« EelmineJätka »
still the centre of an administrative district, the city has of the former. To this day, however, the wells, which are sunk into comparative insignificance since the rise of four in number, are visited, and certain religious observances Aurungabad, about ten miles to the east ; but the fortress maintained, sometimes for a week. Circuits on the knees remains, from its natural position, one of the most remarks are made round the wells ; and amongst the ignorant the able in the country. It occupies the conical top of a great reputation of the sacred waters remains unimpaired. granite rock, which rises abruptly from the plain to a height The scenery of the county is pleasantly diversified, the of at least 300 feet, and is encompassed at the foot by & people are intelligent and comparatively well educated, the ditch upwards of 30 feet wide. The only means of access landed proprietors are resident, and there is a thriving into the summit is afforded by a narrow bridge, with passage dependence which may be looked for in vain outside the for not more than two men abreast, and a long gallery, province of Ulster. excavated in the rock, which has for the most part a very Minerals.—There are several quarries of fine sandstone. gradual upward slope, but about midway is intercepted by The best is that on Scrabb Hill, near Newtownards, where à steep stair, the top of which is covered by a grating a very close-grained, clear-coloured, and hard and durable destined in time of war to form the hearth of a huge fire stone is raised. Limestone is not very general. Near kept burning by the garrison above. In spite, however, of Comber, on the shores of Strangford Lough, is a very hard its natural strength and its various artificial defences, the and sparkling kind of reddish granular limestone. But fortress has frequently been taken. When about the year the greatest magazine of this rock is in the vicinity of 1203 the Maliometans invaded this part of the Deccan, Moira, where the stone lies very near the surface. Granite Deogurh, as the city was then called, was. the wealthy occurs in many places in detached masses, but the great residence of a powerful rajah. In 1306 it was occupied by body of it is confined to the southern and western regions, Mallek Naib, the emperor of Delhi's general; and in the chiefly in the Mourne Mountains. Crystals of topaz and early part of the same century Mahomet III., in his anxiety / beryl are found in the granite of Slieve Donard. Indicato make it the capital of his kingdom and worthy of its tions of lead have been discovered near Castlewellan, new name of Dowletabad, or Abode of Prosperity, Killough, Newtownards, and Warrenpoint; and traces of endeavoured, but in vain, to cause a wholesale transmigra- copper in the Mourne Mountains near Rosstrevor. tion of the inhabitants of Delhi. About the year 1595 it Soil. The predominating soil is a loam of little depth, surrendered to Ahmed Nizam, shah of Ahmadnagar; and in most places intermixed with considerable quantities of on the fall of his dynasty it was taken possession of by stones of various sizes, but differing materially in character Mallek Amber, an Abyssinian slave. His successors according to the nature of the subsoil Clay is mostly reigned till 1634, when it was taken by the Moguls, who confined to the eastern coast, and to the northern parts of transferred the seat of government to Aurungabad. In Castlereagh. Of sandy soil the quantity is small ; it occurs the 18th century it passed into the possession of Nizam el chiefly near Dundrum. Moor grounds are mostly confined Mulk.
to the skirts of the mountains. Bogo, though frequent, DOWN, a maritime county of Ireland, in the province are scarcely sufficient to furnish a supply of fuel to the of Ulster, occupying the most easterly part of the island, population. is bounded N. by the county Antrim and Belfast Lough, According to Owners of Land Return (1876), there E. and S.. by the Irish Sea, and W. by the county Armagh. were, in 1875, 3605 separate proprietors, holding a Its area, including Ballymacarret, & suburb of Belfast total area of 608,214 acres, valued at £776,518. The (1670 acres), covers 967 square miles, or 612,409 acres. number of owners of less than 1 acre numbered 1460, or The coast-line is very Irregular, and is indented by several 401 per cent., that of all Ulster being 48 per cent. The loughs and bays. The largest of these is Strangford average size of the holdings was 1684 acres, and the Lough, a fine sheet of water studded with 260 islets, 54 of average value per acre was £1, 58. 6 d., as. against 239} which have names, and all of which are finely wooded or acres and 158. 8 d. respectively for Ulster. As in the rich in pasturage. The lough runs for ten miles north-neighbouring counties of Antrim and Armagh, the value wards, and the ancient castles and ruined abbeys on the of the land in Down is considerably higher than that islets render the scene one of singular interest and beauty of the rest of the province. Eighteen proprietors held Further south Dundrum Bay forms a wider expanse of upwards of 6000 acres each, and among them an aggregate water. In the south-west Carlingford Lough separates the extent equal to 481 per cent, of the total area,—the princounty from Louth. On its north-east shore lies the village ciple holders being :-Marquis of Downshire (Hillsborough), of Rosstrevor, now the resort of invalids from all parts of 67,356 acres ; the Kilmerley Trustees, 37,454 ; Earl of the United Kingdom.
| Annesley (Castlewellan), 23,567 ; Marquis of Londonderry Mountains.- Between Strangford and Carlingford loughs (Newtownards), 23,554'; Colonel W. B. Forde (Seaforde), the county is occupied by a range of hills known in its 19,882 ; Earl Dufferin (Clandeboy), 18,238; Hon. R. south-western portion as the Mourne Mountains, which give Meade's trustees (Dromore), 13,492 ; R. N. Batt (Belfast), rise to the four principal rivers—the Bann, the Lagan, the 12,010; and Lord A. E. Hill-Trevor, 10,940. Annacloy, and the Newry. The highest peak in the Agriculture.-Of the total area of the county, which is Mourne range is named Slieve Donard. It is 2796 feet 610,740 acres (exclusive of Ballymacarret), there are above the level of the sea, and is exceeded only by one 339,541 acres under tillage, 187,604 in pasture, and 12,027 peak, Lugduff, in the Wicklow range, and the higher reeks under wood. Although comparisons as to yields of crops in Killarney.
between different periods is now fallacious, inasmuch as the Springs.—Down is celebrated for its holy wells and increased and increasing importation of wheat into Ireland mineral springs. The chalybeabe are more numerous than has altered the system of agriculture, it may be mentioned the sulphurous, but both abound. There are springs at that, while in five years the cultivation of wheat has fallen Ardmillan, Granshaw, Dundonnell, Magheralin, Dromore, from 244,451 acres to 119,597 in Ireland, during the same Newry, Banbridge, and Tierkelly. The Struel springs, a period' in Down the decrease was from 32,734 acres to mile south-east of the town of Downpatrick, are celebrated 21,272. There are many landed proprietors who hold for their healing properties. Fifty years ago they were large tracts in their own hands. The great bulk of the regarded as possessing not only chemical wealth in rare labouring population is .orderly and industrious. Their abundance, but miraculous powers; and the decline of dwellings are better constructed and furnished than those public credulity in the latter was coincident with the failare for a similar class in other parts of Ireland. The pro
Horses and mules.
cesses of agriculture. owing in a great degree to the ex being-Catholics, 88,003 ; Episcopalians, 60,868; Presby. ample set by the resident gentry, are skilfully carried on. terians, 116,017 ; and others, 12,406. There were at the The land is well cultivated. The farms are in some dis same time 140,886 persons of five years and upwards who tricts small, but the effect of emigration has been to con could read and write, 57,140 who could read but could solidate the holdings.
not write, and 45,792 who were illiterate. There were 20 The breed of horses is an object of much attention, and superior schools the county, and 527 primary schools. some of the best racers in Ireland have been bred in this The following are the principal towns :—Newtownards, county. The native breed of sheep, a small hardy race, is population 9562; Banbridge, 5600; Downpatrick, 4155; confined to the mountains. The various other kinds of Holywood, 3573; Gilford, 2720; Bangor, 2560 ; Dromore, sheep have been much improved by judicious crosses from 2408 ; Donaghadee, 2226 ; Comber, 2006 ; Portaferry the best breeds. Hogs are reared in great numbers, chiefly 1938 ; Rathfriland, 1827 ; Warrenpoint;: 1806 ; Killyfor the Belfast market, where the large exportation occa. leagh, 1772; Kilkeel, 1338 ; and Ballynahinch, 1225. sions a constant demand for them, hams of very superior Newry, partly in Down and partly in Armagh county, has quality being prepared in that town.
a population of 14,213. The following figures give the acreage of the principal History and Antiquities.-From the period of the English crops and the numbers of live stock raised in the years 1873 settlement to the Irish revolt in 1333, Down formed two and 1876 respectively :
counties, Newtownards in the north and Down in the south. Turnips.
The English settlers at that time were driven into the 1873 24,783 118,342 53,266 21,117 27,093 maritime baronies of Ards, Lecale, and Mourne, of which 1876 21,272 119,857 62,273 20,973 23,612 they in part retained possession. The remainder of the
district fell into the hands of Irish families, the O'Neals of Sheep. Pigs.
Clandeboy, the MacArtaus, MacRorys, and MacGinnises, 1873 32,183 1 46,971 75,406 32,827 11,434
whose possessions, however, reverted to the crown on the 1876 31,875 143,832 68,968 51,327 11,227
attainder of Shane O'Neal, in the latter half of the 16th Along with Tyrone, the county grows the largest extent century ; but having afterwards submitted to the Governof flax in Ireland, and the largest extent of the other cereals ment, they received back their former estates. In 1602 of any county in Ulster. In live stock Down possesses a the O'Neal estates were again forfeited, and granted to Sir greater number of horses than any other Irish county with Hugh Montgomery and Mr Hamilton, who planted Scottish the exception of Cork.
colonies on the land. The estates of the remaining old Fisheries. These are not developed as they might be. Irish and Anglo-Norman families were mostly forfeited in The Kilkeel herring fishery realized £4203 in 1871, £6200 the rebellion of 1641, or subsequently at the Revolution. in 1872, £13,349 in 1873, £6000 in 1874, and £1360 in The county is not wanting in interesting remains. At 1875. There are fishing stations at Donaghadee, Strang- Slidderyford, near Dundrum, there is a group of ten or ford, Newcastle, and Carlingford ; the total number twelve pillar stones in a circle, about 10 ten feet in height. of vessels in 1875 was 678, and of men and bogs 2537. A very curious cairn on the summit of Slieve Croob is 80 La 1850 there were 1468 vessels and 4640 hands.
yards in circumference at the base and 50 at the top, where Administration. The county is divided into 14 baronies, is a platform on which cairns of various heights are found 70 parishes, and 1258 town-lands. It forms part of the standing. The village of Anadorn is famed for a cairn anited dioceses of Down, Connor, and Dromore; and it covering a cave which contains ashes and human bones. belongs to the military district of Belfast. The assizes are Cromlechs, or altars, are numerous, the most remarkable held at Downpatrick ; quarter sessions at Banbridge, being the Giant's Ring, which stands on the summit of a Downpatrick, Hillsborough, Newry, and Newtownards ; bill near the borders of Antrim This altar formed of and there are 26 petty sessions districts. The poor-law an unwrought stone 7 feet long by 64 broad, resting in an unions of Downpatrick, Kilkeel, and Newtownards are inclined position on rude pillars about 3 feet high. This wholly within the county, and those of Banbridge and solitary landmark is in the centre of an inclosure about a Newry partly in Down and partly in Armagh. The total third of a mile in circumference, formed of a rampart about sum expended in poor-law administration in 1875 was 20 feet high, and broad enough atop to permit two persons £21,076, and the average daily number of paupers 1280. to ride abreast. Near Downpatrick is a rath, or mound of The county prison and infirmary are in Downpatrick, but earth, three-quarters of a mile in circumference, its exterior the county lunatic asylum is in Belfast. Down returns 4 consisting of three artificial ramparts, the largest of which members to Parliament—2 for the county at large, 1 for is 30 feet broad. In its vicinity are the ruins of Saul Downpatrick, and 1 for Newry. Portions of the boroughs Abbey, said to have been founded by St Patrick, and of Belfast and Lisburn are in Down county, but they are Inch Abbey, founded by Sir John de Courcy in 1180. The regarded more properly as parts of Antrim and Armagh number of monastic ruins is also considerable. The most respectively. Previous to the Act of Union Down returned ancient and celebrated is the abbey or cathedral of Down14 members to the Irish Parliament—2 for the county at patrick, supposed to have been founded by St Patrick soon large, and 2 each for the boroughs of Bangor, Downpatrick, after his arrival here in 432, and said to contain his Hillsborough, Newry, Newtownards, and Killyleagh. remains, together with those of St Columba and St Bridget.
Population. The general decrease of population in the It was restored in 1790, when the adjoining round tower province of Ulster between the census of 1851 and that was taken down.
(E. T. L.) of 1871 indicates a percentage of_84, while that of this DOWNPATRICK, a municipal and parliamentary county amounts to 131. This decrease may be ascribed in borough and market-town of Ireland, capital of the county some part to the migration bf the people to Belfast and the of Down, 18 miles S. E. of Belfast, and 74 N.N.E. of neighbouring manufacturing towns, as well as to the Dublin. Downpatrick lies in a valley formed by hills of emigration to foreign countries. In 1851, the inhabitants some elevation, near the south-west extremity of Strangford of Down (exclusive of the part of Belfast) numbered Lough, and is divided into the English, Irish, and Scotch 320,817 ; in 1861, 299,302 ; and in 1871, 277,294, quarters. It consists of four main streets meeting near the of whom 130,457 were males and 146,837 females. centre, the principal of which are the Irish and English
At the last census it appeared that 314 per cent. streets. In the former all business is carried on: the belunged to the Roman Catholic persuasion, the numbers latter is well built, and conta:ns neat private residences
The principal buildings are the cathedral church of the interpretation. When the Arians, however, finding the diocese, the parish church, Roman Catholic chapel, two second furm more consistent with their vious, adopted it Presbyterian and two Methodist ineeting-houses, diocesan persistently and exclusively, its use was naturally discoun. school, county court-house, prison, alms-houses, two branch tenanced by the Catholics, and the other form became the banks, barracks, infirmary, and fever hospital. A small symbol of orthodoxy. To the influence of the Arian heresy trade is carried on at Strangford Lough by means of vessels is also obviously due the addition of the clause--" as it of 100 tons, which discharge at Quoil quay, about a mile was in the beginning, is now, and ever shall be," the use of from the towu; but vessels of larger tonnage can discharge which was, according to some authorities, expressly at & steamboat quay built loter down the Quoil. The cojoined by the Council of Nicæa. There is no sufficient imports are principally iron, coal, salt, and timber; the evidence of this, but there exists a decree of the skaznu exports-barley, oats, cattle, pigs, and potatoes. The linen Council of Vaison (529), asserting its use as already estab. manufacture is also carried on. The County Down Railway lished in the East propter hæreticorum astutian, and order connects the town with the other trading centres, and a ing its adoption throughout the churches of the West. ! line specially constructed in 1862 connects it with the port the Western Church the Gloria Patri is repeated at tie of Donaghadee. Brewing, tanning, and soap-making give close of every psalm, in the Eastern church at the close of considerable employment. The Down corporation races the last psalm. are very popular, and are regarded as a meeting for the DOYEN, GABRIEL FRANCOIS (1726–1806), an eminent province. The parliamentary borough, which returns one French painter, was boru at Paris in 1726. His passiou member to Parliament, had in 1871 a population of 4155, for art prevailed over bis father's wish, and he became in with an area of 1486 acres; the area of this town is 278 his twelfth year a pupil of Vanloo. Making rapid progress, acres, population 3621.
he obtained at twenty the grand prize, and in 1748 set DOXOLOGY, a hymn in praise of the Almighty. The out for Rome. He studied the works of Annibale Caracci, name is often applied to the Trisagion, or " Xoly, Holy, Cortona, Giulio Romano, and Michelangelo, then visite Holy," the scriptural basis of which is found in Isaiah vi. Nap's, Venice, Bulogna, and other Italian cities, and in 3; to the Hallelujah of several of the Psalms and of Rev. 1755 returned to Paris. At first unappreciated and xix.; and to the last clause of the Lord's Prayer according disparaged, he resolved by one graud effort to conquer a to Saint Matthew, which critics are generally agreed in reputation, and in 1758 he exhibited his Death of Virginia. regarding as an interpolation. It is used, however, more It was completely successful, and procured him admission definitely as the designation of two hymns distinguished by to the Academy. Among his greatest works are reckor.ed, liturgical writers as the Greater and Lesser Doxologies --the Miracle des Ardents, painted for the church of St The origin and history of these it is impossible to trace Geneviéve at St Roch (1773); the Triuniph of Thetis, for fully. The germ of both is tu be found in the Gospels ; the chapel of the Invalides; and the Death of St Louis, for the first words of the Greater Doxology, or Gloria in the chapel of the Military School.' In 1776 he was Excelsis, being taken from Luke ii
. 14, and the form of the appointed professor at the Academy of Painting. Soon Lesser Doxology, or Gloria Patri, having been in all pro- after the beginning of the Revolution he accepted the bability first suggested by Matt. xxvjii. 19. The Greater invitation of Catherine II. avd settled at St Petersburg, Doxology. in a form approximating to that of the English where he was loaded with honours and rewards. He died prayer-book, is given in the Apostolical Constitutions (vii. there June 6, 1806. 47). This is the earliest record of it, unless, indeed, the DRACO, a celebrated Athenian legislator who flourished Apostolical Constitutions be taken to be of a later date than in the 7th century BC. By a strange irony of fate ins the Alexandrine Codex, where the hymn also occurs. vame has passed into a proverb for an inexorable lawgiver, Alcuin attributes the authorship of the Latin form the whose laws were written with blood and not with ink. Gloria in Excelsis—to St Hilary of Poitiers (died 368), Modern Greek historians, such as Thirlwall, Grote, aud but this is at best only a plausible conjecture. Ths Curtius, have clearly shown that such a character is an quotations from the hymn in the De Virginitate of utter perversion fact. Of Draco's famous code not a Athanasius, and in Chrysostom (Hom. 63 in Matth.), single line remains, and all we know of it is derived from include only the opening words (those from St Luke's a few scattered notices occurring mostly in late Greek gospel), though the passage in Athanasius shows by an authors. Of these the most importaut is a passage in et cætera that only the commencement of the hymn is Plutarch’s life of Solon. After stating that Solou abolished given. These references indicate that the hymn was used the whole of Draco's legislation, except in cases of murder, in private devotions; as it does not appear in any of the on account of its harshness and severity, Plutarch adds by earliest liturgies, whether Eastern or Western, its introduc- way of commentary—“Forfor nearly all crimes there was the tion into the public services of the church was probably of same penalty of death. The man who was convicted of idlea later date than has often been supposed. Its first intro- ness, or who stole a cabbage or an apple, was liable to duction into the Roman liturgy is due to Pope Symmachus death no less than the robber of temples or the murderer." (498–514), who ordered it to be sung on Sundays and To the same effect is a traditional saying of Draco by which festival days. The Mozarabic liturgy provides for its he justified the rigour of his laws. The least offence, he eucharistic use on Sundays and festivals. In these and said, seemed to him deserving of death, and he could devise other early liturgies the Greater Doxology occurs imme- no greater for the worst crime. It is obvious that the diately after the commencement of the service ; in the statement of Plutarch is not meant to be accepted as a English prayer-book it is introduced at the close of the literal statement of fact, and it is probable that to the most communion office, but it does not occur in either the bloodthirsty of Draco's laws parallels might be quoted for morning or evening service. The Lesser Doxology, or English statutes against vagrancy and theft. All that Gloria Patri, combines the character of a creed with that Draco did was to put in writing the customary laws of his of a hymn. In its earliest forn it ran simply—“Glory time and nation. It was natural that these laws, the be to the Father, and to the Son, and to the Holy Ghost, growth of a rude and primitive age, should strike writers world without end, Amen,” or “ Glory be to the Father, in of the Augustan age es indiscriminative and inhuman. or by the Son, and by the Holy Gliost.” Until the rise That he made no change in the constitution of Athens we of the Arian heresy these forms were probably regarded as have the express testimony of Aristotle. The judicial indifferent, both being equally capable of an orthodox | changes which he effected, so far from aggravating, all
tended to mitigate the severity of early Athenian law. I of trees, wbere they are fond of lying basking in the sun, Before his time all cases of homicide were tried by the and feeding on whatever insect may come in their way. Areopagus, and we are justified in inferring that death was When threatened with danger they are said to feign the universal penalty. To Draco is generally attributed death. the establishment of the petal, a body of fifty-one elders, DRAGON-FLY (German, Wasserjungfer ; Swedish, who sat in four different courts,-one cases of accidental Trollslünda ; Danish, Guldsmed ; Dutch, Scherpstekendehomicide, a second for justifiable homicide, a third for cases vlieg; French, Demoiselle), the popular English name applied where another homicide had been committed abroad by a to the members of a remarkable group of insects which prisoner who had been banished by one of the above-named formed the genus Libellula of Linnæus and the ancient courts, and a fourth for cases of deodand. Such an insti- authors. In some parts of the United States they appear tution is of itself enough to explode the traditional concep- to be known as " Devil's Darning Needles," and in tion of Draco, and we may now proceed to discuss the true many parts of England are termed “Horse-stingers." character of his legislation. At Athens, as at Rome, the It is almost needless to say that (excepting to other kings were the depositaries and administrators of law. insects upon which they prey) they are perfectly innoWith the extinction of the regal power this prerogative cuous, though some of the larger species can inflict passed into the hands of the aristocracy as represented by a momentarily painful bite with their powerful jaws. the archons. It was in the nature of things that such a Their systematic position is at present contested and monopoly should be abused. The remedy for this abuse somewhat uncertain. By most of the older systematists which the commons sought was a published code of laws. they were placed as forming part of the heterogeneous order It was attained at Rome by the law of the Twelve Tables, Neuroptera. Fabricius, however, elevated them to the rank and at Athens by the code of Draco, 621 B.C. In both of a distinct order, which he termed Odonata ; and whatcases the promulgated law was merely an enunciation of ever may be the difference of opinion amongst authors at existing customs. Such was the work of Draco. Of his the present day, that term is almost universally employed life we know absolutely nothing with the exception of a for the group. Erichson transferred all the groups of 80most improbable story related by Suidas. In Suidas's called Neuroptera with incomplete metamorphoses, hence Lexicon, under the word " Draco, ” we are told that he , including the dragon-flies, as a division of Orthoptera, composed his codo in his old age, and was smothered to which he termed Pseuilo-Neuroptera. Gerstäcker moro death in the theatre at Ægina with the caps, chitons, and recently also retains them in the Orthoptera, terming those cloaks which were thrown at him by an enthusiastic groups in which the earlier states are sub-aquatic Orthoptera audience. The only value of the story is that may show amphibiotica. It is not necessary to enter into an examinathe feelings with which he was regarded by the commons tion here of the merits or demerits of those various systems, of his own day.
and it will suffice to say that all are agreed in maintaining DRAGON (Spákwy, sharp-sighted), the name given by the insects as forming a group marked by characters at once the ancients to a fabulous monster represented by them extraordinary and isolated in their nature. as a huge winged lizard or serpent. They regarded it as The group Odonata (using the term as a matter of conthe enemy of mankind, and its overthrow is made to figure venience) is divided into three families, and each of these among the greatest exploits of the gods and heroes of again into two sub-families. The families are the Agriheathen mythology. A dragon watched the garden of the onidæ, Æschnidæ, and Libellulidæ,-the first including Hesperides, and its destruction formed one of the seven the sub-families Calopterygina and Agrionina, the second labours of Hercules. Its existence does not seem to have Gomphina and Æschnina, and the third Cordulina and been called in question by the older naturalists, figures of the Libellulina. dragon appearing in the works of Gesner and Aldrovandi, The tructure of a dragon-fly being so very remark. and even specimens of the monster-evidently formed able, it is necessary to enter somewhat extensively into artificially of portions of various animals—having been ex details. The head is comparatively small, and excavated hibited. The only creatures ever known to have existed, posteriorly, connected very slightly with the prothorax, at all comparable to this imaginary monster, are the Ptero on which it turns almost as on a pivot. The eyes are, as a dactyls, remains of which are found in the Liassic and Oolitic rule, enormous, often contiguous, and occupying nearly formations. These were huge reptiles, provided with true the whole of the upper surface of the head, but somewings somewhat resembling those of bats. The name times (Agrionidæ and Gomphina) widely distant; occu“ dragon " is now applied to a highly interesting, but very pied by innumerable facets, which are often larger on the harmless, group of small flying lizards forming the genus upper portion. In front of them is a portion termed the Draco, belonging to the Agamidæ, a family of Saurian vertex, which sometimes (Libellulidæ) forms a swollen Reptiles. They inhabit India and the islands of the Malay vesicle, before which are placed the three very small ocelli, Archipelago, and 18 species of them are known. They are and on either side of which are inserted the antennæ, which small creatores, measuring about 10 inches long, including are smaller in proportion than in almost any other the tail, which in some cases is more than half of the entire insects, consisting only of two short swollen basal joints and length. The head is small, and the throat is provided a 5 or 6-jointed bristle-like thread. The front of the head with three pouches which are spread out when they lie on is vertical, and consists of a large, often dilated upper the trunks of trees. They are, however, chiefly remarkable portion, which is commonly termed the nasus, followed for the wing-like cutaneous processes with which their sides by a tranverse portion termed the rhinarium, and this are provided, and which are extended and supported by again by the large labrum, which conceals the jaws and greatly elongated ribs. These form a sort of parachute by inner mouth parts. The lower lip, or labium, is attached which the animals are enabled to glide from branch to to a very small chin piece (or mentum), and is generally branch of the trees on which they reside, but, being very large, often (Agrionidæ) divided almost to its base altogether independent of the fore limbs, they cannot be into two portions, or more frequently entire or nearly regarded as true wings, nor do they enable the lizard to fly, so; on each side of it are two usually enormous hyperbut merely to make extensive leaps. When not in use they trophied ‘pieces, which form the palpi,” and which are folded by the side after the manner of a fan, and the are often furnished at the tips with an articulated dragon can then walk or run with considerable agility. They spine (or terminal joint), the whole structure serving to also use their wing-like expansions in clasping the branches I retain the prey. Considerable diversity of opinion exists
with respect to the composition of the month parts, and by small dark space limited by nervules, termed the pterostigma; some anthors the “palpi” have been termed the side pieces and between this and the base of the wing is a point of the lower lip. In a dead dragon-fly the parts are closed termed the “nodus," at which the sub-costal nervure is on each other, and, for a just appreciation of their structure suddenly arrested. The arrangement of the nervures at and power, it is necessary to take a living example in the the base of the wing is very singular, and slight differences fingers by the thorax, slight lateral pressure on which in it form useful aids to classification. In the Æschrida causes the insect to display the formidable arrangement. and Libellulido this arrangement results in the formation The prothorax is extremely small, consisting of only a of a triangular space (known as the “ triangle"), which is narrow ring, the upper portion of which is often elevated either open or traversed by nervules ; but in many into lobes. The rest of the thorax is very large, and con- Agrionidæ this space, instead of being triangular, is oblong solidated into a single piece, with obliquo sutures on the or elongately quadrate, or with its upper edge partly sides beneath the wings; the portion in front of the wings straight and partly oblique. This fixitude of type in is extremely robust, and offers a median carina or suture neuration is not one of the least important of the many above, and a broad transverse sinus posteriorly. The inter- peculiarities exhibited in these insects. alar portion is somewhat excavated, and on each side of it The internal structure is comparatively simple. The above are nodosities forming the attachments of the power- salivary glands appear to be absent, and the whole digestive ful muscles that work the wings; on each side is a large apparatus consists of an elongate canal extending from and distinct spiracle. The abdomen varies excessively in mouth to anus, comprising the esophagus, stomach, and form, the two extremes being the filiform structure observ. intestine, with certain dilatations and constrictions; the able in most Agrionidæ, and the very broud and depressed characteristic Malpighian vessels are stated to number formation seen in our familiar Libellula depressa. It con- about forty, placed round the posterior extremity of the sists of ton distinct segments, whereof the basal two and stomach. Dragon-flies eat their prey completely, and do those at the apex are short, the others elongate, the first not content themselves by merely sucking its juices; the being excessively short. In a slit on the under side of the harder portions are rejected as elongate, nearl- dry, pellets second in the male, accompanied by external protuberances, of excremento are concealed the genital organs : on the under side of the But the most extraordinary feature in the economy, eighth in the female is a scale-like formation, indicating -one which has attracted the attention of naturalists the entrance to the oviduct. The tenth is always provided from remote times,—is the position of the genital organs, in both sexes with prominent appendages, differing greatly and the corresponding anomalous manner in which the in form, and often furnishing the best specific (and even pairing of the sexes and impregnation is effected. In generic) characters ; by some authors these appendages are the male the intromittent organ' is (as stated above) considered as representing a modified eleventh segment. situated in a slit on the under surface of the second The basal segments often have additional transverse abdominal segment; it is usually very crooked or sinuous sutures, and in the common triquetruus abdomen there is in form, and is accompanied by sheaths, and by external a fine longitudinal dorsal carina, and prominent lateral hooks or secondary appẽudages, and also by seminal vessels. angles; invariably the ventral curface has a longitudinal But the ducts of the vessels connected with the testes unite membranous space connecting the here divided chitinous and open on the under surface of the ninth segment; hence, portion of the external skeleton. The legs vary in length before copulation can take place, it is necessary that the and stoutness, but may, as a rule, be termed long and- vessels in the second segment be charged from this opening, Blender and in a measure that appears disproportionate to and in the majority of cases this is done by the male the necessities of the insect; for a dragon-fly can scarcely previously to seeking the female. In the latter sex the be said to walk after the short promenade it takes on entrance to the oviduct and genital organs is on the under emerging from its puparium. The anterior pair probably surface of the eighth abdominal segment. The act of pairassist in capturing and holding its insect prey, but the ing may be briefly stated as follows. The male, when greatest service all the legs render is possibly in enabling flying, seizes the prothorux of the female with the strong the creature to rest lightly, so that it can quit a position of appendages at the extremity of the abdomen, and the repose in chase of passing prey in the quickest possible abdomen of this latter sex is then curved upward so as to manner, in which the majority of the species are aided also bring the under side of the eighth segment into contact by the horizontally extended wings. The coxa is short and with the organs the second segment of the male. This stout, followed by a still shorter trochanter ; the femora act must have been observed by all, though but few nonand tibiæ long and slender, almost invariably furnished on entomologists are acquainted with the reasons for this most their under surface with two series of strong spines, as also extraordinary position. In the more powerful Libellulide, are the tarsi, which consist of three slender joints, the last &c., the act is of short duration, and it is probable that having two long and slender claws, usually (but not polygamy and polyandry exist, for it possibly requires invariably) with a small tooth internally below the tips; more than one almost momentary act to fertilize all the the palms are absent or nearly so, and naturally are not eggs in the ovaries of a female. But in many Agrionida, necessary in a non-ambulatory insect. The wings are and in some others, the male keeps his hold of the always elongate, and furnished with strong longitudinal prothorax of the female for a lengthened period, retainneuration and dense transverse nervules strengthening the ing himself in-fight in an almost perpendicular manner, already strong (although typically transparent) membrane. and it may be that the deposition of eggs and pairing goes In the Agrionidæ both pairs are nearly equal, and are on alternately. There is, however, much yet to be learned carried vertically and longitudinally in repose, and the on these points. The gravid female usually lays ber eggs neuration and membrane are less strong; hence the species in masses (but perhaps sometimes singly), and the operation of this family are not so powerful on the wing as are those may be witnessed by any one in localities frequented by of the other groups in which the wings, are horizontally these insects. She hovers for'a considerable time over extended in a position ready for instant service. The nearly the same spot, rapidly dipping the apex of her neuration is peculiar, and in many respects without precise abdomen into the water, or at any rato touching it, and analogy in other groups of insects, but it is not necessary often in places where there are no water-weeds, so that in here to enter into more than some special points
. On the all probability the eggs fall at once to the bottom. Bat in costal margin (excepting in some Calopterygina) there is a somo of the Agrionidæ the female has been often noticed