« EelmineJätka »
Alis pioneer was Mulgrave's Essay on Satire, an attack on clearer than that Dryden all his life through regarded his Rochester and the court, circulated in 1679. Dryden him literary powers as a means of subsistence, and had little self was suspected of the authorship, and cudgelled by hired scruple about accepting a brief on any side. The Ilind ruffians as the author ; but it is not likely that he attacked and Panther, published in 1687, is an ingenious argument the king on whom he was dependent for the greater part for Roman Catholicism, put into the mouth of “a milk-white of his income. In the same year Oldham's satire on the hind, immortal and unchanged." There is considerable Jesuits had immense popularity, chiefly owing to the excite- beauty in the picture of this tender creature, and its enemies ment about the Popish plot. Dryden took the field a in the forest are not spared. One can understand the a satirist towards the close of 1681, on the side of the court, admiration that the poem received when such allegories were at the moment when Shaftesbury, baffled in hi: efforts to in fashion. It was the chief cause of the veneration with exclude the duke of York from the throne as & papist, and which Dryden was regarded by Pope, who, himself educated secure the succession of the duke of Monmouth, was wait- in the Roman Catholic faith, was taken as a boy of twelve ing his trial for high treason. Absalom and Achitophel to see the veteran poet in his chair of houvir and authority produced a great stir. Nine editions were sold in rapid at Will's coffee-house. It was also very open to ridicule, succession in the course of a year. It was a new thing for and was treated in this spirit by Prior and Jontagu, the the public to have the leading men of the day held up to future earl of Halifax. Drydens other literary services to laughter, contempt, and indignation under disguises which James were a savage reply to Stillingfleet--who had attacked a little trouble enabled them to penetrate. There was no two papers published by the king immediately after his compunction in Dryden's ridicule and invective. Delicate accession, une said to have been written by liis late brother wit was not one of Dryden's gifts; the motions of his in advocacy of the Church of Rome, the other by his late weapon were sweeping, and the blows hard and trenchant. wife explaining the reasons for her conversion and a The advantage he had gained by his recent studies of char- | translation of a life of Xavier in prose. He had writacter was fully used in his portraits of Shaftesbury and ten also a panegyric of Charles, and a eulogy of James Buckingham, Achitophel and Zimri. In these portraits he wder the title of Britunnin Reliviva, which it is inshows considerable art in the introduction of redeeming teresting to compare with his other productions of the same traits to the general outline of malignity and depravity. kind. Against Buckingham Dryden had old scores to pay off, Dryden did not abjure his new faith on the Revolution, but he was too practised in the language of eulogy and in- and so lost his office and pension as laureate and historinvective to need any personal stimulus. “ Glorious John ” grapher royal. For this act of constancy he deserves credit, had a mind superior to petty batreds, as well as, it must be if the new powers would have considered his services worth admitted, to petty friendships, and it is not impossible having after his frequent apostasies. His rival Shadwell that the fact that his pension had not been paid since reigned in his stead. Dryden was once more thrown mainly the beginning of 1680 weighed with him in writing this upon his pen for support. He turned again to the stage satire to gain the favour of the court. In a play produced and wrote the plays which we have enumerated. A great in 1681, The Spanish Friar, he had written on the other feature in the last decade of his life was his translations side, gratifying the popular feeling by attacking the Papists. from the classics. A volume of miscellanies published in Three other satires, with which he followed up Absalom and 1685 had contained some translations from Virgil, Horace, Achitophel, dealt with smaller game than this master-piece, Lucretius, and Theocritus. He now produced translations though one of them was hardly inferior in point of literary more deliberately as a saleable commoclity. A volume of power. The Medal was written in ridicule of the medal miscellanies, which appeared in 1693, contained translations struck to commemorate Shaftesbury's acquittal. Then from Homer and Ovid. In the same year he published a Dryden had to take vengeance on the literary champions translation of the satires of Juvenal and Persius, written of the Whig party, who had opened upon him with all their with the assistance of his two elder sons. Johnson passes ärtillery. Their leader, Shadwell, he essayed to demolish on this work the just criticism that“ though, like all other ander the nickname of “ MacFlecknoe." Besides a separate productions of Dryden, it may have shining parts, it seems poem under that title, he contributed a long passage to a to have been written merely for wages, in an uniform second part of Absalom and Achitophel, written chiefly by mediocrity.” When Dryden took his farewell of the Nahum Tate, in which Ferguson, Forbes, Settle, and Shad stage in 1694, he announced his intentio of devoting well were victims of his strident lash. Religio Laici, which himself to a translation of the whole of Virgil. On this came immediately after, in November 1682, though he seems really to have laboured, and great expectations nominally an exposition of a layman's creed, and deservedly were formed of it. It was published in 1697, and proved admired as such, was not without a political purpose. It | a great success. To judge it by its fidelity as a reproducattacked the Papists, but declared the “fanatics” to be tion of the original would be to apply too high a standard, still more dangerous, which fitted in with Charles's policy but it is an interesting rendering of Virgil into the of conciliating the church by persecuting the Noncon- style of Dryden, and as a poem was read with delight formists.
in its own age. Soon after its publicatiou, Dryden wrote Dryden's next poem in heroic couplets was in a different one of his master-pieces, the second Ode on St Cecilia's strain. On the accession of James, in 1685, he became a day. His next work was to render some of Chaucer's and Roman Catholic. There has been much discussion as to Boccaccio's tales and Ovid's metamorphoses into his own whether this conversion was or was not sincere. It can verse. These translations appeared a few months before only be said that the coincidence between his change of faith his deathvand are known by the title of Fables. Thus a and his èhange of patron was suspicious, and that Dryden's large portion of the closing years of Dryden's life weru character for consistency is certainly not of a kind to quench spent in translating for bread. He had a windfall of 500 suspicion. The force of the coincidence cannot be removed guineas from Lord Abingdon for a poem on the death of by such pleas as that his wife had been a Roman Catholic his wife in 1691, but generally he was in considerable for several years, or that he was converted by his son, who pecuniary straits. He is supposed to have received occasional was converted at Cambridge, even if there were any evidence presents from rich and powerful friends, but he never for these statements. Scott defended Dryden's conversion, received anything from the court, and he was too proud us Macaulay denounced 'ity from party motives; on any to make advances. Besides, his three sons held various uther guuuds, it is not worth discussing. Nothing can be posts in the service of the Pope at Rome, and he conk
not well be on good terms nith both courts. However, and wounded twelve ; the experiment, therefore, was not he was not molested in London by the Government, and repeated. Davison and Symington's patent process of artiin private he was treated with the respect due to his old ficial drying, which has been found to yield good results, age and his admitted position as the greatest of living consists in exposing the wood to a current of air moving at English poets. His death took place on the 1st of May the rate of about 48 miles an hour, and having a tempera1700.
ture of 110° to 112° Fahr. Dryden's conversion to Catholicism had a great indirect The felling of trees when void of fresh sap, as a means influence on the preservation of his fame. It was this of obviating the rotting of timber, is a practice of very which gained him the discipleship and loving imitation of ancient origin. Vitruvius directs (ii. cap. 9) that, to secure Pope. He thus became by accident, as it were, the literary good timber, trees should be cut to the pith, so as to allow father and chief model of the greatest poet of the next of the escape of their sap, which by dying in the wood generation. If his fame had stood simply upon his merits would injure its quality ; also that felling should take place as a poet, he would in all likelihood have been a much less only from early autumn until the end of winter. The supimposing figure in literary history than he is now. The posed superior quality of wood cut in winter, and ths early splendid force of his satire must always be admired, but practice in England of felling oak timber at that season, there is surprisingly little of the vast mass of his writings may be inferred from a statute of James L., which enacted that can be considered worthy of lasting remembrance. “that no person or persons shall fell, or cause to be felled, He showed little inventive genius. He was simply a any oaken trees meet to be barked, when bark is worth 2s. masierly littérateur of immense intellectual energy, whose a cart-load (timber for the needful building and reparation one lucky hit was the first splendid application of heroic of houses, ships, or mills only excepted), but between the couplets to satire and religious, moral, and political argu- first day of April and last day of June, not even for the ment. Upon this lucky hit supervened another, the king's use, out of barking time, except for building accidental discipleship of Pope. Dryden lent his gift of or repairing his Majesty's houses or ships." In giving testiverse to the service of politics, and his fame profited by the mony before a committee of the House of Commons in connection. It would be unjust to say that his fame was March 1771, Mr Barnard of Deptford expressed it as his due to this, but it was helped by this; apart from the opinion that to secure durable timber for ship-building, trees attachment of Pope, he owed to party also something of should be barked in spring and not felled till the succeedthe favour of Johnson and the personal championship and ing winter. In France, so long ago as 1669, a royal decreo editorial zeal of Scott.
limited the felling of timber from the 1st October to the The standard edition of Dryden is Scott's. There is an admir. 15th April ; and, in an order issued to the commissioners able edition of his poetical works in the Globe series, by Mr W. D. of forests, Napoleon L directed that the felling of naval Christie, enriched with an elaborately accurate memoir and pains- timber should take place only from November 1 to March taking notes. His two best pla Au for Love and Don Set have recently been republished by Mr. J. L. Seton. (W. M.)
15, and during the decrease of the moon, on account of the
rapid decay of timber, through the fermentation of its sap, DRY ROT, a disease in timber, apparently infectious, if cut at other seasons. The burying of wood in water, which occasions the destruction of its fibres, and reduces it which dissolves out or alters its putrescible constituents, eventually to a mass of dry dust. It is produced most has long been practised as a means of seasoning. The old readily in a warm, moist, stagnant atmosphere, while com- “ Resistance” frigate, which went down in Malta harbour, mon or wet rot is the result of the exposure of wood to re remained under water for some months, and on being raised peated changes of climatic conditions. In both diseases, was found to be entirely freed from the dry rog fungus that however, a kind of spontaneous combustion or decomposition had previously covered her; similarly, in the ship Eden," goes on in the wood; water, carbonic acid gas, and probably the progress of rot was completely arrested by 18 months' carburetted hydrogen are evolved, and a pulverulent sub submergence in Plymouth Sound, so that after remaining a stance, or humus, remains. Though the growth of fungi year at home in excellent condition she was sent out to the undoubtedly accelerates the progress of dry rot, it would East Indies. It was an ancient practice in England to seem that the true origin of the disease is the incipient place timber for thrashing-floors and oak planks for waindecomposition of the sap in wood, and that by virtue of this scotting in running water to season them. Whale and decomposition the fungi obtain a nidus for their growth. I other oils have been recommended for the preservation of The most formidable of the dry rot fungi is the species wood; and in 1737 a patent for the employment of hot oil Merulius lacrymans, which is particularly destructive of was taken out by a Mr Emerson. Common salt, but for coniferous wood; other species are Polyporus hybridus, the attraction of its impurities for moisture, might be which thrives in oak-built ships, and P. destructor and advantageously used ; indeed the Dutch ship-builders, havThelephora puteana, found in a variety of wooden struc | ing observed that the busses in which herrings were stowed tures. The nature of ships' cargoes has a considerable in-away in pickle lasted longer than any other craft, adopted fluence on the duration of their timbers,-hemp, pepper, the practice of filling up with salt, not only the yacant spaces and cotton being highly favourable, and lime and coal un between the planks, but also holes bored for its reception in favourable, to the development of dry rot. The commonest the large timbers. precaution against the occurrence of that disease is to | Among the many processes for the prevention of dry and deprive the wood of its moisture by exposure to the open wet rot in wood by impregnating it with material capable air, or, in other words, to season it. Charring, steaming, of precipitating its coagulable constituents in a permanently boiling, and smoke-euring are other modes of desiccation insoluble and imputrescible form, the following may be which have been resorted to. At one time a Mr Lukin enumerated :-Kyan's (1832), in which, according to Sir attempted the rapid seasoning of logs of green oak at Wool-Humphry Davy's suggestion, a solution of corrosive wich dockyard by heating them in pulverized charcoal ; but sublimate is einployed; Sir W. Burnett's (1836), M. the process, though it lessened the weight and dimensions of Breant's (1837), Margary's (1837), and Payne's (1841), the wood, started its fibres from one another. He then which consist respectively in the use of zinc chloride, sought to replace the moisture of heated wood by the pro- copperas, copper sulphate, and copperas followed by sodium ducts of the distillation of pitch-pine saw-dust; before, I carbonate ; and Bethell's (1838), for the treatment of the however, the operation was judged to be complete, an ex wood with crude creasote or oil of tar. The application of plosion tıxık place, which proved fated to eight workmien, solution of copper sulphate, containing about a quarter of a pound of the salt to each gallon oi water, according to l Geology.-The greater part of the county rests 03 Margary's patent, has been found very efficacious in the the eastern extremity of the great bed of flötz limestone case of timber not liable to the solvent action of water ; but that extends over the middle of the island, widening as it of all processes the most satisfactory is Bethell's. In this spreads westward. It rises in its southern part into a range the wood is injected with heavy tar-oil in cylinders 6 feet of mountains, which forms the verge of an elevated district, in diameter and 20 to 50 feet in length, at a temperature of extending thence for more than thirty miles to the south 120° Fahr., and under a pressure of 150 i to the square through the county of Wicklow. Through this tract a large inch, so that ordinary fir timber absorbs on the average 8 body of granite passes in a south-western direction, comto 10 t of the liquid per cubic foot. Timber thus prepared mencing at Blackrock and passing by Dundrum and Rathhas been found not only durable, but also exempt from the farnham, and forming the loftiest summit in the county, attacks of insects and other pests.
bounded on its eastern and western sides by incumbent J. Papworth, An Essay on the cause of the D y Rot in Buildings, rocks of great variety of structure and relations; micaceous 1806 ; Bowden, A Treatise on the Dry Rot, 18.5; Wade, A Trcatise schist exists at Killiney and Rathfarnham, and argillaceous on the Dry Rot in Timber, 1815 ; Chapman, On the Prevention of T'imber from Premature Decay, 1817; M‘Williams, Essay on the
schist, on both sides of the granite and quartz rock, in the Origin and Operation of the Dry Rot, 1818 ; Burnell in Journal of eastern side alone, forming the promontory of Bray Head, the Society of Arts, June 1, 1860, vol. viii.
and reappearing in the more northern part of the county, DU BARRY GOMARD DE VAUBERNIER, MARIE where it forms the picturesque peninsula of Howth, and JEANNE, COUNTESS (1746–1793), mistress of Louis XV., rises to the height of 567 feet above the level of the sea. was the daughter of Ďaubernier, & clerk of the customs a: The country near Bray presents, within a small space, an Vaucouleurs, and was born there on the 19th August 1746. instructive series of rocks; and at Killiney schistose beds She received little or no education, and, coming to Paris are to be seen, of considerable extent, reposing on granite. while yet very young, she entered the house of a “mar | Near Booterstown, a mass of compact limestone is visible chande de modes." She soon fell a victim to the tempta. within a few fathoms of the granite. Calp, or “ black tions which there beset her, and lived as a courtesan under quarry stone," a variety of limestone, is the prevailing rock the name of Malle. Lange. Her great and peculiar per- in the immediate vicinity of Dublin, and is much used for sonal charms led Jean Count Du Barry to form the design building; and the granite of Dalkey and the neighbourof receiving her into his house, in order to make it more hood is also much used for architectural purposes in the attractive to the dupes from whom by gambling he won city and environs ; quantities of it are exported to Eng. money to furnish him with the means of dissipation. Her land. Petrifactions abound in many parts of the limestone success surpassing his expectations, his hopes took a higher country. In the peninsula of Howth gray ore of manfight, and he presented her to Lebel, valet de chambre of ganese, brown ironstone, and brown iron-ore occur in abun. Louis XV., with the intention that she should become the dance. mistress of the king. In this she succeeded; but as the Surface.—The northern portion of the county is flat, and favour shown by Louis to a courtesan roused murmurs in the soil good, particularly on the borders of Meath; but on the court and remonstrances from his ministers and the the southern side the land rises into elevations of considermembers of the royal family, Louis, who was too infatuated able height. The mountains are chiefly covered with heath, to remove her, inet their wishes half-way by securing for except where a subsidence in the ground affords a nucleus her a nominal husband. Count Jean Du Barry was married for the formation of bog, with which about 2000 acres are himself, but his brother William offered himself for the covered. There are also a few small tracts of bog in the ceremony, and after its performance the Countess Du Barry uorthern part of the county. The mountain district is well was presented at court on the 22d April 1769. Her influ-adapted for timber, to the growth of which some attention ence over the monarch was absoluto until his death, and has lately been paid. courtiers and ministers were in favour or disgrace with him | Coast. The northern coast of the county from Bal. in exact accordance with her wishes. The Duc de Choiseul, briggan to Howth has generally a sandy shore, and affords who refused to acknowledge her, was disgraced in 1771 ; oniy the small harbours of Balbriggan and Skerries. In and the Duc d'Aiguillon, who had the reputation of being the promontory of Howth, the coast suddenly assumes a her lover, took his place, and in concert with her goverued bolder aspect, and between the town of Howth and the the monarch. The favour of Louis for the Countess Du picturesque rocky islet of Ireland's Eye an artificial harbour Barry continued to estrange him from his children and from has been constructed, at an expense of above one-third of a the most of the royal family, and this isolation induced hiin inillion sterling, which is useful only to vessels of small to build for her the magnificent mansion of Luciennes. At burthen, and those engaged in the fisheries. Soon after the his death in 1774 an order of his successor banished her to harbour was finished it was discovered that a shifting sandL'Abbaye-du-Pont-aux-Dames, near Meaux, but the queen bank was likely to render the refuge quite useless; and the interceding for her, the king in the following year gave her slow but certain filling up of the harbour is made apparent at permission to reside at Luciennes with a pension. Having low tide. Kingstown harbour, on the south side of Dublin gone to England in 1792 to endeavour to raise money on Bay, is by far the best in the county. It was commenced her jewels, she was on her return accused before the in 1816, and was not quite finished until 1859,-at Revolutionary tribunal of having dissipated the treasures a total expenditure of £825,000. A quay runs out of the state, conspired against the republic, and worn, into the harbour to a distance of 500 feet, at which in London, “mourning for the tyrant.” She was con- vessels drawing 24 feet of water may unload at any state demned to death December 7, 1793, and beheaded the same of the tide. The petty harbours of Bullock and Coolamore evening.
are on this coast, the former being quite dry save at bigh DUBLIN, a maritime county of Ireland, situated in the tide, and the mouth of the latter being much higher than province of Leinster, and containing the Irish metropolis. the bed. Balbriggan is little better, and that at Skerries İt is bounded on the N, by the county Meath, E. by the is hardly to be mentioned. Opposite Coolamore harbour [rish Sea, S. by Wicklow, and W. by Kildare and Meath. | lies Dalkey Island, and the sound between the island and the With the exception of Louth and Carlow, Dublin is the shore is held to be dangerous in certain conditions of smallest county in Ireland. Its greatest length is 32 miles, weather The island is 22 acres in extent, and stands its greatest breadth 18; and the area is 354 square miles, about midway between Kingstown harbour and the beautior 226,895 arres.
I ful hay of Killiney, North of Howth lies Lambay Island
about 600 acres in area, the property of Lord Talbot de authority it appends that the total area held ainonnted to Malahide. Shell-fish, especially lobsters, are caught here in 217,457 acres, giving an average of 53 acres per holding abundance. Small islets lie not far off, the most interesting that of the province being 187); and the total valuation of which is that known as Inispatrick, noted as the spot amounted to £686,794, giving an average of £3, 3s. 2d. upon which St Patrick first landed in Ireland, and where he per acre, as against 18s. 111d. for the whole province. built his first church. Ireland's Eye, off Howth, is a very Fourteen proprietors held more than 2000 acres each, and picturesque rock standing on about 54 acres of grass land. 57,969 acres in all, or 264 per cent. of the area, viz : It has afforded great room for geological disquisition. Charles Cobbe, 9662 acres ; Earl of Huwth, 7377; Sir C.
The fishery districts are Dublin and Howth. The chief C. W. Domville, 6252; Georg? Woods, 4141; Sir Roger stations are Howth and Skerries, the former of which is Palmer, 3991 ; Lord Langford, 3659 ; Ion Trant Hamilton, much used by the Banx and Cornish fishermen, who resort 3647; Jrs White, 3422 ; W. W. Hackett, 3198 ; Eyre in considerable numbers to the harbour during the fishing Coote's representatives, 3107; R. Q. Alexander, 2973, season. Dublin Bay haddocks and herrings have long Earl of Pembroke, 2269; Lord Annaly, 2139; Marquis been esteemed, and justly, for their superior quality and of Lansdowne, 2132. flavour,
The manufactures of the county are mainly confined to Rivers and Mountains.—The chief river in the county is the city of Dublin and its neighbourhood. There is, www. the Liffey, which rises in the Wicklow Mountains about ever, a manufactory of cotton hosiery at Balbriggan of some twelve miles south-west of Dublin, and, after running importance. about 50 miles, empties itself into Dublin Bay. The Administration, &c.—There are nine baronies in the course of the river is so tortuous that 40 miles may be county :-1 and 2. Balrothery East and West, containing traversed and only 10 gained in direction. The scenery along Rush and Lusk (population 1800), Skerries (2236), and the banks of the Liffey is remarkable for its beauty. The Balbriggan (2332) ; 3. Coolock, containing Clontarf mountains which occupy the southern border of the county (3442), and several minor villages ; 4. Nethercross, con- . are the extremities of the great group guarding the adjacent taining the ancient parliamentary borough of Swords county of Wicklow. The principal summits are the Three (1008), and the village of Glasuevin ; 5. Newcastle, con Rock Mountain and Garry Castle, the former having an taining the village of Lucan, and Newcastle, which elevation of 1586 feet, and the latter of 1869 ; and the was represented in the Irish Parliament by two members ; group formed by Kippure and the Seefin range, Kippure 6. Uppercross ; 7. Rathdown, containing the towns of being 2527, and Seefin 2150 feet high. But the grandest Dundrum (510), Blackrock (8089), Kingstown (16,378), features of these hills are the great natural ravines which Dalkey (2584), and Killiney (2290); 8. Castleknock, in open in them, the most extraordinary being the Scalp, which is situated the Phænix Park; and 9. Dublin, couthrough which the traveller passes from Dublin to Wick- taining the city and many outlying villages. The village low.
of Donnybrook, famous for its fair and accompanying Agriculture.—Of the 226,895 acres which form the area riotous pleasure, is now part of Pembroke township, one of of the county, 100,236 acres were returned in 1871 | the richest and most beautiful suburbs of the city. as under tillage, 91,503 as pasture, 4716 wood, 15,700 in The nine baronies, including the city, are divided into 99 towns, and 14,470 waste, bog, mountain, and water. The parishes, all within the archdiocese of Dublin. The county face of the county has indeed changed but little during the proper, excluding the capital, contains 222,709 acres ; the century, and the statistics as to the treatment of the soil ex- rateable property is valued at £700,854; the population at hibit an almost stationary result. The growth of the towns the last census (1871) was 158,936; and the number of suburban to the city has made the only appreciable change, houses, 28,803. Between 1841 and 1871 the increase of and that change has been not inconsiderable. The farms population was nearly 13.5 per cent., although between May are in general small. Near Dublin, particularly on the 1851 and December 1871 there emigrated from the county southern side of the city, a very considerable portion of 58,774 persons. In 1871, 704 per cent. of the total populathe county consists of ornamental grounds, and the rents tion were Roman Catholics. In the city that denomination are proportionately high.
forms 79 per cent. The numbers of the last religious census The produce of the crops is generally greater than in any wero-Catholics, 111,964; Episcopalians, 39,289; Presbyother county,—not so much on account of any natural terians, 2993 ; and various, 4688. There are two poor-law superiority in the soil
, as by reason of the facilities afforded unions, Balrothery and Rathdown, but portions of the by the neighbourhood of a large city, and the greater county are in unions situated in adjacent counties. The expenditure of capital on the land. Of cereals the prin- average daily number of paupers in the county workhouses cipal crops are oats and wheat; and of green crops, potatoes. in 1875 was 674. In live stock the county is particularly rich in proportion Dublin is the head-quarters of the military district, to its extent. The following tables give the acreage of and of the general commanding-in-chief and staff of Irz crops and numbers of stock in 1873 and 1876 :
The total number of children receiving education in 1824
26 was reported in a parliamentary return to be 33,008. 1873 ...... 18,723
In 1853, there were 159 national schools in operation, 1876 16,009
attended by 28,799 children, and in 1876 there were Pigs.
52,127 children attending the national schools. 1873...21,098 54,502 88,604 20,032
Previous to the union with Great Britain, this county 1876. 20,015 62,770 14,263 17,273 5878 213,531
returned ten representatives to the Irish Parliament,—two As regards the division of the land, the number of hold for the county, two for the city, two for the university, and ings in the county has somewhat diminished within recent two for each of the boroughs of Swords and Newcastle. years. In 1853, there were 9016 separate holdings, while The number of representatives was reduced to five by the in 1876 there were only 8792. According to the Owners' Act of Union, one member being withdrawn from the uniReturns of 1876, the county was divided in 1874 versity, and the boroughs of Swords and Newcastle disfran. among 4100 proprietors, of whom 2526, or 614 per cent., chised. The Reform Act of 1832 restored the second held less than one acre of ground, a proportion almost member to the university, leaving the representation in identical with the average of Leinster. From the same other respects unchanged.
Meadow and Clover.
History. It is stated by Ptolemy that the county Dublin was Sir John Forbes, a distinguished Scotch physician, who visited inhabited by the tribe of the Eblani, who dwelt for the most part Ireland in 1862, speaks thus of the county in bis Memoranda :in Meath county, but on their settling in Dublin founded the city “Without leaving the county of Dublin, the antiquary would Eblana, now presumed to be Dublin. Later writers affirm that the have no difficulty in finding numerous objects of interest and Eblani were driven out by the Danes, who held sway until the instruction, casting light upon the early history of the country. battle of Clontarf (1014) resulted in the overturn of their power. Among the ancient raths, duns, or forts constructed by the native When the English landed, the people to the north of the Liffey | Irish or the Danes, and more probably by both people, for defence were known among the Irish as Fingall, or white foreigners, and or security in positions of natural strength, improved by art and those living south of the river were called Dubhgall, or black labour, several remain in this county. One at Raheny, although foreigners. The Rev. Cæsar Otway professed to be able to discern / much reduced in its proportions, is still traceable ; several yet signs of the different races even as late as his day ; but the modern | more imperfect are faintly visible at Coolock; one near Lucan is observer will fail to catch any marks whereby different portions of furnished with the subterranean vaults and passages not unusually the community may be distinguished.
found in connection with the larger speciinens; and another at In 1210, King John formed this district into a county, compris. | Shankhill or Rathmichael, near the remarkable natural pass through ing the chief portion of country within the English pale. The the mountain called the Scalp, is of greater extent than the others, limits of the county were, however, uncertain, and underwent many more commanding in position, and in close proximity to the ancient changes before they were fixed. Although so near the sent of church, and supposed fragment of a round tower. Numerous government, 6 2 acres of profitable land
ere forfeited in the sepulchral mounds of the same period also exist scattered throughRebellion of 1641, and 34,536 acres in the Revolution of 1688. In out the county, occasionally somewhat similar in appearance to 1603 the boundaries were definitely marked, the country inhabited the raths, but generally smaller in extent, altogether artificial, and by the O'Tooles and the O'Byrnes being formed into the county of of conical form. Among its inost interesting antiquities this Wicklow. The absence of any considerable towns decreases the county reckons three of the ancient round towers almost peculiar to interest in Dublin county, apd it has no historic fields to boast of. | Ireland,-one at Swords, another at Lusk, fornuing one of the In 1867 the most formidable of the Fenian risings took place near angles of the church steeple, and a third in the highest state of the village of Tallaght, about seven miles froin the city. The preservation at Clondalkin.” rebels, who numbered from 500 to 700, were found wandering at
DUBLIN, the metropolis of Ireland, in the county of dawn, some by a small force of constabulary who, having in vain called upon them to yield, fired and wounded five of them; but the
Dublin and province of Leinster, is a county in itself, and great bulk of them were overtaken by the troops under Lord Strath. a municipal and parliamentary borough ; the area of the uairn, who captured them with ease and marched them into the city. | former is 3808 acres. It is distant 292 miles W.V.W. from
Plan of Dublin. London, 138 miles W. from Liverpool, and 60 miles W. from increase in wealth and the consequent extra-city residence Holyhead, in 53° 20' 38" N. lat. and 6° 17' 13" W. long., of the traders and merchants. The suburbs of Dublin have and is situated in the great central limestone district which wonderfully improved within the past twenty years, and stretches across the island from the Irish Sea to the constitute at present the chief of the many attractions which Atlantic Ocean, on the River Liffey, extending to the junc- the stranger is wont to admire. The outlying townships of tion of that river with the Bay of Dublin, the waters of Rathmines and Rathgar, Kingstown and Pembroke, Clontarf which wash its south suburban shores.
and Dalkey, are all inhabited by persons engaged in the In the reign of James II. the population of Dublin was commerce of the city. If we include these populations, the 64,483 ; in 1728 it had more than doubled ; in 1753 it was city may be said to contain about 330,000 souls. The par 161,000 ; in 1798 Whitelaw estimated it at 182,000; | liamentary borough, whose limits are more extensive than according to the first census (taken in 1821) it was those of the municipal borough, covers an area of 6501 185,881; it was 32,726 in 1841, 254,808 in 1861, and acres, and contained in 1871 a population of 267.717 persons 246,326 in 1871. This last decrease is due to the recent | It returns two members to the imperial parliamento