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religion conld not lie in any unintelligible element; though I and bigoted contemporaries, Morgan attributes also to the we cannot know the real essence of God or of any of his apostles and to Jesus. He likewise expands at great length creatures, yet our beliefs about God must be thoroughly a theory of the origin of the Catholic Church much like that consistent with reason. Afterwards, Toland discussed, with sketched by Toland, but assumes that Paul and his party, considerable real learning and much show of candcur, the latterly at least, were distinctly hostile to the Judaical party comparative evidence for the canonical and apocryphal Scrip of their fellow-believers in Jesus as the Messias, while the tures, and demanded a careful and complete historical exami- college of the original twelve apostles and their adherents nation of the grounds on which our acceptance of the New viewed Paul and his followers with suspicion and disfavour. Testament canon rests. He contributed little to the solution | Persecution from without Morgan regards as the influence of the problem, but forced the investigation of the canon which mainly forced the antagonistic parties into the onealike on theologians and the reading public. Again, heness of the catholic and orthodox church. sketched a view of early church history, further worked out Annet made it his special work to invalidate belief in the by Semler, and surprisingly like that which, as elaborated resurrection of Christ, and to discredit the work of Paul. by the Tübingen school, is still held with modifications by a Chubb, the least learnedly educated of the deists, did large number of students of Christian antiquity. He tried more than any of them, save Herbert, to round his system to show, both from Scripture and extra-canonical literature, into a logical whole. From the New Testament be sought that the primitive church, so far from being an incorporate to show that the teaching of Christ substantially coincides body of believers with the same creed and customs, really with natural religion as he urderstood it. But his main consisted of two schools, each possessing its “own gospel" contention is that Christianity is not a doctrine but a life, -a school of Ebionites or Judaizing Christians, and the | not the reception of a system of truths or facts, but a pious more liberal school of Paul. These parties, consciously but effort to live in accordance with God's will here, in the hope amicably differing in their whole relation to the Jewish law of joining him hereafter. Chubb dwells with special and the outside world, were subsequently forced into a emphasis on the fact that Christ preached the gospel to non-natural uniformity. The cogency of Toland's argu- the poor, and argues, as Tindal had done, that the gospel ments was weakened by his manifest love of paradox. | must therefore be accessible to all men without any need

Collins, who had created much excitement by his for learned study of evidences for miracles, and intelligible Discourse of Free-thinking, insisting on the value and to the meauest capacity. necessity of unprejudiced inquiry, published at a later stage Dodwell's ingenious thesis, that Christianity is not of the deistic controversy the famous argument on the founded on argument, was certainly not meant as an aid to evidences of Christianity. Christianity is founded on faith; and, though its starting point is different from all Judaism; its main prop is the argument from the fulfil- other deistical works, it may safely be reckoued amongst ment of pruphecy. Yet no interpretation or re-arrangement their number. of the text of Old Testament prophecies will secure a fair Though himself contemporary with the earlier deists, and non-allegorical correspondence between these and their Bolingbroke's principal works were posthumously published alleged fulfilment in the New Testament. The inference is after interest in the controversy had declined. His whole not expressly draw.. Collins indicates the possible extent strain, in sharp contrast to that of most of his predecessors, to which the Jews may have been indebted to Chaldeans is cynical and satirical, and suggests that most of the and Egyptians for their theological views, especially as matters discussed were of small personal concern to himself. great part of the Old Testament would appear to have been He gives fullest scope to ihe ungenerous view that a vast re-modelled by Ezra ; and, after dwelling on the points in proportion of professedly, revealed truth was ingeniously which the prophecies attributed to Daniel differ from all palmed off by the more cunning on the more ignorant for other Old Testament predictions, he states the greater the corvenience of keeping the latter under. But he writes number of the arguments still used to show that the book with keenness and wit, and knows well how to use the of Daniel deals with events past and contemporaneous, and materials already often taken advantage of by earlier duists. is from the pen of a writer of the Maccabean period.

In the substance of what they received as natural religion, Woolston, at first to all appearance working earnestly in the deists were for the most part agreed ; Herbert's articles behalf of an allegorical but believing interpretation of the continued to contain the fundamentals of their theology. New Testament miracles, ended by assaulting, with a yet Religion, though not identified with morality, had its most unknown violence of speech, the absurdity of accepting important outcome in a faithful following of the eternal laws them as actual historical events, and did his best to over- of morality, regarded as the will of God. With the throw the credibility of Christ's principal miracles. The virtuous life was further to be conjoined a humble disposi. bitterness of his outspoken invective against the clergy, tion to adore the Creator, avoiding all factitious forms of against all priestcraft and priesthood, was a new feature in worship as worse than useless. The small value attributed deistic literature, and injured the author more than it to all outward and special forms of service, and the want furthered his cause.

of any sympathetic craving for the communion of saints, Tindal's aim seems to have been a sober statement of the saved the deists from attempting to found a free-thinking whole case in favour of natural religion, with copious but church, a creedless communion. They seem generally to moderately worded criticism of such beliefs and usages in have inclined to a quietistic accommodation to established the Christian and other religions as he conceived to forms of faith, till better times came. They steadfastly be either non-religious or directly immoral and unwhole sought to eliminate the miraculous from theological belief, some. The work in which he endeavoured to prove that and to expel.from the system of religious truth all debattrue Christianity is as old as the creation, and is really but able, difficult, or mysterious articles. They aimed at a the republication of the gospel of nature, soon gained the rational and intelligible faith, professedly in order to name of the “Deist's Bible."

make religion, in all its width and depth, the heritage Morgan criticised with great freedom the moral character of every man. They regarded with as much suspicion of the persons and events of Old Testament history, the notion of a “ peculiar people" of God, as of a unique developing the theory of conscious “ accommodation " on revelation, and insisted on the salvability of the heathen. the part of the leaders of the Jewish church. This They rejected the doctrine of the Trinity, and protested accommodation of truth, by altering the form and substance against mediatorship, atonement, and the imputed righteof it to meet the views and secure the favour of ignorant | ousness of Christ, always laying more stress on the teach

ing of Christ than on the teaching of the church about seemed therefore entitled to leave their mark on subsequent him; but they repeatedly laid claim to the name of theological thought. Yet while the seed they sowed was Christians or of Christian deists. Against superstition, taking deep root in France and in Germany, the English fanaticism, and priestcraft they were incessantly lifting deists, the most notable men of their time, were soon forup their testimony. They all recognized the soul of man gotten, or at least ceased to be a prominent factor in the not regarded as intellectual alone-as the ultimate intellectual life of the century. The controversies they court of appeal. But they varied much in their attitude had provoked collapsed rather than were finally settled ; towards the Bible. Some were content to argue their and deism became a by-word even amongst those who were own ideas into Scripture, and those they disliked out of in no degree anxious to appear as champions of ortho it; to one or two it seemed a satisfaction to discover diffi- doxy. culties in Scripture, to point to historical inaccuracies and The fault was not wholly in the subjectivism of the moral defects. Probably Chubb's position on this head is movement. But the subjectivism that founded its theology most fairly characteristic of deism. He holds that the on the "common sense" of the individual was accompanied narrative, especially of the New Testament, is in the main by a fatal pseudo-universalism which, cutting away all accurate, but, as written after the events narrated, has left that was peculiar, individual, and most intense in all room for misunderstandings and mistakes. The apostles religions, left in any one of them but a lifeless form. were good men, to whom, after Christ, we are most A theology consisting of a few vague generalities was indebted; but they were fairly entitled to their, own sufficient to sustain the piety of the best of the deists; but private opinions, and naturally introduced these into their it had not the concreteness or intensity necessary to tako writings. The epistles, according to Chubb, contain errors a firm hold on those whom it emancipated from the old of fact, false interpretations of the Old Testament, and beliefs. The negative side of deism came to the front, sometimes disfigurement of religious truth. Fortunately, and, communicated with fatal facility, seems ultimately to however, the points on which the private opinions of apos- have constituted the deism that was commonly professed tolic men might naturally differ most widely, such as the at the clubs of the wits and the tea-tables of polite society. doctrine of the Logos, are matters wbich have nothing to do But the intenser religious life before which deism fell was with the salvation of souls.

also a revolt against the abstract and argumentative ortho. The general tendency of the deistical writings is doxy of the time. sufficiently self-consistent to justify a common name.

But That the deists appreciated fully the scope of difficulties it is vain to speak of deism as a compact system, or to ( in Christian theology and the sacred books is not their regard it as the outcome of any one line of philosophical most noteworthy feature; but that they made a stand, thought. Of matters generally regarded as pertaining to sometimes cautiously, often with outspoken fearlessness, natural religion, that on which they were least agreed was against the presupposition that the Bible is the religion of the certainty, philosophical demonstrability, and moral Protestants. They themselves gave way to another presupsignificance of the immortality of the soul, so that the deists position equally fatal to true historical research, though have sometimes been grouped into “mortal” and “inmortal" | in great measure common to them and their opponents, deists. For some the belief in future rewards and punish- It was assumed by deists in debating against the orthodox, monts was, an essentia) of religion; some seem to have as it is now by orthodox Protestants in contending against questioned the doctrine as a whole; and, while others the Romish Church, that the flood of error in the hostile made it a basis of morality, Shaftesbury protested camp was due to the benevolent cunning or deliberato selfagainst the ordinary theological form of the belief as seeking of unscrupulous men, held to by the ignorant with immoral. No two thinkers could well be more opposed the obstinacy of prejudice. than Shaftesbury and Hobbes ; yet sometimes ideas from Yet deism deserves to be remembered as a strenuous proboth were combined by the same writer. Collins was a test against bibliolatry in every degree and against all pronounced necessitarian; Morgan regarded the denial of traditionalism in theology. It sought to look not a few free will as tantamount to atheism. And nothing can be facts full in the face, from a new point of view and with a more misleading than to assume that the belief in a Creator, | thoroughly modern, though unhistorical spirit. It was not a existent wholly apart from the work of his hands, was religious movement; and though, as å defiance of the characteristic of the deists as a body. In none of them is accepted theology, its character was mainly theological, any theory on the subject specially prominent; save in their the deistical crusade belongs, not to the history of the denial of miracles, of supernatural revelation, and a special church, or of dogma, but to the history of general redemptive interposition of God in history, they seem to culture. It was an attitude of mind, not a body of have thought of providence much as the mass of their doctrine ; its nearest parallel is probably to be found in opponents did. Herbert starts his chief theological work the eclectic strivings of the Renaissance philosophy and with the design of vindicating God's providence. Shaftes- the modernizing tendencies of cisalpine humanism. The bury vigorously protests against the notion of a wholly controversy was assumed to be against prejudice, ignortranscendent God. Morgan more than once expresses a ance, obscurantism ; what monks were to Erasmus the theory that would now be pronounced one of immanence. clergy as such were to Woolston. Yet English deism was Toland, the inventor of the name of pantheism, was noto in many ways characteristically English. The deists were, riously, for a great part of his life, in some sort a pantheist. as usually bappens with the leaders of English thought, no And while as thinkers they diverged in their opinions, so class of professional men, but represented every rank in too the deists differed radically from one another in their the community. They made their appeal in the mother character, in reverence for their subject, and in religious tongue to all men who could read and think, and sought earnestness and moral worth.

to reduce the controversy to its most direct practical issue, The deists were not powerful writers; none of them was making it turn as much as possible on hard facts or the data distinguished by wide and accurate scholarship; hardly of common sense. And, with but one or two exceptions, any was either a deep or comprehensive thinker. But they avoided wildness in their language as much as in the though they generally had the best scholarship of England general scheme of theology they proposed. If at times they against them, they were bold, acute, well-informed men; had recourse to ambiguity of speech and veiled polemic, they appreciated more fully than their contemporaries not this might be partly excused by the death of Aikinhead a few truths now all but universally accepted ; and they on the scaffold, and Woolston's imprisonment.

French deism, the direct progeny of the English move- | education irom his father, a native of Antwerp, who, having ment, was equally short-lived. Voltaire was to the end a embraced the reformed religion, had been compelled to deist of the school of Bolingbroke ; Rousseau could have take refuge in Holland. Entering his father's business at claimed kindred with the nobler deists. Diderot was for an early age, he found leisure to cultivate his taste for a time heartily in syin patly with deistic thought; and the literature and especially for poetry, and to acquire without Encyclopédie was in its earlier portion an organ of deism. assistance a competent knowledge of English, French, Latin, Bat as Locke's philosophy became in France sensationalism, and Italian. His first poem was a paraphrase of the and as Locke's pregnant question, reiterated by Collins, how Lamentations of Jeremiah (Klaagliedern van Jeremias), Fe know that the divine power might not confer thought which was followed by translations and imitations of on matter, led the way to dogmatic materialism, so deism Horace, Juvenal, and other Latin poets. The most soon gave way to forms of thought more directly and ex important of his original poems were a collection of tremely subrersive of the traditional theology.

epigrams (Puntdichten) and a satire in praise of avarice (Lof In Germany thero was a native free-thinking theology der Geldzucht). The latter is his best known work. nearly contemporary with that of England, whence it was written in a vein of light and yet effective irony, it is greatly dereloped and supplemented. The compact rational | usually ranked by critics along with Erasmus's Praise of philosophy of Wolff nourished a theological rationalism Folly. Dekker died at Amsterdam in November 1666. which in Reimarus tas wholly undistinguishable from dog. A complete collection of his poems, edited by Brouerius matic deism ; while, in the case of the historico-critical van Nideck, was published at Amsterdam in 1726 under school to which Semler belonged, the distinction is not tbe title Exercises Poétiques (2 vols. 4to). Selections from always easily drawn—although these rationalists professedly his poems are included in Siegenbeck's Proeven van recognized in Scripture a real divine revelation, mingled nederduitsche Dichtkunde (1823), and from his epigrams in with local and temporary elements. It deserves to be Geijsbeek's Epigrammatische Anthologie, 1827. noted here that the former, the theology of the Aufklärung, DEKKER, THOMAS, dramatist. It is impossible to was, like that of the deists, destined to a shortlived make out, from the scanty records of Dekker's personal notoriety; whereas the solid, accurate, and scholarly | life, what manner of man he was. His name occurs freresearches of the rationalist critics of Germany, undertaken quently in Henslowe's Diary during the last year of the with no merely polemical spirit, not only form an epoch 16th century; he is mentioned there as receiving loans in the history of theology, but have taken, a permanent and payments for writing plays in conjunction with Ben place in the body of theological science. Ere rational Jonson, Chettle, Haughton, and Day, and he would appear ismus vulgaris fell before the combined assault of Schleier- to have been then in the most active employment as a nacher's subjective theology and the deeper historical in- playwright. The titles of the plays on which he tras sight of the Hegelians, it had found a refuge successively engaged from April 1599 to March 1599-1600 are Troilue in the Kantian postulates of the practical reason, and in the and Cressida, Orestes Fures, Agamemnon, The Stepmother's Fague but earnest faith-philosophy of Jacobi.

Tragedy, Bear a Brain, Pagge of Plymouth, Robert the In England, though the deists were forgotten, their spirit Second, Patient Grissel, The Shoemaker's Holiday, Truth's was not wholly dead. For men liko Hume and Gibbon Supplication to Candlelight, The Spanish Moor's Tragedy, the standpoint of deism was long left behind ; yet The Seven IV ise Master's. At that date it is evident that Gibbon's famous two chapters might well have been Dekker's services were in great request for the stage. He gritten by a deist. Even now, between scientific atheism | is first mentioned in the Diary two years before, as having and speculative agnosticism on the one hand and church sold a book; the payments in 1599 are generally made in orthodoxy on the other, many seem to cling to a theology advance, “in earnest” of work to be done. In the case nearly allied to deism.' Rejecting miracles and denying of three of the above plays, Orestes Fures, Truth's Supplicathe infallibility of Scripture, protesting against Calvinistic tion, and the Shoemaker's Holiday, Dekker is paid as the views of sovereign grace and having no interest in evan- sole author. Only the Sicoemaker's Holiday has been gelical Arminianism, the faith of such inquirers seems fairly preserved; it was published in 1600. It would be unsafe to coincide with that of the deists. Wherever religious to argue from the classical subjects of some of these plays indifferentism is rife, the less generous forms of deism are that Dekker was then a young man from the university, still alive. And even some cultured theologians, the his- who had come up like so many others to make a living by torical representatives of latitudinarianism, seem to accept writing for the stage. Classical knowledge was then in the the great body of what was contended for by the deists, air; playwrights in want of a subject were content with though they have a fuller appreciation of the power of translations, if they did not know the originals. However spiritual truth, and a truer insight into the ways of God educated, Dekker was then a young man just out of his with man in the history of the world.

teens, if he spoke with any accuracy when he said that The deists displayed a singular incapacity to understand he was threescore in 1637 ; and it was not in scholarly the true conditions of history; yet amongst them there themes that he was destined to find his true vein. The were some who pointed the way to the truer, more gener- call for the publication of the Shoemaker's Holiday, which ous interpretation of the past. When Shaftesbury wrote deals with the life of the city, showed him where his that religion is still a discipline, and progress of the soul strength lay. To give a general idea of the substance of towards perfection,” he gave birth to the same thought that Dekker's plays, there is no better way than to call him the was afterwards hailed in Lessing's Erziehung des Menschen Dickens of the Elizabethan period. The two men were as geschlechtes as the dawn of a fuller and a purer light on the unlike as possible in their habits of work, Dekker having history of religion and on the development of the spiritual apparently all the thriftlessness and impecunious shamelessbife of mankind.

ness of Micawber himself. Dekker's Bohemianism appears See Leland's View of the Principal Deistical Writers, 2 vols.

in the slightness and hurry of his work, a strong contrast 1754 ; Lechler's Geschichte des Englischen Deismus, 1841 ; Rev.

to the thoroughness and rich completeness of every labour Jobn Hunt, Rcligious Thought in England, 3 vols. 1870-72; Leslie Stephen, History of English Thought in the 18th Century, 2 vols.

to which Dickens applied himself; perhaps also in the 1676.

(D. P.) exquisite freshness and sweetness of his songs, and the DEJANIRA, the wife of Hercules. See HERCULES. natural charm of stray touches of expression and description

DEKKER, JEREMIAS DE (1610_1666), a Dutch poet, in his plays. But he was like Dickens in the bent of his Fas born at Dort. in 1610. He received his entire l genius towams the representation of the life around him in

London, as well as in the humorous kindliness of his way more successful combination with Dekker than Webster; of looking at that life, his vein of sentiment, and his eye the Honest Whore, or the Converted Courtesan, is generally for odd characters. There is a passage in Ben Jonson's regarded as the best that bears Dekker's name, and in it caricature of Dekker under the name of “Crispinus.”—an he bad the assistance of Middleton, although the assistance allusion to his Shoemaker's Holiday,-- from which it would was so immaterial as not to be worth acknowledging in the appear that Dekker prided himself on his powers of title-page. Still that Middletou, a man of little genius but observation. The less is included in the greater; the of much practical talent and robust humour, was serviceable random pickings of Dekker, hopping here and there in to Dekker in determining the form of the play may well be search of a subject, give less complete results than the more believed. The two wrote another play in concert, the systematic labours of Dickens. Dekker's Simon Eyre, Roaring Girl, for which Middleton probably contributed a the good-hearted, mad shoemaker, and his Orlando Frisco- good deal of the matter, as well as a more symmetrical form baldo, are touched with a kindly humour in which Dickens than Dekker seems to have been capable of devising. In would have delighted; his Infelices, Fiamettas, Tormiellas, the Witch of Edmonton, except in a few scenes, it is even his Bellafronta, have a certain likeness in type difficult to trace the hand of Dekker with any certainty; to the heroines of Dickens; and his roaring blades and his collaborateurs were John Ford and William Rowley ; to their gulls are prototypes of Sir Mulberry Hawk and Lord Ford probably belongs the intense brooding and murderous Frederick Verisopht." . Only there is this great difference wrath of the old hag, which are too direct and hard in their in the spirit of the two writers, that Dekker wrote without energy for Dekker, while Rowley may be supposed to be the smallest apparent wish to reform the life that he saw, responsible for the delineation of country life. desiring only to exhibit it; and that on the whole, apart When Langhaine wrote his Account of the English from his dramatist's necessity of finding interesting matter, Dramatic Poets in 1691, he spoke of Dekker as being he cast his eye about rather with a liking for the discovery more famous for the contention he had with Ben Jonson of good under unpromising appearances than with any for the bays, than for any great reputation he had gained determination to detect and expose vice. The observation by his own writings.” This is an opinion that could not be must also be made that Dekker's personages have much professed now, when Dekker's work is read. In the contenmore individual character, more of that mixture of good tion with Ben Jonson, one of the most celebrated quarrels and evil which we find in real human beings. Hack-writer of authors, the origin of which is matter of dispute, Dekker though Dekker was, and writing often under sore pressure seems to have had very much the best of it.

We can there is no dramatist whose personages have more of the imagine that Jonson's attack was stinging at the time, breath of life in them; drawing with easy, unconstrained because it seems to be full of sarcastic personalities, but it hand, he was a master of those touches by which an is dull enough now when nobody knows what Dekker was imaginary figure is brought home to us as a creature with like, nor what was the character of his mother. There is human interests. A very large part of the motive power in nothing in the Poetaster that has any point as applied to his plays consists in the temporary yielding to an evil Dekker's powers as a dramatist, while on the contrary the passion. The kindly philosophy that the best of natures Untrussing of the L'umorous Poet is full of pungent ridiculo may be for a time perverted by passionate desires is the of Jonson's style, and of retorts and insults conceived in the chief animating principle of his comedy. He delights in happiest spirit of good-natured mockery. Dekker has been showing women listening to temptation, and apparently accused of poverty of invention in adopting the characters of yielding, but still retaining sufficient control over them the Poetaster, but it is of the very pith of the jest that selves to be capable of drawing back when on the verge of Dekker should have set on Jonson's own foul-mouthed the precipice. The wives of the citizens were his heroines, Captain Tucca to abuse Horace himself. pursued by the unlawful addresses of the gay young Dekker's plays were published in the following order:- The courtiers ; and on the whole Dekker, from inclination

Shoemaker's Holiday, 1600; The Pleasant Comedy of old Fortunatus,

1600 ; Satiromastriz, 1602 ; Patient Grissel in conjunction with apparently as well as policy, though himself, if Ben

Chettle and Haughton) 1603 ; The Honest Whore (Part i.) 1604 ; Jonson's satire had any point, a bit of a dandy in his The Whore of Babylon, 1607; Westward Ho! Northward Hoi youth, took the part of morality and the city, and either and Sir Thomas Wyatt (in conjunction with Webster), 1607; struck the rakes with remorse or made the objects of their

The Roaring Girl (in conjunction with Middleton), 1611 ; If it

From machinations clever enough to outwit them.

not good, the Devil is in it, 1612; The Virgin Martyr (in conjunc

tion with Massinger), 1622 ; Match Me in London, 1631 ; The Dekker's plays we get a very lively impression of all that Wonder of a Kingdom, 1636 ; The Sun's Darling (not published was picturesque and theatrically interesting in the city life till 1656); and The Wilch of Edmonton (written in conjuncof the time, the interiors of the shops and the houses, the

tion with Rowley and Ford), 1658. An edition of the collected

dramatic works of Dekker is published by John Pearson. Some tastes of the citizens and their wives, the tavern and

of his prose tracts, of which he wrote many, are reprinted by the tobacco shop manners of the youthful aristocracy and their Shakespeare Society, notably The Seven Deadly Sins of London and satellites. The social student cannot afford to overlook The Gull's Hornbook.

(W. M.) Dekker; there is no other dramatist of that age from whom DE LA BECHE, HENRY THOMAS (1796–1855), one of we can get such a vivid picture of contemporary manners the band of enthusiastic workers by whom the science of in London. He drew direct from life; in so far as he geology was developed so rapidly in England during the idealized, he did so not in obedience to scholarly precepts early part of this century, was born in the year 1796. His or dogmatic theories, but in the immediate interests of father, an officer in the army, possessed landed property in good-natured farce and tender-hearted sentiment.

Jamaica, but died while his son was still young. The boy In all the serious parts of Dekker's plays there is a accordingly spent his youth with his mother among the incharming delicacy of touch, and his smallest scraps of song teresting and picturesque coast cliffs of the south-west of are bewitching ; but his plays, as plays, owe much more to England, where probably he early imbibed that love for the interest of the characters and the incidents than to any geological pursnits, and cultivated that marked artistic excellence of construction. We see what use could be made faculty, to which in large measure be owed the bigh posiäion of his materials by a stronger intellect in Westward Hol he ultimately reached. When fourteen years of age, being which he wrote in conjunction with John Webster. The destined, like his friend Murchison, for the military pro play, somehow, though the parts are more firmly knit fession, he entered the college at Great Marlowe, where he together, and it has more unity of purpose, not so in specially distinguished himself by the rapidity and skill teresting as Dekker's uvaided work. Middleton formed a with which he executed sketches showing the salient

features of a district. Bat this aptitude, which would have practical experience, multifarions knowledge, philosophical been of great service in a soldier's life, was not called forth insight, and a genins for artistic delineation of geological for warlike purposes. The peace of 1815 changed the phenomena. He received from many foreign societies career of many young aspirants for military distinction, and recognition of his services to science, and at the close of among them De la Beche. Instead of pursuing the calling his life was awarded the Wollaston medal—the highest he had chosen, he began to devote himself with over honour in the gift of the Geological Society of London. increasing assiduity to the pursuit of geology. When only After a life of constant activity he began to suffer from twenty-one years of age he joined the Geological Society of partial paralysis, but, though becoming gradually worse, London, continuing throughout life to be one of its most continued able to transact his official business until a few active, useful, and honoured members. Possessing a for- days before his death, which took place on 13th April 1855. tane sufficient for the gratification of his tastes, he visited DELACROIX, FERDINAND VICTOR EUGÈNE, (1798many localities of geological interest in Britain, and spent | 1863), a French painter of history, was born at Charentonsome time on the Continent studying features in the St-Maurice, near Paris, 26th April 1798. His father was a geology and physical geography of France and Switzerland. partisan of the most violent faction during the time of the His journeys seldom failed to bear fruit in suggestive notes, J Revolution. The family affairs seem to have been conducted papers, or sketches. Early attachment to the south-west in the wildest manner, and the accidents that befell the of England led him back to that region, where, with child, well authenticated as they are said to be, make it augmented power from enlarged experience and reflection, almost a miracle that he survived. He was first nearly he began the detailed investigation of the rocks of Cornwall burned to death in the cradle by a nurse falling asleep over and Devon. Thrown much into contact with the mining a novel, and the candle dropping on the coverlet; this left community of that part of the country, he conceived the permanent marks on his arms and face. He was next idea that the nation ought to compile a geological map of dropped into the sea by another bonne, who was climbing the United Kingdom, and collect and preserve specimens to op a ship's side to see her lover. He was nearly poisoned, illustrate, and perhaps even to aid in further developing, its and nearly choked, and, to crown all, be tried to hang him. mineral industries. He showed his skilful management of self, without any thought of suicide, in imitation of a print affairs by inducing the Government of the day to recognize exhibiting a man in that position of final ignominy. "The his work and give him an connection with prediction of a charlatan founded on his horoscope has been the Ordnance Survey. . This formed the starting-point of preserved :-“Cet enfant deviendra un homme célèbre, the present Geological Survey of Great Britain and Ireland mais sa vie sera des plus laborieuses, des plus tourmentées, Year by year increasing stores of valuable specimens were et toujours livrée à la contradiction." transmitted to London ; for De la Beche enlisted the sym- Delacroix the elder died at Bordeaux when Eugene was pathy and co-operation of the mining authorities of Corn- seven years of age, and his mother returned to Paris and wall and Devon. At last the building where the young placed him in the Lycée Napoléon. Afterwards, on his Museum of Economic Geology was placed became too small determining to be a painter, he entered the atélier of Baron But De la Beche, having seen how fruitful his first idea Guérin, who affected to treat him as an amateur. His had become, determined to use all his persuasion to prevail fellow-pupil was Scheffer, who was alike by temperament on the authorities not merely to provide a large structure, and antecedents the opposite of the bizarre Delacroix, and but to widen the whole scope of the scientific establishment the two remained antagonistic to the end of life. Dela of which he was the bead, so as to impart to it the character croir's acknowledged power and yet want of success with of a great educational institution where practical as well as | artists and critics—Thiers being his only advocate perhaps theoretical instruction should be given in every branch of mainly resulted from his bravura and rude dash in the use science necessary for the conduct of mining work. In this of the brush, at a time when smooth roundness of surface endeavour he was again successful. Parliament sanctioned was general. His first important picture, Dante and Virgil, the erection of a museum in Jermyn Street, London, and was painted in his own studio; and when Guérin went to the organization of a staff of professors with laboratories see it he flew into & passion, and told him his picture was and other appliances. The establishment was opened in absurd, detestable, exaggerated. “Why ask me to como 1851. The Geological Survey also, which had grown up and see this you knew what I must say." Yet his work under his care, no longer under the Ordnance Department, was received at the Salon, and produced an enthusiasm of received a new organization and an increase to its staff. debate (1822). Some said Géricault had worked on it, but To Do la Beche belongs the high praise of having all treated it with respect. Still in private his position, entirely originated and developed this important branch of even after the larger tragic picture, the Massacre of Scipio, the public service. Many foreign countries have since had been deposited in the Luxembourg by the Government, formed geological surveys avowedly based upon the became that of an Ishmaelite The war for the freedom of organization and experience of that of the United Kingdom. Greece then going on moved him deeply, and his next two The British colonies, also, have in many instances established pictures-Marino Faliero Decapitated on the Giant's Stairsimilar surveys for the development of their mineral case of the Ducal Palace (which has always remained a resources, and have had recourse to the parent survey for European success), and Greece Lamenting on the Ruins of advice and for officers to conduct the operations

Missólonghi— with many smaller works, were . exhibited De la Beche was an able mineralogist as well as an for the benefit of the patriots in 1826. This exhibition admirable field-geologist. He published numerous memoirs was much visited by the public, and next year he produced on English geology in the Transactions of the Geological another of his important works, Sardanapalus, from Byron's Society of London, as well as in the Memoirs of the drama. After this, he says, “ I became the abomination Geological Survey of the United Kingdom. He likewise of painting, I was refused water and salt,"—but, he adds wrote & valuable text-book of geology, and a work of with singularly happy naïveté, “ J'étais enchanté de moisingular breadth and clearness Researches in Theoretical même ! " The patrimony he inherited, or, perhaps it Geology-in which he enunciated a philosophical treatment should be said, what remained of it, was 10,000 livres de of geological questions much in advance of his time. An rente, and with economy he lived on this, and continued carly volume. How to Observe in Geology, was rewritten and the expensive process of painting large historical enlarged by him late in life, and published under the title pictures. In 1831 he reappeared in the Salon with six of The Geological Obserwer. It was marked by wido works, and immediately after left for Morocco, where

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