« EelmineJätka »
Prithivi Raja, was the last Hindu ruler of Delhi. In 1191 came the invasion of Muhammad of Ghor. Defeated on this occasion, Muhammad returned two years later, overthrew the Hindus, and captured and put to death Prithivi Rajx Delhi became henceforth the capital of the Mahometan Indian empire, Kutab-ud-din (the general and slave of Muhammad of Qhor) being left in command. His dynasty is known as that of the slave kings, end it is to them that old Delhi owes its grandest remains, among them Kutabud-dln's mosque and pillar, a few miles south of the modern city. The slave dynasty retained the throne till 1288, when it was subverted by Jalal-ud-dln Ghilzai. The most remarkable monarch of this dynasty was Ala-ud-din, during whose reign Delhi was twice exposed to attack from invading hordes of Mughuls. On the first occasion, Ala-ud-dfn defeated them under the walls of his capital; on the second, after encamping for two months in the neighbourhood of the city, they retired without a battle. The house of Ghilzai came to an end in 1321, and was followed by that of Taghlak. Hitherto the Patban kings had been content with the ancient Hindu capital, altered and adorned to suit their tastes. But one of the first acts of the founder of the new dynasty, Ghias-ud-dfn Taghlak, was to erect a new capital about four miles further to the east, which he called Taghlakabad. The ruins of his fort remain, and the eye can still trace the streets and lanes of the long deserted city. GhiAs-ud-dln was succeeded by his son Muhammad Taghlak, who reigned from 1325 to 1351, and is described by Elphinstone as "one of the most accomplished princes and most furious tyrants that over adorned or disgraced human nature." Under this monarch the Delhi of the Taghlak dynasty attained its utmost growth. His successor Fi.oz Shah Taghlak transferred the capital to a now town which he founded somo miles off, on the north of the Kutab, and to which he gave his own name, Firozabad. In 1398, during the reign of Mahmud Taghlak, occurred the Tartar invasion of Timurlane. The king fled to Guzerat, his army was defeated nnder the walls of Delhi, and the city surrendered. The town, notwithstanding a promise of protection, was plundered and burned; the citizens were massacred. The invaders at last retired, leaving Delhi without a Government, and almost without inhabitants. At length Mahmud Taghlak regained a fragment of his former kingdom, but on his death in 1412 the family became extinct He was lucceeded by the Sayyid dynasty, which held Delhi and a a few miles of surrounding territory till 1444, when it gave way to the house of Lodi, during whose rule the capital was removed to Agra. In 1526 Baber, sixth in descent from Timurlane, invaded India, defeated and killed Ibrahim Lodi at the battle of Panipat, entered Delhi, was proclaimed emperor, and finally put an end to the Afghan empire. Saber's capital was at Agra, but his son and successor, Humayun, removed it to Delhi In 1540 Humayun was defeated and expelled by Sher Shah, who entirely rebuilt the city, inclosing and fortifying it with a new wall. In his time Delhi extended from where Eumayun's. tomb now is to near the southern gate of the modern city. In 1555 Humayun, with the assistance of Persia, regained the throne; but he died within six months afterwards, and was succeeded by his son, the illustrious Akbar.
During Akbar's reign and that of his son Jahftngir, the capital was either at Agra or at Lahore, and Delhi once more fell into decay. Between 1638 and 1658, however, Shib Jahan rebuilt it almost in its present form; and his city remains substantially the Delhi of the present time. The imperial palace, the Jama Masjid or great mosque, and the restoration of what is now the western Jumna canal, are the work of Shah Jahan. The Mughul empire rapidly
expanded during the reigns of Akbar and his successor!
down to Aurungzebe, when it attained its climax. After the death of the latter monarch, in 1707. came the decline. Insurrections and civil wars ou the part of the Hindu tributary chiefs, Sikhs and Marhattds,broke out. Aurungzebe's successors became the helpless instruments of conflicting chiefs. His grandson, Jahdndor Shah was, in 1713, deposed and strangled after a reign of one year; and Farrakhsiyyar, the next in succession, met with the same fate in 1719. He was succeeded by Muhammad Shah, in whose reign the Murhntta forces first made their appearance before the gates of Delhi, in 1736. Three year* later the Persian monarch, Nadir Shah, after defeating the Mughul army at Karn.il, entered Delhi in triumph. While engaged in levying a heavy contribution, the Persian troops were attacked by tho populace, and many of them were killed. Nadir Shah, after vainly attempting to stay the tumult, at last gave orders for a general massacre of the inhabitants. For fifty-eight days Nadir Shah remained in Delhi, and when he left lie carried with him a treasure in money amounting, at the lowest computation, to eight or nine millions sterling, besides jewels of inestimable value, and other property to the amount of several millions more.
From this time (1740) the decline of tho empire proceeded unchecked and with increased rapidity. In 1771 Shah Alam, the son of Alamgir II., was nominally raised to the throne by the Marhattas. tho real sovereignty resting with the Marhatta chief, Sindhia. An attempt of the puppet emperor to shake himself clear of the Marhattas, in which he was defeated in 1788, led to a permanent Marhatta garrison being stationed at Delhi. From this date, the king remained a cipher in the hands of Sindhia, who treated him with studied neglect, until the 8th September
1803, when Lord Lake overthrew the Marhattds under the walls of Delhi, entered the city, and took the king under the protection of the British. Delhi, once more attacked by a Marhatta army under the Marhatta chief Holkar in
1804, was gallantly defended by Colonel Ochterlony, the British resident, who held out against overwhelming odds for eight days, until relieved by Lord Lake. From this date a new era in the history of Delhi began. A pension of £120,000 per annum was allowed to the king, with exclusive jurisdiction over the palace, and the titular sovereignty as before; but the city, together with the Delhi territory, passed under British administration.
Fifty-three years of quiet prosperity for Delhi wer% brought to a close by the mutiny of 1857. Its capture by the mutineers, its siege, and its subsequent recapture by the British have been often told, and nothing beyond a short notice is called for here. The outbreak at Meerut occurred on the night of the 10th May 1857. Immediately after the murder of their officers, the rebel soldiery set out for Delhi about 35 miles distant, and on.the following morning entered the city, where they were joined by the city mob. Mr Fraser, the commissioner, Mr Hutchinson, the collector, Captain Douglas, the commandant of the palac. guards, and the Rev. Mr Jennings, the residency chaplain, were at once murdered, as were also most of the civil and non-official residents whose houses were situated within the city walls. The' British troops in cantonments consisted of three regiments of native infantry and a oattcry of artillery. These cast in their lot with the mutineers, and commenced by killing their officers. The Delhi magazine, then the largest in the north-west of India, was in the' charge of Lieutenant Willoughby, with whom were two other officers and six non-commissioned officers. The magazine was attacked- by the mutineers, but the little band defended to the last the enormous accumulation of munitions of war stored there, and, when further defence was hopeless, fired the magazine Five of the nine were killed by the explosion, and Lieutenant Willoughby subsequently died of his injuries; the remaining three succeeded in making their escape. The occupation of Delhi by the rebels was the signal for risings in almost every military station in North-Western India. The revolted soldiery with one accord thronged towards Delhi, and in a short time the city was garrisoned by a rebel army variously estimated at from 50,000 to 70,000 disciplined men. The pensioned king, Bahadur Shah, was proclaimed emperor; his sons were appointed to various military commands. About fifty Europeans and Eurasians, nearly all females,, who had been captured in trying to escape from the town on the day of the outbreak, were confined in a stifling chamber of the palace for fifteen days; they were then brought out and massacred in the court-yard.
The siege which followed forms one of the memorable incidents of the British history of India. On the 8th June, four weeks after the outbreak, Sir H. Barnard, who had succeeded as commander-in-chief on the death of General Anson, routed the mutineers with a handful of Europeans and Sikhs, after a severe action at Badli-ka-Sarai, and encamped upon the ridge that overlooks the city. The force was too weak to capture the city, and he had no siege train or heavy guns. All that could be done was to hold the position till the arrival of reinforcements and of a siege train. During the next three months, the little British forco on the ridge were rather the besieged than the besiegers. Almost daily sallies, which often turned into pitched battles, were made by the rebels upon the over-worked handful of Europeans, Sikhs, and Gurkhas. A great struggle took place on the centenary of the battle of Plassey, June 23, and another on the 25th August; but on both occasions the mutineers were repulsed with heavy loss. General Barnard died of cholera in July, and was succeeded by General Archdale Wilson. Meanwhile reinforcements and siege artillery gradually arrived, and early in September it was resolved to make the assault The first of the heavy batteries opened fire on the 8th September, and on the 13th a practicable breach was reported. On the morning of the 14th the assault was delivered, the points of atuck being the Kashmir bastion, the water bastion, the Kashmir gate, and the Lahore gate. The assault was thoroughly successful, although the column which was to enter the city by the Lahore gate sustained a temporary check. The whole eastern part of the city was retaken, bat at a loss of '66 officers and 1104 men killed or wounded, out oi the total strength of 9866. Fighting continued more or less during the next six days, and it was not till the 20th September that the entire city and palace were occupied, and the reconquest of Delhi was complete. During the siege, the British force sustained a loss of 1012 officers and men killed, And 3837 wounded. Among the killed was General John Nicholson, the leader of one of the storming parties, who was shot through the body in the-act of leading his men, in the first day's fighting. He lived, however, to learn that the whole city had been recaptured, and died on the 23d September. Dn the flight of the mutineers, the king and several members of the royal family took refuge at Humayun's tomb. On receiving a promise that his life would be spared, the last of the house of Timor surrendered to Major Hodson; he was afterwards banished to Rangoon. Delhi, thus reconquered, remained for some months under military authority. Owing to the murder of several European soldiers who strayed from the lines, the native population was expelled the city. Hindus were soon afterwards re-admitted, but for some time Mahometans were rigorously excluded. Delhi was made over to the civil authorities in January 1858, but it was not till 1861 that the civil eoorta. were regularly reopened. The shattered walls of
the Kashmir gateway, and the bastions of the northern face of the city, still bear the marks of the cannonade of September 1857. Since that date, Delhi has settled down into a prosperous commercial town, and a great railway centre. The lines which start from it to the north, south, east, and west bring into its bazaars tho trade of many districts. But the romance of antiquity still lingers around it, and Delhi was selected for the scene of the Imperial Proclamation on the 1st January 1877.
An excellent chapter on Delhi will b« found in Mr Eeene't Fall of Ou Moghul Empire. In preparing the above account, the materials have been chiefly drawn from the official Statistical Account of Delhi District, togethor with Sir J. W. K&ye'a History of Ou Sepoy War. (W. W. H.)
DELIA, a festival of Apollo held in Delos. It included athletic and musical contests, for which the prize was a branch of the sacred palm. This festival was said to have been established by Theseus .when returning from Crete. The Athenians took special interest in maintaining its splendour.
DELILLE, Jacqt/ks (1738-1813), a French poet, was bom on the 22d of Juno 1738, at Aigues-Ferse in Auvergne. He was an illegitimate child, and was connected by his mother with the family of the Chancellor de l'H6pital. With very slender means of support he was educated at the college of Lisieux in Paris, and made such progress in his studies as augured well for his future distinction. When his education was completed, he was forced to accept of a very humble situation as elementary teacher in the college of Beauvaii; but this was soon exchanged for the more honourable station of professor of humanity at Amiens. After returning to Paris, where he obtained a professorship at the College de la Marche, he speedily acquired a considerable poetical fame, wliich was greatly increased by the publication (1769) of his translation of the Georgia of Virgil, which he had begun at Amiens. Voltaire was greatly struck with the enterprise and the success of Delille; and without any personal acquaintance with the poet he, of his own accord, recommended him and his work to the good graces of the Academy. He was at once elected a member, but was not admitted until 1774 owing to the opposition of Richelieu, who alleged that he was too young. He now aimed at a higher distinction than even a finished translation of the most finished poem in the world could confer upon him; and in the Jardini, which he published in 1782, he made good his v>re,tensiona as an original poet. Before he had gone far in the composition of his next poem, which was not, indeed, published till after many of his other works, he made a journey to Constantinople in the train of the ambassador M. de Choiseul Gouffier. On his return to Paris he lectured, in his capacity of professor, on the Latin poets, and was attended by a numerous audience, who were delighted, not only with his critical observations, but with his beautiful recitation. Delille continued to advance in fame and fortune, though without hazarding my more publications, till tho period of the Revolution, when he. was reduced to poverty, and sheltered himself in retreat from the disasters which surrounded him. He quitted Paris, and retired to St Die, the native place of Madame Delille; and here he completed, in deep solitude, his translation of the Mneid, which he had begun many years before. A residence in France, however, soon became very undesirable, and he emigrated first to Basle and then to Glairesse in Switzerland, a charming village on the Lake of Bienne opposite Rousseau's island of St Pierre. Much delighted with this enchanting country, and with the reception which he met from its inhabitants, he occupied himself constantly in the composition of poetry, and here finished his Homme da Champs, and his poem on the Trots Signet de la
m — 7
Nature. His next place of refuge was in Germany, where he composed his La Pitie; and finally, he passed two years in London, chiefly employed in translating Paradise Lost. In 1801, finding that he might return safely to Paris, he did so, carrying with him his immense Poetical Eneydopaiia. He resumed his professorship and his chair at the Academy, but lived in retirement. His later poems were very numerous, but were not fitted to increase his reputation, which rests mainly on his translation of the Georgia and his JarJins. In his later years ho became blind. He died on the 1st May 1813.
SeliUe left behind him little prose. His preface to the translation of the Oeorgics is an able essay, and contains many excellent hints on the art and difficulties of translation. He wrote the article "La Brayere" in the Biographie Universelle. The following Ea the list of his poetical works :—Lcs Gtorgiqucs de Virgilc, traduites m vert francaU, Paris, 1769, 1782, 1786, 1809 ; Les Jurdins, en quatre chants, 1780, new edition, London, 1800, Paris, 1802; Vffomnus des Champs, on Us Georgiques Francoises, 1800 ; Poisics Fugitives, 1802; Dithyrambs sur VImmortaliU de VAme, suivi du
rtage du Saint Gothard,—poeme traduit de 1'Anglais de Madame Dnchesse de Devonshire, 1802; La Pitie\—poeme, en qoatre chants, London and Paris, 1803; VEntidc is yirgile, traduite en vers francais, 1805; L'Imagination, poeme en huit chants, 1800; Irs Trais Rignes de la tfaturc, 1809 ; La Conversation, 1812. A collection given under the title of Poesies Diverses, 1801, was disavowed by Delille,
DELIRIUM, a temporary disorder of the mind generally occurring in connection with some form of bodily disease. It may vary in intensity from sb'ght and occasional wandering of the mind and incoherence of expression, to fixed delusions and violent maniacal excitement, and again it may be associated with more or less of coma or insensibility (see Mental Diseases). Delirium is apt to occur in most diseases of an acute nature, such as fevers or inflammatory affections, in injuries affecting the brain, in blood diseases, in conditions of exhaustion, and as the result of the action of certain specific poisons, such as opium, Indian hemp, belladonna, chloroform, and alcohoL The form of delirit^n which is due to the action of the last-named Bubstas.ce is one of great importance from its comparative frequency, and is well known by the name of Delirium Tremens.
Delirium Tremens is one of a train of symptoms of what is termed in medical nomenclature acute alcoholism, or recent excessive indulgence in alcohol. It must, however, be observed that this disorder, although arising in this manner, rarely comes on as the result of a single debauch in a person unaccustomed to tho abuse of stimulants, but generally occurs in coses where the nervous system has been already subjected for a length of time to the poisonous action of alcohol, so that the complaint might be more properly regarded as acute supervening on chronic alcoholism. It is equally to be borne in mind that many habitual drunkards never suffer from delirium tremens.
It was long supposed, and is indeed still believed by some, that delirium tremens only comes on when the supply of alcohol has been suddenly cut off; bnt this view is now generally rejected, and there is abundant evidence to show that the attack comes on while the patient is still continuing to drink. Even in those cases where several days have elapsed between the cessation from drinking and the seizure, it will be found that in the interval the premonitory symptoms of delirium tremens have shown themselves, one of which is aversion to drink as well as food—the attack being in most instances preceded by marked derangement of the digestive functions. Occasionally the attack is precipitated in persons predisposed to it by the occurrence of some acute disease, such as pneumonia, by accidents, such as burns, also by severe mental strain, and by the deprivation of food, even where the supply of alcohol is less than would have been likely to produce it otherwise. Where, on the other hand, the quantity of alcohol taken has been very large, the attack is sometimes ushered in
by fits of an epileptiform character. Males are much more frequently the subjects of delirium tremens than females.
One of the earliest indications of the approaching attack of delirium tremens is sleeplessness, any rest the patient may obtain being troubled by unpleasant or terrifying dreams. During the day there is observed a certain restlessness and irritability of manner, with trembling of the hands and a thick or tremulous articulation. The skin is perspiring, the countenance oppressed-looking and flushed, the pulse rapid and feeble, and there is evidence of considerable bodily prostration. These symptoms increase each day and night for a few days, and then the characteristic delirium is superadded. The patient is in, a state of mental confusion, talks incessantly and incoherently, has a distressed and agitated or perplexed appearance, and a vague notion that he is pursued by some one seeking to injure him. His delusions are usually of transient character, but he is constantly troubled with visual hallucinations in the form of disagreeable animals or insects which he imagines he sees all about him. He looks suspiciously around him, turns over his pillows, and ransacks his bedclothes for some fancied object he supposes to be concealed there. There is constant restlessness, a common fonn of delusion being that he is not in his own house, but imprisoned in some apartment from which he is anxious to escape to return home. In these circumstances he is over wishing to get out of bed and out of doors, and, although in general he may be persuaded to return to bed, he is soon desiring to get up again. The trembling of the muscles from which the name of the disease ir derived is a prominent but not invariable symptom. It is most marked in the muscles of the hands and arms and in the tongue.' The character of the delirium is seldom wild, or noisy, but is much more commonly a combination of busy restlessness and indefinite fear. When spoken to the patient can answer correctly enough, but immediately thereafter relapses into his former condition of incoherence. Occasionally maniacal symptoms develop themselves, the patient becoming dangerously violent, and the case thus assuming a much graver aspect than one of simple delirium tremens.
In most cases the symptoms undergo abatement in from three to six days, the cessation of the attack being marked by the occurrence of sound sleep, from which the patient awakes in his right mind, although in a state of great physical prostration, and in great measure if not entirely oblivious of his condition during his illness.
Although generally the termination of an attack of delirium tremens is in recovery, it occasionally proves fatal by the supervention of coma and convulsions, or acute mania, or by exhaustion, more especially when any acute bodily disease is associated with the attack. In certain instances delirium tremens is but the beginning of serious and permanent impairment of intellect, as is not unitequently observed in confirmed drunkards who havo suffered from frequent attacks of this disease.
The treatment of delirium tremens has given rise to much discussion among medical men, and the result has been that more rational views now prevail on the subject than formerly. This change is doubtless in great measure to be ascribed to the clearer ideas respecting the real nature and true cause of the malady which extensive and accurate observation has afforded. The theory once so widely accepted, that delirium tremens was the result of the too sudden breaking off from indulgence in alcohol, led to its treatment by regular and often large doses of stimulants, a practice fraught with mischievous results, since however much the delirium appeared to be thus calmed for the time, the continuous supply of the poison which was the original source of the disease inflicted serious damage upon the Main, and :ed in many instances to the subsequent j development of insanity. The former system of prescribing < large doses of opium, with the view of procuring sleep at: all ha, yards, was no lass pernicious: and there is reason to fear that not a few cases of delirium tremens have ended in fatal coma from what was in reality opium poisoning. In addition to these methods of treatment, mechanical restraint of the patient was the common practice.
The views of the disease which now prevail, recognizing the delirium as the effect at once of the poisonous action of alcohol upon the brain and of the want of food, encourage reliance to be placed for its cure upon the entire withdrawal, in most instances, of stimulants, and the liberal administration of light nutriment, in addition to quietness and gentle but firm control, without mechanical restraint. In mild attacks this is frequently all that is required. In more severe cases, where there is great restlessness, sedatives have to be resorted to, and many substances have been recommended for the purpose. Opiates administered in small quantity, and preferably by hypodermic injection, are undoubtedly of value; and chloral, either alone or in conjunction with bromide of potassium, often answers even better. Such remedies, however, should be administered with great caution, and only under medical supervision.
Stimulants may be called for where the delirium assumes the low or adynamic form, and the patient tends to sink from exhaustion, or when the attack is complicated with some other disease. Such cases are, however, in the highest degree exceptional, and do not affect the genera] principle of treatment already referred to, which inculcates the entire withdrawal of stimulants in the treatment of ordinary attacks of delirium tremens. (j. o. A.)
DELITZSCH, a town of Prussia, in the province of Saxony, at the head of a district in the department of Merseburg, situated on the Lober, an affluent of the Mulde, 12 miles north of Leipsic at a, railway junction. Its public buildings comprise an old castle of the 14th century now used as a female penitentiary, one Roman Catholic and three Protestant churches, a normal college (Schulhkrerscminar) established in 1873, and several other educational institutions. Besides Kuhschwanz, a peculiar kind of beer, it manufactures tobacco, cigars, shoes, and hosiery; and coal-mining is carried on in the neighbourhood. Originally a settlement of the Sorbian Wends, and in the 12th century part of the possessions of the bishops of Merseburg, Delitzsch ultimately passed to the SachsenMersebnrg family, and on their extinction in 1738 was incorporated with Electoral Saxony. Ehrenberg, the famous naturalist, was born in the town in 1795. Population in 1875, 8235.
DELOLME, Jean Locis (1740-1806), jurist and constitutional writer, was bom at Geneva in 1740. He: studied for the bar, and had entered on the profession of an 1 advocate in his native town when he was obliged to emigrate on .account of the publication of a pamphlet entitled Examen de trail part* de droit, which gave offence to the authorities of the town. He found an asylum in England, where he lived for several years on the meagre and precarious income derived from occasional contributions to various journals. He maintained an honourable independence, however, until 1775, when he found himself compelled to accept aid from a charitable society to enable him to return home. He died at Sewen, a village in the canton of Schwyte, on the 16th July 1806. During his exile Delohne made a careful study of the English constitution, the results of which he published in his La Constitution de I'Angleterre (Amsterdam, 1771), of which an enlarged and improved edition in English appeared in 1772, and was several times reprinted. The work excited
much interest as the production of a foreigner, and as containing many acute observations on the causes of the excellence of the English constitution as compared with that of other countries. It is. however, wanting in breadth of view, being written before the period when constitutional questions were treated in a philosophical manner. Several editions were published after the author's death, the latest being in 1853 by MacQregor. Delolme also wrote A Parallel between the English Government and the form.r Government of Sweden (1772), A History of the Flagellants (1782), based upon a work of Boileau's, An Essay on the Union of Scotland and England (1787), and one or two smaller works.
DELOS, now Miha Dili, or Little Delos, to distinguish it from Megali Dili, or Great Delos, an island in the jEgean, the smallest but most famous of the Cyclades, and, according to the ancient belief, the spot round which the group arranged itself in a nearly circular form. It is a rugged mass of granite, about 12 square miles in extent, in 37* 23' N. 1st. and 25* 17' E. long., about half a mile to the east of Megali Dili, or Rheneia, and two miles to the west of Myconos. Towards the centre it rises to its greatest height of 350 feet in the steep and rocky peak of Mount Cynthus, which, though overtopped by several eminences in the neighbouring islands, is very conspicuous from the surrounding sea. It is now completely destitute of trees; but it abounds with brushwood of lentisk and cistus, and here and there affords a patch of corn-land to the occasional sower from Myconos. Of the many traditions that were current among the ancient Greeks regarding the origin of Delos—or, as they sometimes named it, Astcria, Ortygia, Chlamydia, or Pyrpile—the most popular describes it as struck from the bed of the sea by a dint of Neptune's trident, and drifting devious through the^Egeantill.moored by Jupiter as a refuge for his persecuted Latona. . It was soon after flooded with the birth-radiance of Apollo and Diana, and became for ever sacred to these twin deities of light. The island first appears in history as an Ionian colony and the seat of a great Ionic festival to which the Athenians, among the rest, were accustomed annually to despatch a Scupic, or sacred ship, with a number of Deliasts, ©cwpot, or sacred delegates. In the 6th century B.C. the influence of the Delian Apollo was at its height; Polycrates of Samoa dedicated the neighbouring island of Bheneia to his service, and Fisistratus of Athens caused all the area within sight of the temple to be cleared of the tombs by which its sanctity was impaired. About a hundred years afterwards, in the sixth year of the Peloponnesian war (426 B.C.), the Athenians instituted a more elaborate lustration, caused every tomb to be removed from the island, and established a law that ever after any one whose condition seemed to threaten its pollution by either birth or death should be at once conveyed from its shores. And even this was not accounted sufficient j for, in 422, they cor^Ued all its secular inhabitants. After the overthrow of Corinth, in 146 B.C., the commercial element which had in all probability been present from the first in the religious gatherings, came prominently forward, and Delos became the central mart of the iEgean. In the Mithridatic war it was laid waste by Menophanes, the general of the Bitbynian king ; and it never recovered its former prosperity, though it is said-that, under the Roman empire, 10,000 slaves were sometimes put up for sale in a single day. Hadrian attempted to found a city which was to bear the proud name of New Athens; but, when visited by Pausanias towards the close of the same century, the whole island was almost depopulated. It is now absolutely without a permanent inhabitant, though during the summer months a few shepherds cross over with their flocks from Myconos or Rheneia . As a religious centre it is replaced by Teuos. and as a commercial centre by the flourishing port of Syra. Besides the site of the chief settlement or city, the following are the spots of antiquarian interest which can still be identified :—the temple of Apollo, a splendid building of the Boric order which, in the words of Mr Tozer, now forms "a confused heap of white marble fragments, columns, bases, and entablatures, lying indiscriminately together ;" the portico erected by Philip of Macedon; the base (within the temple area) of the colossal statue dedicated to the Delian Apollo by the people of Naxos; a theatre of Parian marble on the slope of Mount Cynthus; a temple to Isis, further np the hill, which probably explains the myth of the connection between the brook Inopus and the Nile ; the so-called " treasury " of Delos; an Ionic temple on the summit; and the circular tank or lake which supplied the water for the religious rites. The ordinary buildings on the island were constructed ,of native granite, but marble was imported for the nobler edifices, which were destined to serve as so many quarries to the mediaeval builders of Constantinople and Venice.
See Leake, Northern Greece; Sallier, "Histoire de l'lsle do Delos,n in Mhnoires de V Acad, des Inscrip.; Schwenck, Deliacorum,
Krt i. 1825 ; Tozer, "Delos and Rheneia," in Academy, 1876; b&gno,Eechmhts sur Difos, Paris, 1876.
'DE LOUTHERBOURG, Pinup James (1740-1812), an artist of remarkably versatile ability and interesting personality. He was born at Strasburg, 31st October 1740, where his father, the representative of a noble Polish family, practised miniature painting in a semi-amateur manner; but he spent the greater part of his life in London, where he was naturalized, and exerted a considerable influence on the scenery of the English stage, as well as on the artists of the following generation, Turner, Martin, <fcc.
Young De Loutherbourg was intended for the Lutheran ministry, and was educated at the university of Strasburg. As the calling, however, was foreign to his nature, he insisted on being a painter, and placed himself under Vanloo in Paris. The result was the immediate and precocious development of extraordinary powers. Besides this triumph, and independently of it,' he became a figure in the fashionable society of that day, and the friend of such men as Diderot, who had just then mainly contributed to make Gesner celebrated. He was elected into the French Academy below the age required by the law of the institution, and painted landscapes, sea-storms, battles, all of which had a celebrity above those of the specialists then working in Paris. By temperament whatever was extraordinary and sensational was attractive to him, and the bizarre appeared in all he did. His debut was made by the exhibition of twelve pictures, including Storm at Sunset, Night, Morning after Bain; and when he painted common things, as a group of asses, he gave the picture such a fantastic title as—Father and Mother, Little Fanfan, Aunt and Uncle a la Bretagne, Cousin Germain, and the Perruquier of all the Family. In the next stage of his life we find him travelling in Switzerland, Germany, and" Italy, distinguishing himself as much by mechanic inventions as by painting. One of these, constructed at his native city, was the wonder of the day, showing quite new effects produced in a model theatre. The exhibition of lights behind canvas representing the moon and stars, the illusory appearance of running water produced by clear blue sheets of metal and gauze, with loose threads of silver, and so on, were his devices. Charles Blanc says one of these curious models, called "Le Seraphin?' still existed in the Palais Royal at the date of publication of his work, Ecole Francaite. Having repaired to London, De Loutherbourg was employed by Gurrick, who offered him £500 a year to apply his mechanisms to Drury Lane, and to superintend the scene-painting, which he did with complete success,
making a new era in the adjuncts of the stage. Uarricks own piece, the Christmas Tale, and the pantomime, 1781-2, introduced the novelties to the public, and the delight not only of the masses, but of Reynolds and the artists, was unbounded. The green trees gradually became russet, the moon rose and lit the edges of passing clouds, and all the world was captivated by effects we now take little notice of. A still greater triumph awaited him on his opening an entertainment he called the " Eidophusicon," which showed the rise, progress, and result of a storm at sea—that which destroyed the great Indiaman, the " Halsewell,"—and the Fallen Angela raising the Palace of Pandemonium. De Loutherbourg has been called the inventor of the panorama, but this honour does not belong to him, although it first appeared about the same time as the eidophusicon. The first panorama was painted and exhibited by Barker the elder.
All this mechanism did not in the least prevent De Loutherbourg from painting. Lord Howe's Victory off TJshant, 1794, and other large naval pictures, were commissioned for Greenwich Hospital Gallery, where they still remain. His grandest work, the Destruction of the Armada, is one of the finest sea-fights ever realized on canvas. He painted also the Great Fire of London, and several historical works, one of these being the Attack of the Combined Armies on Valenciennes, 1793. He was made RA, in addition to other distinctions, in 1781, shortly after which date we find an entirely new mental impulse taking possession of him. He joined Balsamo, Comte da Cagliostro, and travelled about with this extraordinary person,—happily leaving him, however, before the priests in Rome condemned him to death. We do not hear that Mesmer had attracted De Loutherbourg, or that the Revolution carried him away, nor do we find an exact record of his connection with Cagliostro; but there exists a pamphlet published in 1789, A List of a few Cures performed by Mr and Mrs De Loutherbourg without Medicine, which relates some very remarkable examples of such cures. Cagliostro had led him to seek tho philosopher's stone, but his success was frustrated by a female relative breaking in on his nocturnal experiments and destroying the crucible at the very moment of projection. He died 11th March 1812. His publications are few,—some setsof etchings, and 'English Scenery, 1805. His colour is hot and brown, which has injured his fame as a painter.
DELPHI, AcAc/>ot, a town of ancieut Greeoe in the territory of Phocis, famous as the seat of the most important temple and oracle of Apollo. It was situated abont six miles inland from the shores of the Corinthian Gulf, in a rugged and romantic glen, closed on the N. by the steep wall-like under-cliffs of Mount Parnassus known as the Phaedriades, or Shining Rocks, on the E. and W. by two minor ridges or spurs, and on the S. by the irregular heights of Mount Cirphis. Between the two mountains the Pleistus flowed from east to west, and opposite the town received the brooklet of the Castalian fountain, which rose in a deep gorge in the centre of the Parnassian cliff. The site of the ancient town is now occupied by the village of Castri, and the natural features of the scene have been somewhat altered by the earthquake of 1870: but the main points of interest can still be distinguished.
The principal building of Delphi was the temple of Apollo, which stood immediately under the shelter of the northern cliff. It appears to have been of the Doric order outside, and of the Ionic within. The front was built of Parian marble, and the sculptural decorations were extremely rich. One pediment was adorned with representations of Latona, Diana, Apollo, and the Setting Sun, and the other with Dionysus and the Thyiades; tho eastern architrave was hung with gilded shields presented