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tion of Parliament He was found guilty, and pot in prison in what lie calls the "wyndy and richt vnplesant castell and royk of Edinburgh," where he continued for about a year. This harsh step of the duke of Albany seems to have brought about a feeling of sympathy for Douglas. He was at length set at liberty, and, to make some amends, the duke permitted him to be consecrated bishop of Dunkeld.

The marriage of tho queen with the earl of Angus proved an unhappy one; and, in consequence of his illtreatment of her, the queen separated from her husband and joined with the regent against the Douglases. Angus fled to the borders for a time; and in 1521 his uncle Gavin was deprived of his bishopric. The bishop then took shelter at the court of Henry VIII, but in 1522 he died of the plague at London, in the forty-eighth year of his age. His remains were interred in the Hospital Church of the Sa7oy.

The works of Bishop Douglas, though not numerous, are important. They consist of—(1) The Police of Honour, a poem written in 1501,—an allegorical description of many gorgeous cavalcades of famous persons trooping to a magnificent palace somewhat like Chaucer's Temple of Fame, in the execution of which Douglas has displayed much originality of treatment; (2) Another allegorical poem called King Hart, or- the heart of man, descriptive of tho progress of life from youth to age; (3) A short poem oiled Contcience; and (4) A Translation of Vie j£mid of F rgil, with the supplemental book of Maphseus Vegius. To each book a short prologue is prefixed, of which the one before the 12th,

"Where splendid Douglas paints the blooming May,n is perhaps the finest effort of his muse.

This Translation of Virgil, by which Douglas is best known, is a work of which Scotland will always be proud, as it was the first metrical translation of a classical author made in Britain, and the precursor of many others. Although it is very diffuse, from the difficulty its author had in adapting the Doric language of his country to the purposes of translation, by the same reason it is a work of considerable philological value in tracing the history of the literary language of Scotland. Although Douglas was the first native writer who applied the name " Scottis " to the language he employed, he has Scotticized many Latin words, and imported many expressions from the French; while his admiration of Chaucer has induced him to avail himself of some of the grammatical forms used by that poet Still, his translation, written in tbe broad and widely spread dialect common at an early period to the north of England and Scotland, will always form one of the most important landmarks in Scottish philology. In concluding it Douglas unfortunately took farewell of poetical composition, and entered the arena of political strife, as the following extract shows:—

"Thus vp my pen and instromentis fall yore
On Virgillis post I fix for evirmore.
fteuir from mens syk matteris to discryue.
My muse sail now be clene contemplatiue
And solitar as doith the byrd in cage.
Sen fer byworn is all my cnyldis age,
And of my dayia nere passit the hall date
That nature suld me grantyn, wele I wate;
Thus, ten I feill donn sweyand the balhmcr,
Here I resigne vp younkeris obseroance,
And wyil direk my labouris euennoir
Vnto the commoun welth and Goddia gloir."1

Several early MSS. of Douglas's Translation of Virgil exist One is preserved in the library of Trinity College, Cambridge, copied by his amanuensis, Matthew Geddes, from the bishop's own papers. Two are in the library of the university of Edinburgh, and one in that of the marquis of Bath at Longleat "Sf tha

1 Works, vol. ir. p. 233. The last .tiro lines occur in the BL I* cd. at 1553.

printed editions one was issued by Willinm Copland at London in 1553, one was printed by Ruddimnn at Edinburgh in 1711, and one was presented to the members of tho liannatync Club in 1889. The Police of Honour was first printed at London by William Copland, without date, but probably in 1553 j and an edition, rinted by "Johne Ros for Henrie" Charteris," appeared at Edinurgh in 1579, of which only two copies are known to exist This rare edition was reprinted for the Bannatync Club. The poems called King Hart and Conscience exist in the Maillaud MS. in the Pepysian Library, Cambridge. The works of the bishop were first collected and published at Edinburgh in 1874, under the editorship of Mr John Small, with a life prefixed, and a glossary appended. (J. SM.)

DOUGLAS, Stkphex Abkold (1813-1861), an American statesman, was born at Brandon, in tho Stato of Vermont, on the 23d April 1813. His father, a physician, died when he was still an infant, and in his youth he had to struggle with poverty. He was apprenticed to a cabinetmaker, but his health failed, and he quitted the employment after a year and a half. He next studied for three years at the academy of Canandaigua, giving special attention in the latter part of his course to law. In 1833 he went west to seek his fortune, and settled in Jacksonville, Illinois. Here he supported himself for a few months by acting as an auctioneer's clerk and keeping a school. Called to the bar in March 1834, he quickly obtained a large and lucrative practice, and so early as the .following year was elected attorney-general of the State. In December 1835 he was elected a member of the legislature, in 1837 he was appointed registrar of the land office at Springfield, and in December 1840 he became secretary of state of Illinois. He was a judge of the supreme court of Illinois from 1841 till November 1843, when he resigned the office in order tc stand a candidate for Congress in the Democratic interest. In 1837 he had failed to secure his return by a minority of 6 in a total vote of 36,000; on this occasion he was successful, being elected by a majority of 400. He took an active share in the Oregon controversy, asserting his unalterable determination not to "yield up one inch" of the Territory to Great Britain, and advocating its occupation by a military force. He was also a leading promoter of the measures which resulted in the annexation of Texas and in the Mexican war. Being chairman of the Territorial committee at first in Congress and then in the Senate, to which he was elected in March 1847, it fell to him to introduce the bills for admitting Iowa, Wisconsin, Minnesota, California, and Oregon into the Union, and for organizing the Territories of Minnesota, Oregon, New Mexico, Utah, Washington, Kansas, and Nebraska. On the keenly disputed question of the permission of slavery in the Territories, Douglas advocated, if he was not the first to promulgate, what came to be known as the " popular sovereignty doctrine," by which each territory was to be left to decide the matter for itself in the same manner as a State. The bill for organizing the Territories of Kansas and Nebraska, which Douglas reported in January 1854, caused great popular excitement, as it repealed the Missouri compromise, and declared the people of " any State or Territory " "free to form and regulate their domestic institutions in their own way, subject only to the constitution of the United States." There was great indignation throughout the free states; and Douglas, as the chief promoter of the measure, was banged or burned in effigy in many places. In 1852, and again in 1856, he was a candidate for the presidency in the National Democratic Convention, and though on both occasions he was unsuccessful, he received strong support In 1857 he distinguished himself by his vigorous opposition to the admission of Kansas into the Union under the Lecompton constitution, which he maintained to be fraudulent. In the following year he was engaged in a close and very exciting contest for the senatorsbip with Abraham Lincoln, who was the Republican candidate. The

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popular vote was against him, but in the legislature vote he secured his return by 64 to 46. Douglas paid great attention to the local affairs of Illinois, and he was the chief promoter of the Illinois Central Railroad. In 18S0 he was again one of the Democratic candidates for the presidency, and received a large popular vote, but he was very feebly supported in the electoral college. On the outbreak of the civil war he denounced secession as criminal, and was one of the strongest advocates of maintaining the integrity of the Union at all hazards. He delivered frequent addresses in this sense after the adjournment of Congress, and during his last illness he dictated a letter for publication urging all patriotic men to sustain the Union and the constitution. He died at Chicago on the 3d June 1861.

DOUK, a town of Belgium, in the province of Hainault, nine miles south-west of Mons, to the right of the railway from that city to Valenciennes. It owes its whole importance to its manufacturing industry, which includes iron-smelting, weaving, bleaching, and tanning, and is fostered by the existence in the vicinity of coal and iron mines. Population in 1866, 8501.

DOUSA, Janus [jan Van Deb Dow] (1546-1604), a distinguished Dutch statesman, historian, poet, and philologist, the heroio defender of Leyden, was born at Noordwyck, iu the province of Holland, December 6, 1545. Left an orphan at the age of five, he was brought np by his grandfather, after whose death an uncle took charge of him. He began his studies at Lier in Brabant, became a pupil of Henry Junius at Delft in 1560, and thence passed successively to Lou vain, Douai, and Paris. Here he studied Qreek under Peter Dorat, professor at the College Boyal, and became acquainted with the Chancellor L'Hupital, Turnebus, Ronsard, and other eminent men. On his return to Holland in 1565 he married. His name stands in the list of nobles who in that year formed a league against Philip II.; bnt he does not appear to have taken any active part in public affairs till 1572, when he was sent as head of an embassy to England. Two years later he was intrusted with the government and defence of Leyden, then besieged by the Spaniards j and in this arduous post he displayed rare intelligence, fortitude, and practical wisdom. On the foundation of the university of Leyden by William I. of Orange, Dousa was appointed first curator, and this office he held for nearly thirty years. Through his friendships with foreign scholars he drew to Leyden many illustrious teachers and professors. After the assassination of William L in 1581, Dousa came privately to England to seek the aid of Queen Elizabeth, and in the following year he was sent formally for the same purpose. About the same time he was appointed keeper of the Dutch archives, and the opportunities thus afforded him of literary and historical research he turned to good account In 1591, being named a member of the States-General, he removed to the Hague. Heavy blows fell upon him in the deaths of his eldest son in 1597 and of his second son three years later. A bitterer trial still was the misconduct of another son. Dousa was author of several volumes of Latin verse and of philological notes on Horace, Catullus, Tibullus, Petronius Arbiter, and Plautus. But his principal work is the Annate of Holland, which first appeared in a metrical form in 1599, and was published in prose, under the title of Batavice Hollandiatque Annates, in 1601. This work had been begun by his eldest son. Dousa also took part, as editor or contributor, in various other publications. He died at Noordwyck, October 8, 1601, and was interred at.the Hague; but no monument was erected to his memory until 1792, when one of his descendants placed a tomb in his honour in the church of Noordwyck.

DOUVILLE, Juan Baptism (1794-c 1837), a French traveller born at Hanibye, in the department of Manche, whose asserted discoveries in Africa have in large measure been relegated to the region of romance. At an early period his imagination seems to have been fired by narratives of travel and adventure; and accordingly, when he fell heir to a wealthy relation, he at once proceeded to gratify his desire for personal acquaintance with foreign lands. He certainly wandered far and wide; and, according to his own profession, he visited India, Kashmir, Ehorassan, Persia, Asia Minor, and many parts of Europe. After spending some time in Paris, and being admitted a member of the Societe de Geographic, he proceeded in 1826 to Brazil, with the intention apparently of carrying on scientific explorations: from this purpose, however, he was diverted by the political circumstances of the country; and to replenish his funds he started business at Montevideo in partnership with a M. Laboissiere. Towards the close of the following year, probably in October, after a short residence at Bio Janeiro, he left Brazil for the Portuguese possessions on the west coast of Africa, where his presence in March 1828 is proved by the mention made of him in certain letters of Castillo Eranco, the governor-general of Loanda, In May 1831 he reappeared in France, claiming to have pushed his explorations into the very heart of Africa, as far as the 27th degree of longitude E. of Greenwich, or, in other words, into what is now known as the great equatorial lake region. His story was readily accepted by the SocieW de Geographic at Paris, which hastened to recognize his services by assigning him the great gold medal, and appointing him their secretary for the year 1832. On the publication of his narrativo —Voyage au Congo et dans I'interieur de VAfrique (quinoziale—which occupied four large volumes, and was accompanied by an elaborate atlas, the public enthusiasm might well run high. In company with his wife (a sister of his old Montevidean partner), and attended by about 400 native porters, the happy traveller had advanced from kingdom to kingdom rather like a monarch making a progress through his tributary states, distributing largesses and receiving homage, than like a humble adventurer defraying his expenses from his private purse. Everything went smooth for a time; the interior of Africa was described in text books and depicted in maps according to the discoveries of Douville; but in the August number of the Foreign Quarterly Review for 1832 the most sweeping charges of ignorance and fraud were launched against tho author, and this attack was followed up in the Revue det Deux Morula for November, by Thomas Lacordaire, who asserted that, during part of the time which he claimed to have spent in Africa, Douville had been a familiar object in the streets of Bio Janeiro. The tide of popular favour turned; and, in spite of the explanations furnished by Douville in Ma defence, 1832, and Trente tnoie de ma vie, on quinze mois avant et quinze moil oprie mon voyage au Congo, 1833, the general decision was openly against him. Mile. Audrun, a lady to whom he was about to be married, committed suicide from grief at the disgrace; and, after vainly attempting to obtain satisfaction from Lacordaire by duel, the poor adventurer himself withdrew in 1833 to Brazil, and proceeded to make explorations iu the valley of the Amazon. According to Dr Gardner, in his Travelt in the Interior of Brazil, he was murdered in 1837 on the banks of the Sao Francisco for charging too high for his medical assistance. His Brazilian manuscripts fell into the hands of M. S. Bang, by whom they were transmitted to M. Ferdinand Denis. While modern exploration has done nothing to support the wider pretensions of Douville, no less an authority than Captain Burton asserts that his descriptions nf the country of the Congo are lifo-like and picturesque; that his observations on the anthropology, ceremonies, customs, and maladies of the people are remarkably accurate; and that even the native words inserted into the text of his narrative " are for the most part given with unusual correctness."

DOUW, or Dow, Gerhabd (1613-1680), a celebrated Flemish painter, was born at Leyden on the 7th April 1613. His first instructor in drawing and design was Bartholomew Dolendo, an engraver; and he afterwards learned the art of glass-painting under Peter Kouwhoorn. At the age of fifteen he became a pupil of Rembrandt, with whom he continued for three years. From the great master of the Flemish school he acquired his skill in colouring, and in the more subtle effects of chiaroscuro; and the style of Rembrandt is reflected in several of his earlier pictures, notably in a portrait of himself at the age of twenty-two, in the Bridgewater Gallery, and in the Blind Tobit going to meet his Son, at Wardour Castle. At a comparatively early point in his career, however, he had formed a manner of his own distinct from, and indeed in some respects antagonistic to, that of his master. Gifted with unusual clearness of vision and precision of manipulation, he cultivated a minute and elaborate style of treatment; and probably few painters ever spent more time and pains on all the details of their pictures down to the most trivial He is said to have spent five days in painting a hand; and his work was so fine that he found it necessary to manufacture his own brushes. Notwithstanding the minuteness of his touch, however, the general effect was harmonious and free from stiffness, and his colour was always admirably fresh and transparent. He was fond of representing subjects in lantern or candle light, the effects of which he reproduced with a fidelity and skill which no other master has equalled. He frequently painted by the aid of a concave mirror, and to obtain exactness looked at his subject through a frame crossed with squares of silk thread. His practice as a portrait painter, which was at first considerable, gradually declined, sitters being unwilling to give him the time that he deemed necessary. His pictures were always small in size, and represented chiefly subjects in still life. Upwards of two hundred are attributed to him, and specimens are to be found in most of the great public collections of Europe. His chef d'osuvre is generally considered to be the Woman sick of the Dropsy, in the Louvre. The Evening School, in the Amsterdam Gallery, is the best example of the candle-light scenes in which he excelled. In the National Gallery favourable specimens are to be seen in the Poulterer's Shop and a portrait of himself. Douw's pictures brought high prices, and it is said that President Van Spiring of the Hague paid him 1000 florins a year simply for the right of preemption. Douw died in 1680. His most celebrated pupil was Francis Mieris.

DOVE (Dutch, Duyve; Danish, Due; Icelandic, Dufa; German, Tatibe), a name which seems to be most commonly applied to the smaller members of the group of birds by ornithologists usually called Pigeons (Columba); but no sharp distinction can be drawn between Pigeons and Doves, and in general literature the two words are used almost indifferently, while no one species can be pointed out to which the word Dove, taken alone, seems to be absolutely proper. The largest of the group to which the name is applicable is perhaps the Ring-Dove, or Wood-Pigeon, also called in many parts of Britain Cushat and Queest {Columba palumbut, Linn.), a very common bird throughout theso islands and most parts of Europe. It associates in winter in large flocks, the numbers of which (owing partly to the destruction of predacious animals, but still more to the modern system of agriculture, and the growth of plantations in many districts that were before treeless) have of late

years increased enormously, so that their depredations are very serious. In former days, when the breadth of land in Britain under green crops was comparatively small, these birds found little food In the dead season, and this scarcity was a natural check on their superabundance.- But since the extended cultivation of turnips and plants of similar use the case is altered, and perhaps at no time of the year has provender become more plentiful than in winter. The Ring-Dove may be easily distinguished from other European species by its larger size, and especially by the white spot on either side of its neck, forming a nearly continuous "ring," whence the bird takes its name, and the large white patches in its wings, which are very conspicuous in flight. It breads several times in the year, making for its nest a slight platform of sticks on the horizontal bough of a tree, and laying therein two eggs—which, as in ail the Columba, are white.

The Stock-Dove (C. anas of most authors) is a smaller species, with many of the habits of the former, but breeding by preference in the stocks of hollow trees or in rabbitholes. It is darker iu colour than the Ring-Dove, without any white on its neck or wings, and is much less common and more locally distributed.

The Rock-Dove (C. livia, Temm.) much resembles the Stock-Dove, but is of a lighter colour, with two black bars on its wings, and a white rump. In its wild state it haunts most of the rocky parts of the coast of Europe, from the Fseroes to the Cyclades, and, seldom going inland, is comparatively rare. Yet, as it is without contradiction the parent-stem of all our domestic Pigeons, its numbers must far exceed those of both the former put together. In Egypt and various parts of Asia it is represented by what Mr Darwin has called " Wild Races," which are commonly accounted good "species" (C. eehimperi, C. affinii, C. intermedia, C. leucoiioia, and so forth), though they differ from one another far less than do nearly all the domestic forms, of which more than 150 kinds that " breed true," and have been separately named, are known to exist Very many of theso, if found wild, would have unquestionably been ranked by ,fhe best ornithologists as distinct "species," and several' of them would as undoubtedly have been placed in different genera. These various breeds are classified by Mr Darwin1 in four groups as follows :—

Gboup I. composed of a single Race, that of the "Pouters," having the collet of great sue, barely separated from the crop, and often inflated, the body and legs elongated, and a moderate bill. The most strongly marked subrace, the Improved English Pouter, is considered to be the most distinct of all domesticated pigeons.

Group II. includes three Races :—(1.) "Carriers," with a long pointed bill, the eyes surrounded by much bare skin, and the neck

swollen. Of the first four and of the seoond fire subraces are distinguished.

Gkoup III. is confessedly artificial, and to it are assigned Jive Races :—(1.) "Fan-tails," remarkable for the extraordinary development of their tails, which may consist of as many as forty-two rectricea in place of the ordinary twelve; (2.) "Turbits* and "Owls," with the feathers of the throat diverging, and a Bhort thick bill; (3.) "Tumblers," possessing the marvellous habit of tumbling backwards during flight or, in some breeds, even on the ground, ana having a short, corneal bill; (4.) "Frill-backs," in which the feathers are reversed; and (5.) "Jacobins," with the feathers of the neck forming a hood, and the wings and tail long.

Group IV. greatly resembles the normal form, and comprises two Races:—(1.) Trumpeters," with a tuft of feathers at the base of the neck curling forward, the face much feathered, and a vt-ry peculiar voice, and (2.) Pigeons scarcely differing *in structure from the wild stock.

Besides these some three or four other little-known breeds exist, and the whole number of breeds and sub-breeds

1 The Variation of Animate and Plante under Domestication. '-ondoa: 1868. Vol L pp. 181-224.

aimost defies computation. The difference between them is in many cases far from being superficial, ■ for Mr Darwin has shown that there is scarcely any part of the skeleton which is constant, and the modifications that have been effected in the proportions of the head and sternal apparatus are very remarkable. Yet the proof that all these different birds have descended from one common stock is nearly certain. Here there is no need to point ont its bearing upon the " Theory of Natural Selection" which that eminent naturalist and Mr Wallace have rendered so well known. The antiquity of some of these breeds is not the least interesting part of the subject, nor is the use to which one at least of them has long been applied. The Dove from the earliest period in history has been associated with the idea of a messenger (Genesis viii. 8-12), and its employment in that capacity, developed successively by Greeks, Romans, Mussulmans, and Christians, has never been more fully made available than in our own day, as witness the " Pigeon-post " established during the recent siege of Paris.

Leaving, then, this interesting subject, spacs does not permit our here dwelling on various foreign species, which, if not truly belonging to the genus Columba, are barely separable therefrom. Of these examples may be found in the Indian, Ethiopian, and Neotropical Regions. Still less can we here enter upon the innumerable other forms, though they may be entitled to the name of "Dove," which are to be found in almost every part of the world, and nowhere more abundantly than in the Australian Region. Mr Wallace (Ibis, 1865, pp. 365-400) considers that they attain their maximum development in the Papuan Subregion, where, though the land-area is less than one-sixth that of Europe, more than a quarter of all the species (some 300 in number) known to exist are found—owing, he suggests, to the absence of forest-haunting and fruit-eating Mammals.

It wonld, however, be impossible to conclude this article without noticing a small group of birds to which in some minds the name Dove will seem especially applicable. This is the group containing the Turtle-Doves—the timehonoured emblem of tenderness and conjugal love. The common Turtle-Dove of Europe (Turtur auritut) is one of those species which is gradually extending its area. In England, not much more than a century ago, it seems to have been chiefly, if not solely, known in the southern and western counties. Though in the character of a straggler only, it now reaches the extreme north of Scotland, and is perhaps nowhere more abundant than in many of the midland and eastern counties of England. On the continent the same thing has been observed, though indeed not so definitely; and this species has within the last twenty years or so appeared as a casual visitor within the Arctic Circle. The probable causes of its extension cannot here be discussed; and there is no need to dwell upon its graceful form and the delicate harmony of its modest colouring, for they are proverbial. The species is migratory, reaching Europe late in April and retiring in September. Another species, and one perhaps better known from being commonly kept in confinement, is that called by many the Collared or Barbary Dove (T. riioriui)—the second English name probably indicating that it was by way of that country that it was brought to us, for it is not an African bird. This is distinguished by its cream-coloured plumage and black necklace. Some uncertainty seems to exist about its original home, but it is found from Constantinople to India, and is abundant in the Holy Land, though there a third species (T. tcnegalcntu) also occurs, which Canon Tristram thinks is the Turtle-Dove of Scripture, (a. H.)

DOVER (the ancient Dubris), principal cinque port of England, is situated close to the South Foreland, 72' miles

from London, in a main valley of the chalk hills corresponding with the opposite cliffs between Calais and Boulogne. Iu dominant object is the castle, on the east heights. Within its walls stands the Roman pharos; the Romano-British fortress church, remaining not only t'n titu, but (excepting roof) integrally in statu quo, forming a primitive Christian relic, unique in Christendom; some remains of the Saxon fort; and the massive keep and subsidiary defences of Norman building. These ancient works provide for a garrison of 758; but they are aow covered by the superior sito of Fort Burgoyne, a position of great strength for 221 men. The western heights, where is still the foundation of a consort Roman pharos, form a circuit of elaborate fortifications, with provision for 3010 troops. Between these, and stretching inland, lies the town, of which the following are the principal features. 1. The harbour, once at the eastern, is now at the western extremity,—its three considerable basins being fit for mail steamers and ordinary trading vessels. 2. The admiralty pier is a massive struc

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ture of solid concrete and masonry extending about onethird of a mile into the sea, affording lee and landing accommodation for vessels of almost any burthen, made for ultimate connection by break-water with a horn east of the castle, so inclosing the bay as a vast harbour. 3. The visitors' quarter consists of ranges of good houses along the length of the seaboard and elsewhere, notably a fine elevation newly built on a western spur of the Castle Hill. 4. Of old Dover, within its walls and gates, bnt little remains, except a remnant of the Saxon collegiate church of the canons of St Martin, and the parish church of St Mary the Virgin—rebuilt and enlarged in 1843-44, but preserving the three bays of the Anglo-Saxon church, with its western narthex, on which had been superimposed the Norman tower, still presenting its rich front to the street. 5. A later Norman church stands under the Castle Hill, which has been partially restored, bat its parochial status transferred to tho now parish church of St James. Thoro aro two other modern churches—nuly Trinity and Christchurch, and, further up tho valley, the parish church of Charlton (originally NormanJand Buckland (Early English), which, including tho Castlo Church, completes the former number of seven for tho town. There arc also 13 chapels of nonconformist worship, representing most denominations, and placed in various parts of the borough. C. The remains of the unco (12th century) splendid foundation of St Martin's priory iucludo the great gate, the house refectory with campanile, and the spacious strangers' refectory, lately converted into tho college school-room. 7. Just across the High Street stand the tower and truncated fabric of tho noble hall of the hospital Maisou Dieu, founded (13th century) for tho reception of pilgrims of all nations, long used as a Crown victualling office, but latterly purchased by the corporation and adapted for a

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town hall, with prison cells as basements, and other prison buildings annexed, the former chapel of the society serving now as a court of sessions. 8. The ground work of a round (Holy Sepulchre) church of the Templars is on the opposite heights, approaching the citadel. 9. Among the centres of educational work are a proprietary college, occupying the aite and remaining buildings of St Martin's Priory, for a cheap but sound education of town boys, and for boarders in the masters' houses, and also a strong array of national schools, worked up to a high mark, according to H. M. Inspectors' reports, and providing means for a good practical education of about 3400 children. In physical conditions the place is exceptionally healthy, the registrargeneral's returns showing them in some years to be little below those of the Malvern Hills. The steep shore and open downs make it agreeable for bathing and summer resort; and it has constant sea-going interest from the Continental mail service, and the course of vessels up and down channel lying within two miles of the shore. Objects of interest within easy reach are—the S. Foreland electric light-houses; the (florid Norman) church of St Margaret's; the Templars' Manor, Ewell; St Badigund's Abbey; the Preceptory of Knights of St John, Swingfield; rich Norman votive chapel, Barfreystone. There are two lines of railway to London—one traversing the Weald of Kent, the other following the old Roman road, via Canterbury aud Rochester. Dover returns 2 members to Parliament, and is governed by a mayor, 6 aldermen, and 18 councillors. The ar:a of the'borough is 12C2 acres. Population (1871), 28,500.

DOVER, a city of the United States, capital of Strafford county, New Hampshire, situated on the Cocbeco, a tributary of the Piscataqua, at a railway junction twelve miles north-west of Portsmouth. It has eight churches, a high school, a city hall, and a public library; and the water-power furnished by the falls of the Cocheco encourages its industrial activity, the principal results of which are prints and other cotton goods to the value of upwards of £200,000 annually, woollens, leather, boots and shoes, hats, oil-cloth, sand-paper, iron and brass wares,

and carriages. Tho town was founded in 1C'.'3, ami received its city charter in 18!55. Population in 1870, 9294.

DOVER, a town of tho United States, tho capital of Delaware, on St Jones river, 9 miles inland from Delaware Bay, and 48 miles south of Wilmington. . It is a regular brick-built place, with broad, well-shaded streets, has a State house, a court-house, six churches, an academy, and several other public buildings, and carries "on a brisk trade in preserved fruits. Population in 1S70, 1905, of whura tiOl were people of colour.

DOVER, George James Wei.dore Agar Ellis, Baron (1797-1833), born on tho 14th January 1797, was the cldast son of the second Viscount Clifden. Ho was educated at Christ Church, Oxford, and in 1818 he wai/ returned to Parliament as member for Heytesbury. He afterwards represented Seaford (1S20), Ludgershall (1S26), and 'Oakhampton (1830). In party politics ho took littla iuterest; but he was a zealous and enlightened advocate in Parliament and elsewhere of state encourngenieut being given to tho cause of literature and tho fine arts. In 1824 he was the leading promoter of the grant of £57,000 for the purchase of Mr Angerstein's collection of pictures, which formed the foundatiou of the National Gallery. On the formation of Lord Grey's administration, in November 1830, he was appointed chief commissioner of woods and forests. The post was one for which his tastes well fitted him, but he was compelled by delicate health to resign it after two months' occupancy. In June 1831, during the lifetime of his father, he was raised to the House of Lords under the title of Baron Dover. His services to the causo of learning and the fine arts, as well as his own distinction as an author, led in 1832 to his election to the presidency of the Boyal Society of Literature. He died on the 10th July 1S33. Lord Dover's literary works were chiefly historical, and included The True History of the Iron Mast, extracted from Document) in the French Archives (1826), Historical Inquiries respecting the Character of Clarendon (1827), and a Life of Frederick the Great (1831). He also edited the Ellis Correspondence and Walpole's Letters to Sir Horace Mann. He left in manuscript a volume written for the instruction of his son, which was published posthumously under the title Lives-of the Most Eminent Sovereigns of Modern Europe. A fourth edition of this work appeared in 1853.

DOW, Lorenzo (1777-1834), an American preacher, noted for his eccentricities of dress and manner, was born at Coventry, Connecticut, U.S., October 16, 1777. He received but a limited education, and was much troubled iu his youth by religious perplexities; but he ultimately joined the Methodists, and was appointed a preacher (1799). The same year, however, his official connection with that body ceased, and he came over to preach to the Catholics of Ireland. He attracted great crowds to hear and see him, and was often persecuted as well as admired. Ho also visited Englaud, introduced the system of camp meetings, and thus led the way to the formation of the Primitivo Methodist Society. These visits were repeated in 1805. Dow's enthusiasm sustained him through the incessant' labours of more than thirty years, during which he preached in almost all parts of the United States. His later efforts were chiefly directed against the Jesuits. His Polemical .Works were published in 1814. Among his other writings are The Stranger in Charleston, or the Trial and Confession of Lorenzo How (1822), A Short Account of a Long Travel (1823), and the History of a Cosmoiiolite. He died February 2, 1834.

DOWLETABAD, a city and fortress of India, in the north-western corner of the Nizam's Dominions, near ons of the right-hand tributaries of the Godavery. Though

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