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tjourt of Chancery in England, and pending the trial the "threo lower counties" were not sure to whom they belonged, and so paid no land routs. In 17G8 the suit was decided, and commissioners appointed, who defined die boundary line of Maryland as it now stands. It was in the year 1776 that the first constitution of the State of Delaware was framed, whereby " the three lower counties oo the Delaware" lost their awkward name, and again had a new form of government In the same year Delaware, as one of the thirteen colonies, signed the Declaration of Independence; and in 1787 the State, in convention, adopted the constitution of the United States. In 1792 a new State constitution was enacted, and again in 1831, which is now in force. Under it, the governor is elected for four years, and the legislature meets biennially at Dover, the State capital. Delaware was one of the original thirteen States, and, though slave-holding, remained loyal to the Union at the secession of the Southern States in 1861.
DELAWARE, a city of the United Slates, capital of a county of the same name in Ohio, is situated on the west bank of the Olentangy, nearly in the centre of the State, 24 miles north of Columbus. Its principal public institutions are the Ohio Wesleyan university and a female college belongiug to the same body. The manufactures consist of oil, cordage, hempen cloth, and iron work. A medicinal spring in the neighbourhood is resorted to for the benefit of its waters. Population (1870), 5641.
DEL CREDERE AGENT is one who, selling goods for his principal on credit, undertakes for an additional commission to guarantee the solvency of the purchaser.
DELFICO, Melchioeek (1744-1835), an eminent Italian writer on political economy, was bori. at Teramo iu the Abruzzi on the 1st August 1744, and was educated at Naples. He devoted himself specially to the study of jurisprudence and political economy, and thus qualified himself for the valuable service he was to render to his native country by his writings on legal and economic subjects. His first publication, Saggio filosofico net matrimonio (1774), was an eloquent vindication of marriage against the loose views that were prevalent. To his Manorie sul Tribunale delta Gratcia e tulle Legge Eamomiclte nelle Provinde cmfinante del Regno, addressed to the king, the Neapolitans owed the abolition of the most vexatious and absurd restrictions on the sale and exportation of agricultural produce. Other Manorie on kindred subjects followed, and did much to promote reform in the direction of free trade. Equally beneficial was the adoption of the principles developed in his Eifleuioni tulla Vendila dei Feudi Devoluti, in 1790, and his Leltera al Dtica di Cantalupo eft % Feudi Devoluti, in 1795, which were so powerfully reasoned that a law was promulgated for the sale of all feudalities reverting to the crown as free estates. During the short reign of Joseph Bonaparte at Naples, Delfico was mode a councillor of state, and employed in the formation of the new judicial organization of Naples. He was employed in a similar manner under Marat; and, when Ferdinand was restored in 1815, Delfico was made president of the commission of the archives, on office which he filled until 1823, when he tendered his resignation on account of his advanced age. His sovereign acknowledged his eminently patriotic services by the grant of a large pension for life. . Soon after, he retired to his native town, where he died on the 21st June 1835, at the advanced age of ninety-one. Besides the works we have noticed, ou which his Neapolitan fame may be said chiefly to rest, we owe to him Eeveral general works of no mean reputation, especially Eioerche sul vero Caratiert delta Giuruprudenta Somana, e di true Cultore, 1760, and Peruieri tuila Storia, e tult IncertcUa ed InutUiik
delta Medctima, 1806, which have both been several times reprinted. In the latter he has anticipated the scepticism of Niebuhr on the early history of Borne, which he treats as fabulous; and he denies to the Romans before the second Funic war all arts but that of agriculture, and of making war on their neighbours.
Bee Gregoire de Filippis Delfico's Delia Pita e delle Open di Mckhiam Delfico (Teramo, 1886), and Tipaldo's Biografia dcgli ICaliani iUuttri (voL ii.)
DELFT, a town of Holland, in the province of South Holland, on the Schie, nearly ten miles from Botterdam, and in the line of the canal between that city and the Hague. It is well and regularly built in the form of a square, but has a rather gloomy appearance from its streets being traversed by narrow stagnant canals. The public buildings comprise the Frinsenhof, or palaco, where William of Orange teas assassinated' in 1584; the town-house, erected in 1618, with antiquarian and artistic collections; the Old Church, dating from the 11th century, and containing monuments to Van Tromp and Fiet Hein, and the tomb of Leeuwenhoek, the naturalist; the New_Church, founded in 1381, and interesting both for its chime of COO bells, and as the burial-place of the princes of the house of Orange from the days of the Liberator down to the present centbry; the arsenal, originally erected as a warehouse for the East India Company ; and the polytechnic school, with the fine collection of mechanical models formerly preserved in the dockyard at Amsterdam. It is sufficient to mention the powder-magazine, the school of military engineering, the theatre, the mnnicipal school for the education of civil service students for the colonies, the school of design, tho lunatic asylum, and Madame Benswonde's orphanage. For a long time the name of Delft was associated, not only in Holland, but even abroad, with the manufacture of excellent earthenware; but this industry, as well as the beer-brewing which was of great importance lost century, has become almost extinct. The present branches are carpet-weaving, cooperage, dyeing, and distilling. The town was founded about 1075 by Duke Geoffrey of Lorraine after his conquest o! Holland from Count Thierry. It was olmosi totally ravaged by fire in 1536; and in 1654 it lost about 1200 of its population by the explosion of a powdermagazine. In 1797 the Christo Sacrum Society was founded by Onder van Vyngoard-Ceanzius, the burgomaster of the city, for the Utopian purpose of uniting in one community all the various branches of the Christian church. Of the celebrities of the town the moBt famous is Grotius, whose tomb is shown in the New Church. Population in 1874, 23,900.
DELHI,1 a district of British India under the jurisdiction of the lieutenant-governor of the Punjab, situated between 28° 13' and 29' 13' N. 1st, and 76* 53' and 77 34" E. long. It consists of a strip of territory on the right or west bank of the River Jumna. 75 miles in length, and varying from 15 to 23 miles in breadth, bounded on the N. by the district of K'arnol, on the E. by the Jumna river separating it from Meerut (Mirat) and Bulandshahr districts, on the S. by Bohtak, and on the W. by Gurgaon. With the exception of a low-lying alluvial tract in the north, and a narrow fringe of fertile soil along tho river bank to the south of Delhi city, the country consists of stony or hard sandy soil, where cultivation mainly depends upon artificial irrigation. This is supplied by the Western Jumna canal, which has a coarse of 51 miles in the district; by the Ali Murdan canal, constructed by a celebrated Persian nobleman of that name; by the new' Agra canal;
- The name is also applied to a Division or Comml&a'onerEbip, com* prising the districts of Delhi, Gurgaon, and Kama], containing a total ana of 5567 etraan miles, with a population of 1,020,012.
and by tne Jumna river, and a few till streams. An offshoot of the Mewat hills runs in a north-easterly direction nearly across the district. This offshoot forms a sterile, rocky table-land, from two to three mile in breadth, but nowhere exceeding 500 feet above the level of the Burrounding country.
The district population, according to a census taken in 1868, numbered 608,850 souls, scattered over an area of 1227 square miles, showing a density per square mile of 496 persons. Acoordiug to their religious beliefs the inhabitants are thus classified:—Hindus, 438,886, or 72 08 per cent.; Mahometans, 130,645, or 21-46 per cent.: Sikhs, 580, or -09 per cent; others, 38,739, or 6 36 per cent. Four towns contain a population exceeding 6000,—viz., Delhi city, population 154,417; Sonipat, 12,176 ; Faridabad, 7990; and Balabgarh, 6281.
The principal agricultural products of the district are wheat, barley, sugar-cane, and cotton. In the lands of the northern part, commanded by the ii rigation canals, cotton and sugar cane are the mo3t lucrative staples of the autumn harvest, while jadr (great millet), bd/ri (spiked millet), and makdi (Indian corn) are grown for local consumption. The spring crops consist of the better kinds of grain, such as wheat and barley, and of gram and tobacco. In some irrigated villages a superior kind of rice is grown, but it nowhere forms a staple product. Cotton cultivation is extending, and a ready market for the fibre exists in Delhi city. The total area of the district is returned at 814,672 acres,of which 525,255 are cultivated, viz., 206,853 Irrigated and 318,402 unirrigated. A tract of 1147 acres, set apart by the native rulers as a hunting ground, is now inclosed by Government as a timber piuserve; and other plantations along the banks of the liver have recently been formed and placed under the Forest Department. The hills produce good building slone, and a fair kind of rjarble of two colours, black and grey. A white clay, supposed to be kaolin, is found at Aningpur, Muradpur, and Kasmpur, and has been employed with success at the Gov.rnnient foundry at Rurki for making crucibles. At the first named village is a crystal mine, no longer worked. The East India Railway and the Punjab Railway run trains into Delhi from their junction at Ghaziabad, about twelve miles distant, while the Eajputana State Railway traverses the district for about twelve miles in tho direction of Gnrgaon. The Government revenue of Delhi district in 1872^-76 amounted tr £383.082,—of which £89.036 was derived fr»m the land, £264.909 from salt and custom duties, and £14,086 trom stamps. The land settlement is not a permanent one, but for a term of years. For the education of the people Government in 1872-73 maintained in whole or in part 72 schools, attended by 3645 pupils, at an outlay to the state of £7760. There were al3o 32 unaided indigenons schools, attended by 529 pupils in 1872-73. Three Government dispensaries gave eratuitous relief to 18.303 patients, at a cost of £925. 8s. (1872-73). For administrative purposes, the district is subdivided into three ta/uUsol Delhi. Larsauli. and Balabgarh. The staff consists of a deputy commissioner, with two assistants and two extra assistant commissioners, a judge of tne small cause court. 3 tahsildurs and 3 rr<//6 or assistant tahsUi'drs, a superintendent and an assistant Superintendent of police, and a civil surgeon.
The early history ot the district will be found noticed below. In the last century, the Delhi empire fell under the Marhatta*. and the emperor Shah Alam became a pensioner of the Maharaja Sindhia. In 1803 Lord Lake broke tlie Marhatta power. The Mughul emperor was taken under the protection of the Company, and a considerable tract of country, consisting of nearly all the present districts of Delhi and Hissar, was assigned for
the maintenance of tho royal family. This tract was placed under charge of a British officer as Resident, and the revenue was collected and justice administered in the name of the emperor. The annual allowance to the royal family paid from this assigned territory was originally £10u,000; it was afterwards increased to £120,000, and subsc juently to £150,000, exclusive of certain crown lands which yielded about £15,000 a year. The emperor received tho homage of royulty; and throughout the assigned territory all judicial decrees were pronounced in his name, and sentences of death weni referred to him for approval. The fiscal arrangements were under the ontiro control of the resident. This continued till 1832, when the office of resident was al dished, the tract being annexed to the Xorth-Western Provinces, and a British Commissioner appointed to administer it. On the outbreak of the sepoy mutiny in 1857, the whole of the district was for a time lost to British rule, and the southern part was not subdued until after the fall of Delhi city in September 1857. In 1858 Delhi district was separated from the Xorth-Western Provinces, and annexed to the then newly constituted lieutenant-governorship of the Punjab.
Delhi, the chief city of the district and division of the same name, and the capital of the Mughul empire, is situated in 28° 39' 40' X. lat and 77' 17 45" E. long. 15 abuts on the right bank of the River Jumua, and is inclosed on three sides by a lofty wall of solid stone constructed by the Emperor Shah Jahan, and subsequently strengthened by the English at the beginning of the present century by a ditch and glacu. The eastern side, where the city extends to the river bank, has no wall; but the high bank is faced with masonry, and bears from (he outside the appearance of one. The circuit of the vail is 5 J miles. It has ten gales, of which the principal are the Kashmir and Mori gates on the north; the Cabul and Lahore gull's on the west; and the Ajmlr and Delhi gates ou the west. The imperial palace, now known a* "the fort," is situated in the east of the city, and abuts directly ou the liver. It is surrounded on three sides by an imposing wall ot red granite, with small round towers, and a gateway on the w est and south Since the mutiny of lc57 a greut portion of the palace has been demolished in order to make room for English barracks. The more beautiful buildings in the palace, viz., the entrance hall, tho nau'uit Ihdnd or musio hall, the diirdn-i-dm or hall of public audience, lUe diiidni-k/ids or hall of private audience, the rang maltal, and some pavilions, have been preserved intact. Aa lit Fergusson well says, in his IHdory of ArJiiUvliiif, however, these buildings " without the courts and corridors connect ing them lose all their meaning, and more than half their beauty." South of the fort, iu tho Dariagauj quarter of the city, is a cantonment for a rogiuieul ot native infantry, which, with one wing of a European regiment stationed w ithin the fort, makes up the garrison usually stationed at Delhi. On the opposite side of the river is tne fortress of Salimgarh. erected in the 16th century by Sulini SLtih. and now in ruins. At this point the East India railway enters the city by a magnificent bridge across the Jumua. passing over Salimgbur and through a corner of tne fort, to Hie railway station within the city walls. Thence the line proceeds as the Rajput.iuA State Railway, and, after traversing the city, emerges through tho wall on tne northwest Li tlie north eastern corner of the city/within tne walls, and close to the Kashmir gate, are situated tlie treasury and other public offices. Dariagauj, the lort. the public offices, and the railway form an almost continuous line along the eastern and northern faces of the city,—tne angle between them being devoted to public gardens. The area thus occupied amounts to nearly half of that of the entire city; it presents a comparatively open appear ance, and forms a marked contrast to the south-west quarter of the town, which is densely occupied by the shops and dwellings of the native population.
The buildings in the native town are chiefly of brick, well-built and substantial The smaller streets are narrow and tortuous, and in many cases end in cult dt sac. On the other hand, no city in India has finer streets than the main thoroughfares of Delhi, ten in number, thoroughly drained, metalled, and lighted. The principal thoroughfare, the Chandni Chauk, or Street of Silver, leads eastwards from the fort to the Lahore gate, and is threequarters of a mile long by 74 feet broad. Throughout the greater part of its length, a double row of nim and jnpdl trees runs down its centre on both sides of a raised path, which has taken the place of the masonry aqueduct that in former days conducted water from the canal into the palace. A little to the south of the Chandni Chauk is the Jama Masjid, or great mosque, standing out boldly from a small rocky rising ground. Begun by Shah Jahan in the fourth year of his reign, and completed in the tenth, it still remains one of the finest buildings of its kind in India. Its front court-yard, 450 feet square, and surrounded by a cloister open on both sides, is paved with granite inlaid with marble, and commands a view of the whole city. The mosque itself, a splendid structure forming an oblong 261 feet in length, is approached by a magnificent flight of stone steps. Three domes of white marble rise from Its roof, with two tall and graceful minarets at the corners in front The interior of the mosque is paved throughout with white marble, and the walls and roof are lined with the same material. Two other mosques in Delhi deserve a passing notice,—the Kala Masjid, or black mosque, so called from the dark colour given to it by time, and supposed to have been built by one of the early Afghan sovereigns, and the mosque of Roshan-ud-daula. Among the more modem buildings of Delhi may be mentioned the Government College, founded in 1792, the Residency, and the Protestant church, built at a cost £10,000, by Colonel Skinner, an officer wellknown in the history of the East India Company. About half-way down the Chandni Chauk is a high clock-tower, with the institute and museum opposite. Behind the Chandni Chauk, to the north, lie the Queen's Gardens; beyond them the "city lines " stretch away as far as the well-known rocky ridge, about a mile outside the town. From the summit of this ridge the view of the station and city is very picturesque. To the west and north-west, considerable suburbs cluster beyond the walls, containing the tombs of the imperial family. That of Humaynn, the second of the Mughul dynasty, is a noble building of granite inlaid with marble. It lies about two miles from the city, amid a large garden of terraces and fountains, the whole surrounded by an embattled wall, with towers and four gateways. In the centre stands a platform about 20 feet high by 200 feet square, supported by cloisters, and ascended by four great flights of granite steps. Above, rises the Mausoleum, also a square, with a great dome of white marble in the centre. About a mile to the westward is another burying-ground, or collection of tombs and small mosques, some of them very beautiful. The most remarkable is perhaps the little chapel in honour of a celebrated Mussulman saint, Kizam-ud-din, near whose shrine the members of the late imperial family, up to the time of the mutiny, lie buried, each in his own little inclosure, surrounded by very elegant lattice-work of white marble. The Kutab Minor, or Pillar, is situated about nine miles south of the city.
TJie palaces of ihe nobles, which formerly gave an air of grandeur to the city, have for the most part disappeared. Their sites are occupied by structures of less pretension, but
still of some elegance of architectural design. The city is now amply supplied with water; and much attention has of late been paid to its cleanliness and its sanitary condition generally. The principal local institution was,until 1877,the Delhi College, founded in 1792. It was at first exclusively an Oriental school, supported by the voluntary contributions of Mahometan gentlemen, and managed by a committee of the subscribers. In 1829 an English department was added to it; and in 1855 the institution was placed under the control of the Educational Department. In the mutiny of 1857 the old college was plundered of a very valuable Oriental libraiy, and the building completely destroyed. A new college was founded in 1858, and was affiliated to the university of Calcutta in 1864. The old college attained to great celebrity as an educational institution, and produced many excellent scholars. Under orders of the Government of the Punjab (February 1877), the collegiate staff of teachers was to be withdrawn, in order to concentrate the grant available for higher-class education upon the central and more useful institution at Lahore, the preseut capital of the province.
The population of Delhi in 1853 was returned at 152,424, viz., 76,390 Hindus and 76,034 Mahometans, hi 1868, the census showed that since the Mutiny the Mahometan population had greatly diminished, while on the other hand the Hindus had considerably increased. In that year, the population was ascertained to be made up as follows:—Hindus, 85,087 (males 46,541 and females 88,546); Mahometans, 61,720 (males 82,361 aud females 29,359); Sikhs, 357 males 267 and female 90); other denominations, 7253 (males 4177 and females 3C76): total of all religions, 164,417 (males 83,346 and females 71,071). The Delhi municipality, which also embraces the suburbs, contains a population of 184,840. The total income (mainly derived from octroi duties) in 1871-72 amounted to £25,610, or an avenge of 2s. 9jd. per head.
Hittory.—From the earliest period of Indian history, Delhi or its immediate neighbourhood has been the site of a capital city. Within the circuit of a very few miles from modern Delhi, city after city has risen upon the ruins of its predecessors, and the debris of ancient buildings is now estimated to cover an area of 45 square miles. The first of these fallen capitals, Indraprastha, is supposed to date from the 15th century B.O., when the Aryan colonists of India were beginning to feel their way down the Jumna. The Sanskrit epic, the ifah&bh&ralo, relates how the city was founded by Yudhisthira and his brothers, the five Fandavas. It lay upon the banks of the Jumna, near Humayun's tomb, about two miles south of the modern city; and the Migambod ghSt, near the old Calcutta gate of Delhi, is believed to be its one surviving relic. A list of monorchs brings the history of Indraprastha down to the middle of the 1st century B.c, when the name of Dilli, or Delhi, is first met with. By this time the city had spread or been removed some miles to the south, as far as the site now occupied by the Kutab Mmar. Another blank of several centuries occurs until the 3d or 4th century A.D. To this latter period belongs the carved iron pillar near Delhi, one of the most curious monuments in India. It consists of a solid shaft of wrought iron, upwards of 16 inches in diameter, and more than 60 feet in length, of which 22 feet are above ground. The pillar bears a Sanskrit inscription in six lines, recording the history of one Raja Dhava, who "obtained by his own arm an undivided sovereignty on the earth for a long period." Delhi nextmakes itsappearance in history at the time of the foundation of the Toniara or Tuar dynasty by Anang Pal in 736 A.d. This ruler is said to have restored the city, and during his dynasty the capital alternated between Delhi and Kanauj. About 1151 A.d. the Toniara dynasty was overthrown by Visala Deva, the Chohan king of Ajmir, but a marriage of the daughter of the vanquished monarch to the son of the conqueror united the two families. The son of this union, the famous