarkably handsome breed, apparently intermediate between hound and pointer It is of a white colour, thickly j
Flo. 9.—D:.'raatiaD Dog.
marked with rounded black spots, bnt it is not sufficiently keen scented or sagacious to be of use in hunting. It has accordingly been relegated to the stables, where it receives the training necessary to a coach-dog. It is known in France as the Brague dc BengaU, and is supposed to be an Indian variety.
V. Mastiffs.—The Mastiff race of dogs is characterized by extreme shortness and breadth of muzzle, enormous strength of jaws, and general robustness of form. It includes the Mastiff, the Bull-dog, and the Pug.
The Mastiff equals in courage, while in strength,-intelligence, and mildness of disposition it excels, its near ally the bull-dog. It is commonly supposed to have been the breed of large dogs abundant in Britain during Boman times, which were exported in large numbers to Borne for the purpose of fighting in the Amphitheatre, although Colonel Smith believes that these early British dogs were only bull-dogs of a larger size than the present breed, and that the mastiff was introduced into Britain from the cold rejiona of Central Asia. It is a large dog, standing 30
it does not attack without considerable provocation, and it bear« the tcasings of children with the greatest good nature. When in former times, it entered into combat with wild animals, it has been known to engage a bear, a leopard, aud a lion, and pull each of them down in succession. At the present time tho breed is rarely met with pure, and is chiefly useful as a watch-dog, its sagacity and fidelity in this capacity being well known. While he shows great attachment to man when made his companion, the temper of the mastiff becomes soured by confinement, and ha is then dangerous to strangers. The Thibet Mastiff is larger than the English breed, and its countenance is still heavier. It is the watch-dog of the tribes inhabiting Thibet and the Central Asian table-land, to whom it is strongly attached, although exceedingly savage towards strangers. There is a huge mastiff figured on an Assyrian sculpture, 640 B.C., and Sir H. Bawlinson states that similar dogs are still imported into that country. The Bull-dog is the least sagacious, as well as the most ferocious and obstinate, of the dog tribe. It ji smaller than the mastiff, but is strongly built. Its broad, thick head, the projection of the lower jaw beyond the upper disclosing the incisor teeth, the sudden rise of the head from the face, and the scowling expression of the eyes, combine to make the countenance of the bull-dog terrible. Bell points out, in his History of British Quadruptds, the resemblance in the deep chest, the narrow loins, muscular limbs, and stiff tapering tail of the bull-dog to the elegant form of the greyhound. The chief difference appears in the muzzle, a variation which may have suddenly arisen in a single individual, and been perpetuated in its progeny. The ears of the bull-dog are short and semi-erect, and tho nostrils distended; the colour varies, being brindled in some, and black and white rh* others. It is ess«ntially a fighting-dog, and was formerly bred, for the brutal sport of bull-baiting, in which its terrible obstinacy usually gained for it tho victory. It differs from, other dogs in giving no warning of its attack by preliminary barking, and when Once it has fixed its teeth into the object of attack, no amount of torture will cause it to relax its hold. Colonel Smith states that he has seen ons "pinning down an American bison and holding his nose down till the animal gradually brought forward its hind feet, and, crushing the dog to death, tore his i;iuzzle out of the fangs, most dreadfully mangled;" and there is an instance on record of its returning to the attack on a boil,