Page images

■till the centre of an administrative district, the city has sunk into comparative insignificance since the rise of Aurnugabad, about ten miles to the east; bnl the fortress remains, from its natural position, one of the most remarkable in the country. It occupies the conical top of a great granite rock, which rises abruptly from the plain to a height of at least 300 feet, and is encompassed at the foot by a ditch upwards of 30 feet wide. The only means of access to the summit is afforded by a narrow bridge, with passage for not more than two men abreast, and a long gallery, excavated in the rock, which has for the most part a very gradual upward slope, but about midway is intercepted by a steep stair, the top of which is covered by a grating destined in time of war to form the hearth of a huge *fire kept burning by the garrison above. In spite, however, of its natural strength and its various artificial defences, the fortres3 has frequently been taken. When about the year 1203 the Mahometans invaded this part of the Deccan, Deogurh, as the city was then called, was. the wealthy residence of a powerful rajah. In 1306 it was occupied by Mallek Naib, the emperor of Delhi's general; and in the early part of the same century Mahomet III., in his anxiety to make it the capital of his kingdom and worthy of its new name of Dowletabad, or Abode of Prosperity, endeavoured, but in vain, to cause a wholesale transmigration of the inhabitants of Delhi About the year 1595 it surrendered to Ahmed Nizam, shah of Ahmadnagar; and on the fall of his dynasty it was taken possession of by Mallek Amber, an Abyssinian slave. His successors reigned till 1634, when it was taken by the Moguls, who transferred the seat of government to Aurungabad. In the 18th century it passed into the possession of Nizam el Mulk.

DOWN, a maritime county of Ireland, in the province of Ulster, occupying the most easterly part of the island, is bounded N. by the county Antrim and Belfast Lough, E. and S. ty the Irish Sea/and W. by the connty Armagh. Its area, including Ballymacarret, a suburb of Belfast (1670 acres), covera 967 square miles, or 612,409 acres. The coast-line is very irregular, and is indented by several loughs and bays. T"he largest of these is Strangford Lough, a fine sheet of water studded with 260 islets, 54 of which have names, and all of which are finely wooded or rich in pasturage. The lough runs for ten miles northwards, and the ancient castles and ruined abbeys on the islets render the scent one of singular interest and beauty. Further south Dundrum Bay forms a wider expanse of water. In the south-west Carlingford Lough separates the county from Louth. On its north-east shore lies the village of Rosstrevor, now the resort of invalids from all parts of the United Kingdom.

Mountain).—Between Strangford and Carlingford loughs the county is occupied by a range of hills known in its south-western portion as the Mourne Mountains, which give rise to the four principal rivers—the Bann, the Lagan, the Annacloy, and the Newry. The highest peak in the Mourne range is named Slieve Donard. It is 2796 feet above the level of the sea, and is exceeded only by one peak, Lugduff, in the Wicklow range, and the higher reeks in Killarney.

Spring*.—Down is celebrated for Its holy wells and mineral springs. The chalybeate are more numerous than the sulphurous, but both abound. There are springs at Ardmillan, Granshaw, Dundonnell, Magheralin, Dromore, Newry, Banbridge, and Tierkelly. The Struel springs, a mile south-east of the town of Downpatrick, are celebrated for their healing properties. Fifty years ago. they were regarded as possessing' not only chemical wealth in rare abundance, but miraculous powers; and the decline of public credulity in the latter was coincident with the failure

of the former. To this day, however, the wells, which are four in number, are visited, and certain religious observances maintained, sometimes for a week. Circuits on the knees are made round the wells; and amongst the ignorant the reputation of the sacred waters remains unimpaired.

The scenery of the county is pleasantly diversified, the people are intelligent and comparatively well educated, the landed proprietors are resident, and there is a thriving independence which may be looked for in vain outside the province of Ulster.

Mineral).—There are several quarries of fine sandstone. The best is that on Scrabb Hill, near Newtownards, where a very close-grained, clear-coloured, and hard and durable stone is raised. Limestone is not very general Near Comber, on the shores of Strangford Lough, is a very hard and sparkling kind of reddish granular limestone. But the greatest magazine of this rock is in the vicinity of Moira, where the stone lies very near the surface. Granite occurs in many places in detached masses, but the great body of it is confined to the southern and western regions, chiefly in the Mourne Mountains. Crystals of topaz and beryl are found in the granite of Slieve Donard. Indications of lead have been discovered near Castlewellan, Eillough, Newtownards, and Warrenpoint; and traces of copper in the Mourne Mountains near Rosstrevor.

Soil.—The predominating soil is a loam of little depth, in most places intermixed with considerable quantities of stones of various sizes, but differing materially in character according to the nature of the subsoil Clay is mostly confined to the eastern coast, and to the northern parts of Castlereagh. Of sandy soil the quantity is small; it occurs chiefly near Dundrum. Moor grounds are mostly confined to the skirts of the mountains. Bogs, though frequent, are scarcely sufficient to furnish a supply of fuel to the population.

According to Owners of Land Return (1876), there were, in 1875, 3605 separate proprietors, holding a total area of 608,214 acres, valued at £776,518. The number of owners of less than 1 acre numbered 1460, or 40 J per cent, that of all Ulster being 48 per cent. The average size of the holdings was 168J acres, and the average value per acre was £1, 6s. 6Jd., as against 239$ acres and 15s. 8J& respectively for Ulster. As in the neighbouring counties of Antrim and Armagh, the value of the land in Down is considerably higher than that of the rest of the province. Eighteen proprietors held upwards of 6000 acres each, and among them an aggregate . extent equal to 48 J per cent, of the total area,—the principle holders being:—Marquis of Downshire (Hillsborough), 64,356 acres; the Kilmerley Trustees, 37,454; Earl of Annesley (Castlewellan), 23,567 ; Marquis of Londonderry (Newtownards), 23,554; Colonel W. B. Forde (Seaforde), 19,882; Earl Dufferin (Clandeboy), 18,238; Hon. R. Meade's trustees (Dromore), 13,492 ; R. N. Batt (Belfast), 12,010; and Lord A E. Hill-Trevor, 10,940.

Agriculture.—Of the total area of the county, which is 610,740 acres (exclusive of Ballymacarret), there are 339,541 acres under tillage, 187,604 in pasture, and 12,027 under wood. Although comparisons as to yields of crops between different periods is now fallacious, inasmuch as the increased and increasing importation of wheat into Ireland has altered the system of agriculture, it may be mentioned that, while in five years the cultivation of wheat has fallen from 244,451 acres to 119,597 in Ireland, during the same period in Down the decrease was from 32,734 acres to 21,272. There are many landed proprietors who hold large tracts in their own hands. The great bulk of the labouring population is .orderly and industrious. Their dwellings are better constructed and furnished than those for a similar class in other parts of Ireland. The proceases of agriculture, owing in a great degree to the example set by the resident gentry, are skilfully carried on. The land is well cultivated. The farms are in some districts small, but the effect of emigration has been to consolidate the holdings.

The breed of horses is an object of much attention, and some of the best racers in Ireland have been bred in this county. The native breed of sheep, a small hardy race, is confined to the mountains. The various other kinds of sheep have been much improved by judicious crosses from the best breeds. Hogs are reared in great numbers, chiefly for the Belfast market, where the large exportation occasions a constant demand for them, hams of very superior quality being prepared in that town.

The following figures give the acreage of the principal crops and the numbers of live stock raised in the years 1873


Along with Tyrone, the county grows the largest extent of flax in Ireland, and the largest extent of the other cereals of any county in Ulster. In live stock Down possesses a greater number of horses than any other Irish county with the exception of Cork.

Fisheries.—These are not developed as they might be. The Kilkeel herring fishery realized £4203 in 1871, £6200 in 1872, £13,349 in 1873, £6000 in 1874, and £1360 in 1875. There are fishing stations at Donaghadee, Strangford, Newcastle, and Carlingford; the total number pi vessels in 1876 was 678, and of men and boys 2637. In 1850 there were 1468 vessels and 4640 hands.

Administration.—The county is divided into 14 baronies, 70 parishes, and 125S town-lands. It forms part of the united dioceses of Down, Connor, and Dromore; and it belongs to the military district of Belfast. The assizes are held at Downpatrick; quarter sessions at Banbridge, Downpatrick, Hillsborough, Newry, and Newtownards; and there are 26 petty sessions districts. The poor-law unions of Downpatrick, Kilkeel, and Newtownards are wholly within the county, and those of Banbridge and Newry partly in Down and partly in Armagh. The total sum expended in poor-law administration in 1875 was £21,076, and the average daily number of paupers 1280. The county prison and infirmary are in Downpatrick, but the county lunatic asylum is in Belfast. Down returns 4 members to Parliament—2 for the county at large, 1 for Downpatrick, and 1 for Newry. Portions of the boroughs of Belfast and Lisbum are in Down county, but they are regarded more properly as parts of Antrim and Armagh respectively. Previous to the Act of Union Down returned 14 members to the Irish Parliament—2 for the county at large, and 2 each for the boroughs of Bangor, Downpatrick, Hillsborough, Newry, Newtownards, and Killyleagh.

Population.—The general decrease of population in the province" of Ulster between the census of 1851 and that of 1871 indicates a percentage of .8}, while that of this county amounts to 13 J. This decrease may be ascribed in some part to the migration bf the people to Belfast and the neighbouring manufacturing towns, as well as to the emigration to foreign countries. In 1851, the inhabitants of Down (exclusive of the part of Belfast) numbered 320,817; in 1861, 299,302; and in 1871, 277,294, of whom 130,457 were males and 146,837 females.

At the last census it appeared that 31} per cent belonged to the Boman Catholic persuasion, the numbers

being—Catholics, 88,003; Episcopalians, 60,868; Presbyterians, 116,017 ; and others, 12,406. There were at the same time 140,886 persons of five years and upwards who could read and write, 67,140 who could read but could not write, and 45,792 who were illiterate. There were 20 superior schools in the county, and 627 primary schools.

The following are the principal towns :—Newtownards, population 9562; Banbridge, 5600; Downpatrick, 4155; Holywood, 3573; Gilford, 2720; Bangor, 2560; Dromore, 2408; Donaghadee, 2226; Comber, 2006; Portaferry 1938; Rathfriland, 1827; Warrenpoint," 1806; Killyleagh, 1772; Kilkeel, 1338; and Ballynahinch, 1225. Newry, partly in Down and partly in Armagh county, has a population of 14,213.

History and Antiquities.—From the period of the English settlement to the Irish revolt in 1333, Down formed two counties, Newtownards in the north and Down in the south. The English settlers at that time were driven into tlio maritime baronies of Ards, Lecale, and Mourne, of which they iin part retained possession. The remainder of tho district fell into the hands of Irish families, the O'Neals of Clandeboy, the MacArtaus, MacRorys, and MacQinniaes, whose possessions, however, reverted to the crown on the attainder of Shane O'Neal, in the latter half of the 16th century; but having afterwards submitted to the Government, they received back their former estates. In 1602 the O'Neal estates were again forfeited, and granted to Sir Hugh Montgomery and Mr Hamilton, who planted Scottish colonies on the land. The estates of the remaining old Irish and Anglo-Norman families were mostly forfeited in the rebellion of 1641, or subsequently at the Revolution.

The county is not wanting in interesting remains. At Sliddcryford, near Dundrum, there is a group of ten or twelve pillar stones in a circle, about 10 ten feet in height. A very curious cairn on the summit of Slieve Croob is 80 yards in circumference at the base and 50 at the top, where is a platform on which cairns of various heights are found standing. The village of Anadorn is famed for a cairn covering a cave which contains ashes and human bones. Cromlechs, or altars, are numerous, the most remarkable being the Giant's Ring, which stands on the summit of a hill near the borders of Antrim. This altar is formed of an unwrought stone 7 feet long by 6J broad, resting in an inclined position on rude pillars about 3 feet high. This solitary landmark is in the centre of em inclosure about a third of a mile in circumference, formed of a rampart about 20 feet high, and broad enough atop to permit two persons lo ride abreast. Near Downpatrick is a rath, or mound of earth, three-quarters of a mile in circumference, its exterior consisting of three artificial ramparts, the largest Of which is 30 feet broad. In its vicinity are the ruins of Saul Abbey, said to have been founded by St Patrick, and Inch Abbey, founded by Sir John de Courcy in 1180. The number of monastic ruins is also considerable. The most ancient and celebrated is the abbey or cathedral of Downpatrick, supposed to have been founded by St Patrick soon after his arrival here in 432, and said to contain his remains, together with those of St Coluinba and St Bridget, It was restored in 1790, when the adjoining round tower was taken down. (k. T. L.)

DOWNPATRICK, a municipal and parliamentary borough and market-town of Ireland, capital of the county of Down, 18 miles S.E of Belfast, and 74 N.N.E. of Dublin. Downpatrick lies in a valley formed by hills of some elevation, hear the south-west extremity of Strangford Lough, and is divided into the English, Irish, and Scotch quarters. It consists of four main streets meeting near the centre, the principal of which are the Irish and English streets. In the former all business is carried on: the latter is well built, and contains neat private residences. The principal buildings are the cathedral church of the diocese, the parish church, Roman Catholic chapel, tiro Presbyterian and two Methodist loeeting-houses, diocesau school, county court-house, prison, alms-houses, two branch banks', barracks, infirmary, aud fever hospital. A. small trade is-carried on at Strangford Lough by means of vessels of 100 tons, which discharge at Quoil quay, about a mile from the town; but vessels of larger tonnage can discharge at a steamboat quay built lower down the Quoil. The imports are principally iron, coal, salt, and timber; the exports—barley, oats, cattle, pigs, and potatoes. The linen manufacture is also-carried on. TheCounty Down Railway connects the town with the other trading centres, and a line specially constructed in 1862 connects it with the port of Donaghadee. Brewing, tanning, a-d soap-making give considerable employment The Down corporation races are very popular, and are regarded as a meeting for tha province. The parliamentary borough, which returns one member to Parliament, had in 1871 a population of 4155, with an area of 1486 acres; the area of this town is 278 acres, population 3621.

DOXOLOGY, a hymn in praise of the Almighty. The name is often applied to the Trisagion, or "Holy, Holy, Holy," the scriptural basis of which is found in Isaiah vi 3; to the Hallelujah of several of the Psalms and of Rev. xix.; and to the last clause of the Lord's Prayer according to Saint Matthew, which critics are generally agreed in regarding as an interpolation, It is used, however, more definitely as the designation of two hymns distinguished by liturgical writers as the Greater and Lesser Doxologies. The origin and history of these it is impossible to trace fully. The germ of both is to be found in the Gospels; the first words of the Greater Doxology, or Gloria m Exeeltit, being taken from Luke ii. 14, and the form of the Lesser Doxology, or Gloria Patri, having been in all probability first suggested by Matt xxviii, 19. The Greater Doxology. in a form approximating to that of the English prayer-book, is given in the Apostolical Constitution* (vii. 47). This is the earliest record of it, unless, indeed, the Apostolical Constitutions be taken to be of a later date than the Alexandrine Codex, where the hymn also occurs. Alcuin attributes the authorship of the Latin form—the Gloria in £xcchis—U> St Hilary of Poitiers (died 368), but this is at best only a plausible conjecture. The quotations from the hymn in the De Tirginitate of Athanasius, and in Chrysostom (Horn. 63 in Matth.), include only the opening words (those from St Luke's gospel), though the passage in Athanasius shows by an tt ccetera that only the commencement of the hymn is given. These references indicate that the hymn was used in private devotions; as it does not appear in any of the earliest liturgies, whether Eastern or Western, its introduction into the public services of the church was probably of a later date than has often been supposed. Its first introduction into the Roman liturgy is due to Pope Symmachus (498-514), who ordered it to be sung on Sundays and festival days. The Mozarabic liturgy provides for its eucharistic use on Sundays and festivals. In these and other early liturgies the Greater Doxology occurs imme-diately after the commencement of the service; in the English prayer-book it is introduced at the close of the communion office, but it does not occur in either the morning or evening service. The Lesser Doxology, or Gloria Patri, combines the character of a creed with that of a hymn. In its earliest form it ran simply—" Glory be to the Father, and to the Son, and to the Holy Ghost, world without end, Amen," or " Glory be to the Father, in or by the Son, and by the Holy Ghost" Until the rise of the Ariau heresy these forms were probably regarded as indifferent, both being equally capable of an orthodox

interpretation. 'When the Arians, however, finding the second form more consistent with their views, adopted it persistently and exclusively, its use was naturally discountenanced by the Catholics, and the other form became the symbol of orthodoxy. To the influence of the Ariau heresy is also obviously due the addition of the clause—" as it was in the beginning, is now, and ever shall be," the use of which was, according to some authorities, expressly enjoined by the Council of Nicrea. There is no sufficient evidence of this, but there exists a decree of the steend Council of Vaison (529), asserting its use as already estab. lished in the East propter kceretieorum aslutiam, and ordering its adoption throughout the churches of the West In the Western Church the Gloria Patri is repeated at the close cf ever)' psalm, in the Eastern church at the close of the last psalm.

DOYEN, Gabriel Fbaxcois (1726-180G), an eminent French painter, was boru at Paris in 1726. His passiou for art prevailed over his father's wish, aud he became in his twelfth year a pupil of Vanloo. Making rapid progress, he obtained at twenty the grand prize, aud in 1748 set out for Rome, He studied the works of Annibale Carauc:, Cortona, Giulio Romano, and Michelangelo, then visited Nap1 -s, Venice, Bologna, and other Italian cities, and in 1755 Teturned to Paris. At first unappreciated aud disparaged, he resolved by one graud effort to conquer a reputation, and in 1758 he exhibited his Death of Virginia. It was completely successful, _aud procured him admission to the Academy. Among his greatest works are reckoned, —the Miracle des Ardents, painted for the church of St Genevieve at St Roch (1773) ; the Triumph of Thetis, for the chapel of the Invalides; and the Death of St Louis, for the chapel of the Military School.' In 1776 he was appointed professor at tho Academy of Painting. Soon after the beginning of the Revolution he accepted the invitation of Catherine II. aud settled at St Petersburg, where he was loaded with honours and rewards. He died there June 5, 1806.

DRACO, a celebrated Athenian legislator who flourished in the 7th century B.C. By a strange irony of fate his name has passed into a proverb for on inexorable lawgiver, whose laws were written with blood and not with ink. Modern Greek historians, such as Thirhvall, Grote, aud Curtius, have clearly shown that such a character is an utter perversion of fact Of Draco's famous code not a single line remains, and all we know of it is derived from a few scattered notices occurring mostly in late Greek authors. Of these the most important is a passage in Plutarch's life of Solon. After stating that Solon abolished the whole of Draco's legislation, except in coses of murder, on account of its harshness and severity, Plutarch adds by way of commentary—"Forfor nearly all crimes there was the same penalty of death. Tha man who was convicted of idleness, or who stole a cabbage or an apple, was liable to death no less than the robber of temples or tho murderer.1' To the same effect is a traditional saying of Draco by which he justified the rigour of his laws. The least offence, he said, seemed to him deserving of death, and he could devise no greater for the worst crime. It is obvious that the statement of Plutarch is not meant to be accepted as a literal statement of fact, and it is probable that to the most bloodthirsty of Draco's laws parallels might be quoted ftotu English statutes against vagrancy and theft All that Draco did was to put in writing the customary laws of his time and nation. It was natural that these laws, the growth of a rude and primitive age, should strike writers of the Augustau age as indiscrimiuative and inhuman. That he made no change in the constitution of Athens" we have the express testimony of Aristotle. The judicial changes which he effected, so far from aggravating, all fended to mitigate the severity of early Athenian law. Before his time all cases of homicide were tried by the Areopagus, and we are justified in inferring that death was the universal penalty. To Draco is generally attributed the establishment of the c^crat, a body of fifty-one elders, who sat in four different courts,—one for cases of accidental homicide, a second for justifiable homicide, a third for cases where another homicide had been committed abroad by a prisoner who had been banished by one of the above-named courts, and a fourth for esses of deodand. Such an institution is of itself enough to explode the traditional conception of Draco, and we may now proceed to discuss the true character of his legislation. At Athens, as at Rome, the Icings were the depositaries and administrators of law. With the extinction of the regal power this prerogative passed into the hands of the aristocracy as represented by the archons. It was in the nature of things that such a monopoly should be abused. The remedy for this abuse which the commons sought was a published code of laws. It was attained at Borne by the law of the Twelve Tables, and at Athens by the code of Draco, 621 B.C. In both oases the promulgated law was merely an enunciation of existing customs. Such was the work of Draco. Of his life we know absolutely nothing with the exception of a most improbable story related by Suidas. In Suidas'a Lexicon, under the word " Draco," we are told that he oomposed his codo in his old age, and was smothered to death in the theatre at iBgina with the caps, chitons, and cloaks which were thrown at him by an enthusiastic aadience. The only value of the story is that it may show the feelings with which he was regarded by the commons of his own day.

DBAGON (Spaxur, sharp-sighted), the name given by the ancients to a fabulous monster represented by them as a-huge winged lizard or serpent They regarded it as the enemy of mankind, and its overthrow is made to figure among the greatest exploits of the 'gods and heroes of heathen mythology. A dragon watched the garden of the Hesperides, and its destruction formed one of the seven labours of Hercules. Its existence does cot seem to have been called in question by the older naturalists, figures of the dragon appearing in the works of Qesner and Aldrovandi, and even specimens of the monster—evidently formed artificially of portions of various animals—having been exhibited. The only creatures ever known to have existed, at all comparable to this imaginary monster, are the Pterodactyls, remainsof which are found in the Liassic and Oolitic formations. These were huge reptiles, provided with true wings somewhat resembling those of bats. The name "dragon " is now applied to a highly interesting, but very harmless, group of small flying lizards forming the genus Draco, belonging to the Agamidoe, a family of Saurian Reptiles. They inhabit India and the islands of the Malay Archipelago, and 18 species of them are known. They are small creatures, measuring about 10 inches long, including the tail, which in some cases is more than half of the entire length. The head is small, and the throat is provided with three pouches which are spread cut when they lie on the trunks ef trees. They are, however, chiefly remarkable for the wing-like cutaneous processes with which their sides are provided, and which are extended and supported by greatly elongated ribs. These form a sort of parachute by which the animals are enabled to glide from branch to branch of the trees on which they reside, but, being altogether independent of the fore limbs, they cannot be regarded as true wings, nor do they enable the lizard to fly, but merely to make extensive leaps. When not in use they are folded by the side after the manner of a fan, and the dragon can then walk or run with considerable agility. They also use their wing-like expansions in clasping the branches

of trees, where they are fond of lying basking in the sun, and feeding on whatever insect may tome in their way. When threatened with danger they are said to feign death.

DRAGON-FLY (German, Waucrjungfer; Swedish, Trollsliinda; Danish, Gvldemect/ Dutch, Schcrpstektndeviieg; French, Demoiselle), the popular English name applied to the members of a remarkable group of insects which formed the genus Libelhda of Linnseus and the ancient authors. In some parts of the United States they appear to be known as "Devil's Darning Needles," and in many parts of England are termed "Horse-stingers." It is almost needless to say that (excepting to other insects upon which they prey) they are .perfectly innocuous, though some of the larger species can inflict: a momentarily painful bite with their powerful jaws. Their systematic position is at present contested and somewhat uncertain. By most of the older systematise they were placed as forming part of the heterogeneous order Neuroptera. Fabricius, however, elevated them to the rank of a distinct order, which he termed Odonata; and whatever may be the difference of opinion amongst authors at the present day, that term is almost universally employed for the group. Erichson transferred all the groups of socalled Neuroptera with incomplete metamorphoses, hence including the dragon-flies, as a division of Orthcptera, which he termed Pteudo-Neuroptera. Gerstacker more recently also retains them in the Orthoplera, terming those groups in which the earlier states are sub aquatic Orthoplera amphibiotica. It is not necessary to enter into an examination here of the merits or demerits of those various systems, and it will suffice to say that all are agreed in maintaining the insects as forming a group marked by characters at once extraordinary and isolated in their nature.

The group Odonata (using the term as a matter of convenience) is divided into three families, and each of these again into two sub-families. The families are the Agrionidw, ^tchnida, and Libellulidce,—the first including the sub-families Calopterygina and Agrionina, the second Gomphina and JEtchnina, and the third Cordulina and Libellulina.

The structure of a dragon-fly being so very remarkable, it is necessary to enter somewhat extensively into details. The head is comparatively small, and excavated posteriorly, connected very slightly with the prothorox, on which it turns almost as on a pivot. The eyes are, as a rule, enormous, often contiguous, and occupying nearly the whole of the upper surface of the head, but sometimes (Agrionidos and Gomphina) widely distant; occupied by innumerable facets, which are often larger on the upper portion. In front of them is a portion termed the vertex, which sometimes (Libellulidce) forms a swollen vesicle, before which are placed the three very small ocelli, and on either side of which are inserted the antennae, which are smaller in proportion than in almost any other insects, consisting only of two short swollen kasal joints and a 5 or G jointed bristle-like thread. The front of the head is vertical, and consists of a large, often dilated upper portion, which is commonly termed the nasus, followed by a tranverse portion termed the rhinariilm, and this again by the large labrum, which conceals the jaws and inner mouth parts. The lower lip, or labium, is attached to a very small chin piece (or mentum), and is generally very large, often (Agrionidw) divided almost to its base into two portions, or more frequently entire or nearly so; on each side of it are two usually enormous hypertrophied pieces, which form the "palpi," and which are often furnished at the tips with an articulated spine (or terminal joint), the whole structure serving to . retain the prey. Considerable diversity of opinion exists

vn. —49

with respect to the composition of the month parts, and by some authors the "palpi" have been termed the side pieces of the lower lip. In a dead dragon-fly the parts are closed on each other, and, for a just appreciation of their structure and power, it is necessary to take a living example in the fingers by the thorax, slight lateral pressure on which causes the insect to display the formidable arrangement The prothorax is extremely small, consisting of only a narrow ring, the upper portion of which is often elevated into lobes. The rest of the thorax is very large, and consolidated into a single piece, with oblique sutures on the sides beneath the wings; the portion in front of the wings is extremely robust, and offers a median carina or suture above, and a broad transverse sinus posteriorly- The interalar portion is somewhat excavated, and on each side of it above are nodosities forming the attachments of the powerful muscles that work the wings; on each side is a large and distinct spiracle. The abdomen varies excessively in form, the two extremes being the filiform structure observable in most Agrionidce, and the very broad'and depressed formation seen in our familiar Libellida depretta. It consists of ten distinct segments, whereof the basal two and those at the apex are short, the others elongate, the first being excessively short In a slit on the under side of the second in the male, accompanied by external protuberances, are concealed the genital organs: on the under side of the eighth in the female is a scale-like formation, indicating the entrance to the oviduct The tenth is always provided in both sexes with prominent appendages, differing greatly in form, and often furnishing the best specific (and even generic) characters ; by some authors these appendages are considered as representing a modified eleventh segment. The basal segments often have additional transverse sutures, and in the common triquetrous abdomen there is a fine longitudinal dorsal carina, and prominent lateral angles; invariably the ventral surface has a longitudinal membranous space connecting the here divided chitinous portion of the external skeleton. The legs vary in length and stoutness, but may, aa a rule, be termed long ands]ender» and in a meaaure that appears disproportionate to the necessities of the insect; for a dragon-fly can scarcely be said to walk after the short promenade it takes on emerging from its puparium. The anterior pair probably assist in capturing and holding its insect prey, but the greatest service all the legs render is possibly in enabling the creature to rest lightly, so that it can quit a position of repose in chase of passing prey in the quickest possible manner, in which the majority of the species are aided also by the horizontally extended wings. The coxa is short and stout, followed by a still shorter trochanter; the femora and tibiae long and slender, almost invariably furnished on their under surface with two series of strong spines, as also are the tarsi, which consist of three slender joints, the last having two long and slender claws, usually (but not invariably) with a small tooth internally below the tips; the palms are absent or nearly so, and naturally are not necessary in a non-ambulatory insect The wings are always elongate, and furnished with strong longitudinal neuration and dense transverse nervules strengthening the already strong (although typically transparent) membrane. In the Agrimidm both pairs are nearly equal, and are carried vertically and longitudinally in repose, and the neuration and membrane are less strong; hence the species of this family are not so powerful on the wing as are those of the other groups in which the wings, are horizontally extended in a position ready for instant service. The neuration is peculiar, and in many respects without precise analogy in other groups of insects, but it is not necessary here to enter into more than some special points. On the costal margin (excepting in some Calopterygina) there is a

small dark space limited by nervules, termed the pterostigma; and between this and die base of the wing is a point termed the "nodus," at which the sub-costal 'nervure is suddenly arrested. The arrangement of the nervures at the base of the wing is very singular, and slight differences in it form useful aids to classification.' In the jEscknidat and Libdlulidm this arrangement results in the formation of a triangular space (known as the " triangle "), which is either open or traversed by nervules; but in many Agrionidce this space, instead of being triangular, is oblong or elongately quadrate, or with its upper edge partly straight and partly oblique. This fixitude of type in neuration is not one of the least important of the many peculiarities exhibited in these insects.

The internal structure is comparatively simple. The salivary glands appear to be absent, and the whole digestive apparatus consists of an elongate canal extending from mouth to anus, comprising the oesophagus, stomach, and intestine, with certain dilatations and constrictions; the characteristic Malpighian vessels are stated to number about forty, placed round the posterior extremity of the stomach. Dragon-flies eat their prey completely, and do not content themselves by merely sucking its juices; the harder portions are rejected as elongate, nearl" dry, pellets of excrement

But the most extraordinary feature in the economy, —one which has attracted the attention of naturalists from remote times,—is the position of the genital organs, and the corresponding anomalous manner in which the pairing of the sexes and impregnation is effected. In the male the intromittent organ1 is (as stated above) situated in a slit on the under surface of the second abdominal segment; it is usually very crooked or sinuous in form, and is accompanied by sheaths, and by external hooks or secondary appendages, and also by seminal vessels. But the ducts of the vessels connected with the testes unite and open on the under surface of the ninth segment; hence, before copulation can take place, it is necessary that the vessels in the second segment be charged from this opening, and in the majority of cases this is done by the male previously to seeking the female. In the latter Bex the entrance to the oviduct and genital organs is on the nnder surface of the eighth abdominal segment The act of pairing may be briefly stated as follows. The male, when flying,'seizes the prothorax of the female with the strong appendages at the extremity of the abdomen, and the abdomen of this latter sex is then curved upward so as to bring the under side of the eighth segment into contact with' the organs of the second segment of the male. This act must have been observed by all, though but few nonentomologists are acquainted with the reasons for this most extraordinary position. In the more powerful Libellvlida, &c, the act is of short duiation, and it is probable that polygamy [and polyandry exist, for it possibly requires more than one almost momentary act to fertilize , all the eggs in the ovaries of a female. But in many Agrionidce, and in some others, the male keeps his hold of the prothorax of the female for a lengthened period, retaining himself in-flight in an almost perpendicular manner, and it may be that the deposition of eggs and pairing goes on alternately. There is, however, much yet to be learned on these points. The gravid female usually lays her eggs in masses (but perhaps sometimes singly), and the operation may be witnessed by any one in localities frequented by these insects. She hovers for'a considerable time- over nearly the same spot, rapidly dipping the apex of her abdomen into the water, or at any rate touching it, and often in places where there are no water-weeds, so that in all probability the. eggs fall at once to the bottom. But in some of the Agrionidce the female has been often noticed

« EelmineJätka »