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ffis pioneer was MuIgraYe's Essay on Satire, in attack on Rochester and the court, circulated ii> 1679. Dryden himself was suspected of the authorship, and cudgelled by hired ruffians as the author; but it is not likely that he attacked the king on whom he was dependent for the greater part of his income. In the same year Oldham's satire on the Jesuits had immense popularity, chiefly owing to the excitement about the Popish plot. Dryden took the field a a satirist towards the close of 1681, on the side of the court, at the moment when Shaftesbury, baffled in hi' efforts to exclude the duke of York from the throne as & papist, and secure the succession of the duke of Monmouth, was waiting his trial for high treason. Absalom and Achitophel produced a great stir. Nine editions were sold in rapid succession in the course of a year. It was a new thing for the public to have the leading men of the day held up to laughter, contempt, and indignation under disguises which a little trouble enabled them to penetrate. There was no compunction in Dryden's ridicule and invective. Delicate wit was not one of Dryden's gifts; the motions of his weapon were sweeping, and the blows hard and trenchant. The advantage he had gained by his recent studies of character was fully used in his portraits of Shaftesbury and Buckingham, Achitophel and Zimri. In these portraits he shows considerable art in tho introduction of redeeming traits to the general outline of malignity and depravity. Against Buckingham Dryden had old scores to pay off, but he was too practised in the language of eulogy and invective to need any personal stimulus. "Glorious John" had a mind superior to petty hatreds, as well as, it must be admitted,*to petty friendships, and it is not impossible that the fact that his pension had not been paid since the beginning of 1680 w eighed with him in writing this satire to gain the favour of the court. In a play produced in 1681, The Spanish Friar, he had written on the other Bide, gratifying the popular feeling by attacking the Papists. Three other satires, with which he followed up Absalom and Achitophel, dealt with smaller gome than this master-piece, though one of them was hardly inferior in point of literary power. The Medal was written in ridicule of the medal struck to commemorate Shaftesbury's acquittal. Then Dryden had to take vengeance on the literary champions of the Whig party, who had opened upon him with all their artillery. Their leader, Shadwell, he essayed to demolish under the nickname of" MocFlecknoe." Besides a separate poem under that title, he contributed a long passage to a second part of Absalom and Achitophel, written chiefly by Nahum Tate, in which Ferguson, Forbes, Settle, and Shadwell were victim? of his strident lash. Beligio Laid, which came immediately after, in November 1682, though nominally an exposition of a layman's creed, and deservedly admired as such, was not without a political purpose. It attacked the Papists, but declared the "fanatics" to be still more dangerous, which fitted in with Charles's policy of conciliating the church by persecuting the Nonconformists.
Dryden's next poem in heroic couplets was in a different strain. On the-accession of James, in 1685, he became a Roman Catholic. There lias been much discussion as to whether this conversion was or was not sincere. It can only be said that the coincidence between his change of faith and his change of patron was suspicious, and that Dryden's character for consistency is certainly not of a kind to querfch suspicion. The force of the coincidence cannot be removed by such pleas as that his wife had been a Roman Catholic for several years, or that he was converted by his son, who was converted at Cambridge, even if there were any evidence fur these statements. Scott defended Dryden's conversion, as Macaulay denounced "it, from party motives; on any gtiwr jjrouuUs, it u not worth discussing. Nothing can bo
clearer than that Dryden all his life through regarded his literary powers as a moans of subsistence, and had little scruple about accepting a brief on any. side. The Hind and Panther, published in 1687, is an ingenious argument for Roman Catholicism, put into the mouth of "a milk-white hind, immortal and unchanged." There is considerable beauty in the picture of this tender creature, and its enemies in the forest are not spared. One can understand" the admiration that the poem received when such allegories were in fashion. It was the thief cause of the veneration with which Dryden was regarded by Pope, who, himself educated in the Roman Catholic faith, was taken as a boy of twelve to see the veteran poet in his chair of honour and authority at Will's coffee-house. It was also very open to ridicule, and was treated in this spirit by Prior and Jlontagu, the future earl of Halifax. Dryden's other literary services to James were a savage reply to Stillingfleet—who had attacked two papers published by the king immediately after his accession, one said to have been written by Ids la' c brother in advocacy of the Church of Rome, the other by his late wife explaining the .reasons for her conversion—and a translation of a life of Xavier in prose. He had written also a panegyric of Charles, and a eulogy of James under the title of Britannia Heilivim, which it is interesting to compare with his other productions of the same kind.
Dryden did not abjure his new faith on the Revolution, and so lost his office and pension as laureate and historiographer royal. For this act of constancy he deserves credit, if the new powers would have considered his services worth having after his frequent apostasies. His rival Shadwell reigned in his stead. Dryden was once more thrown mainly upon his pen for support. He turned again to the stage and wrote the plays which we have enumerated. A great feature in the last decade of his life was his translations from the classics. A volume of miscellanies published in 1685 had contained some translations from Virgil, Horace, Lucretius, and Theocritus. He now produced translations more deliberately as a saleable commodity. A volume of miscellanies) which appeared in 1093, contained translations from Homer and Ovid. In the same year he published a translation of the satires of Juvenal and Persius, written with the assistance of his two elder sons. Johnson passes on this work the jus.t criticism that " though, like all other productions of Dryden, it may have shining parts, it seems to have been written merely for wages, in an uniform mediocrity." When Dryden took his farewell of the stage in 1694, he announced his intention of devoting himself to a translation of the whole of Virgil. On this he seems really to have laboured, and great expectations were formed of it. It was published in 1697, and proved a great success. To judge it by its fidelity as a reproduction of the original would be to apply too high a standard, but it is an interesting rendering of Virgil into the style of Dryden, and as a poem was read with delight in its own age. Soon after its publication, Dryden wrote one of his master-pieces, the second Ode on St Cecilia's day. His next work was to render some of Chaucer's and Boccaccio's tales and Ovid's metamorphoses into his own verse. These translations appcered a few months before his deatb^and are known by the title of Fables. Thus a large portion of the closing years of Dryden's life wero spent in translating for bread. He had a windfall of 500 guineas from Lord Abingdon for a poem on the death of his wife in 1691, but generally he was' in considerable pecuniary straits. He is supposed to have received occasional presents from rich and powerful friends, but he never received anything from the court, and he was too proud, to make advances. Besides, his three sons held various posts in the service of the Pope at Rome, and he conk not well be on good terms with both courts. However, he was not molested in London by the Government, and in private he was treated with the respect due to his old age and his admitted position as the greatest of living English poets. His death took place on the 1st of May 1700.
Dryden's conversion to Catholicism had a great indirect influence on the preservation of his fame. It was this which gained him the discipleship and loving imitation of Pope. He thus became by accident, as it were, the literary father and cliief model of the greatest poet of the next generation. If his fame had stood simply upon his merits as a poet, he would in all likelihood have been a much less imposing figure in literary history than he is now. The splendid force of his satire must always be admired, but there is surprisingly little of the vast mass of his writings that can be considered worthy of lasting remembrance. He showed little inventive genius. He was simply a masterly litterateur of immense intellectual energy, whose one lucky hit was the first splendid application of heroic couplets to satire and religious, moral, and political argument. Upon this lucky hit supervened another, the accidental discipleship of Pope. Dryden lent his gift of verse to the service of politics, and his fame profited by the connection. It would be unjust to say that his fame was due to this, but it was helped by this; apart from the attachment of Pope, he owed to party also something of the favour of Johnson and the personal championship and editorial zeal of Scott.
The standard edition of Dryden is Scott's. There is an admirable edition of his poetical works in the Globe series, by Mr W. D. Christie, enriched with an elaborately accurate memoir and painstaking notes. His two best plays, All for Love and Don Sebastian, hare recently been republished by Mr. J. L. Seton. (W. M.)
DRY ROT, a disease in timber, apparently infectious, which occasions the destruction of its fibres, and reduces it eventually to a mass of dry dust. , It is produced most readily in a warm, moist, stagnant atmosphere, while common or wet rot is the result of the exposure of wood to repeated changes of climatic conditions. In both diseases, however, a kind of spontaneous combustion or decomposition goes on in the wood; water, carbonic acid gas, and probably carburetted hydrogen are evolved, and a pulverulent substance, or humus, remains. Though the growth of fungi undoubtedly accelerates the progress of dry rot, it would seem that the true origin of' the disease is the incipient decomposition of the sap in wood, and that by virtue of this decomposition the fungi obtain a nidus for their growth. The most formidable of the dry rot fungi is the species Meruliue lacrymans, which is particularly destructive of coniferous wood; other species are Polyporus hyhridm, which thrives in oak-built ships, and P. destructor and 'fhelephora puteana, found in a variety of wooden structures. The nature of ships' cargoes has a considerable influence on the duration of their timbers,—hemp, pepper, and cotton being highly favourable, and lime and coal unfavourable, to the development of diy rot. The commonest precaution against the occurrence of that disease is to deprive the wood of its moisture by exposure to the open air, or, in other words, to season it. Charring, steaming, boiling, and smoke-curing are other modes of desiccation which have been resorted to. At one time a Mr Lukin attempted the rapid seasoning of logs of green oak at Woolwich dockyard by heating them in pulverized charcoal; but the process, though it lessened the weight and dimensions of the wood, started its fibres from one another. He then! sought Ao replace the moisture of heated wood by the products of the distillation of pitch-pine saw-dust'; before, however, the operation was judged to be complete, an explosion t»«k place, whii-h proved fatal 'to eight workmen,
and wounded twelve; the experiment, therefore, was not repeated. Davison and Symington's patent process of artificial drying, which has been found to yield good results, consists in exposing the wood to a current of air moving at the rate of about 48 miles an hour, and having a temperature of 110° to 112° Fahr.
The felling of trees when void of fresh sap, as a means of obviating the rotting of timber, is a practice of very ancient origin. Vitruvius directs (ii. cap. 9) that, to secure good timber, trees should be cut to the pith, so as to allow of the escape of their sap, which by dying in the wood would injure its quality; also that felling should take place only from early autumn untirthe end of winter. The supposed superior quality of wood cut in winter, and the early practice in England of felling oak timber at that season, may be inferred from a statute of James L, which enacted "that no person or persons shall fell, or cause to be felled, any oaken trees meet to be barked, when bark is worth 2s. a cart-load (timber for the needful building and reparation of houses, ships, or mills only excepted), but between the first day of April and last day of June, not even for the king's use, out of barking time, except for building or repairing his Majesty's houses or ships." In giving testimony before a committee of the House of Commons in March 1771, Mr Barnard of Deptford expressed it as his opinion that to secure durable timber for ship-building, trees should be barked in spring and not felled till the succeeding winter. In France, so long ago as 1669, a royal decree limited the felling of timber from the" 1st October to the 15th April; and, in an order issued to the commissioners of forests, Napoleon L directed that the felling of naval timber should take place only from November 1 to March 15, and during the decrease of the moon, on account of the rapid decay of timber, through the fermentation of its sap, if cut at other seasons. The burying of wood in water, which dissolves out or alters its putrescible constituents, has long been practised as a means of seasoning. The old "Resistance " frigate, which went down in Malta harbour, remained under water for some months, and on being raised was found to be entirely freed from the dry rot fungus that had previously covered her; similarly, in the ship "Eden," the progress of rot was completely arrested by 18 months' submergence in Plymouth Sound, so that after remaining a year atnome in excellent condition she was sent out to the East Indies. It was an ancient practice in England to place timber for thrashing-floors and oak planks for wainscotting in running water to season them. Whale and other oils have been recommended for the preservation of wood; and in 1737 a patent for the employment of hot oil was taken out by a Mr Emerson. Common salt, but for the attraction of its impurities for moisture, might be advantageously used ; indeed the Dutch ship-builders, having observed that the busses in which herrings were stowed away in pickle lasted longer than any other craft, adopted the practice of filling up with salt, not only the vacant spaces between the planks, but also holes bored for its reception in the large timbers.
Among the many processes for the prevention of dry and wet rot in wood by impregnating it with material capable of precipitating its coagulable constituents in a permanently insoluble and imputrescible form, the following may be enumerated :—Kyan!s (1832), in which, according to Sir Humphry Davy's suggestion, a solution of corrosive sublimate is employed; Sir W. Burnett's (1836), M. Breant's (1837), Margary's (1837), and Payne's (1841), •which consist respectively in the use of zinc chloride, edpperas, copper sulphate, and copperas followed by sodium carbonate; and Bethell's (1838), for the treatment of the wood with crude creasote or oil of tar. The application of solution, of copper sulphate, containing about a quarter of * pound of the salt to each gallon 01 water, according to Margary's patent, has been found very efficacious in the case of timber not liable to the solvent action of water; but of all processes the most satisfactory is Bethell's. In this the wood is injected with heavy tar-oil in cylinders 6 feet in diameter and 20 to 50 feet in length, at a temperature of 120° Fahr., and under a pressure of 150 R> to the square inch, so that ordinary fir timber absorbs on the average 8 to 10 E) of the liquid per cubic foot Timber thus prepared has been found not only durable, but also exempt from the attacks of insects and other pests.
J. Papworth, An Essay on the cause of the D y Rot in Buildings, 1806 j Bowden, A Treatise on the Dry Hot, 38*5 ; Wade, A Treatise m the Dry Set in Timber, 1815 ; Chapman, On the Prevention of Timber from Premature Decay, 1817; M'Williams, Essay on the Origin and Operation of the Dry Rot, 1818; Burnell in Journal of the Society of Arts, June 1, I860, voL viiL
DU BARRY GOMARD DE VAUBERNIER, Mamb Jeanne, Countess (1746-1793), mistress of Louis XV., was the daughter of Vaubernier, a clerk of the customs a'. Vaucouleurs, and was born there on the 19th August 1746. She received little or no education, and, coming to 'Paris while yet very young, she entered the house of a "marchande de modes." She soon fell a victim to the temptations which there beset her, and lived as a courtesan under the name of Mdlle. Lange. Her great and peculiar personal charms led Jean Couut Du Barry to form the design of receiving her into his house, in order to make it more attractive to the dupes from whom by gambling he won money to furnish him with the means of dissipation. Her success surpassing his expectations, his hopes took a higher l ight, and he presented her to Lebel, valet de chambre of Louis XV., with the intention that she should become the mistress of the king. In this she succeeded; but as the favour shown by Louis to a courtesan roused murmurs in the court and remonstrances from his ministers and the members of the royal family, Louis, who was too infatuated to remove her, met their wishes half-way by bocuring for her a nominal husband. Count Jean Du Barry was married himself, but his brother William offered himself for the ceremony, and after its performance the Countess Du Barry was presented at court on the 22d April 1769. Her influence over the monarch was absolute until his death, aud courtiers and ministers were in favour or disgrace with him in exact accordance with her wishes. The Due de Choiseul, who refused to acknowledge her, was disgraced in 1771; and the Duo d'Aiguillon, who had the reputation of being her lover, took his place, and in concert with her governed the monarch. The favour of Louis for the Countess Du Barry continued to estrange him from his children and from the most of the royal family, and this isolation induced him to build for her the magnificent mansion of Luciennes. At his death in 1774 an order of his successor banished her to L'Abbaye-du-Pont-aux-Dames, near Meaux, but the queen interceding for her, the king in the following year gave her permission to reside at Luciennes with a pension. Having gone to England in 1792 to endeavour to raise money on her jewels, she was on her return accused before the Revolutionary tribunal of having dissipated the treasures of the state, conspired against the republic, and worn, in London, "mourning for the tyrant" She was condemned to death December 7,1793, and beheaded the same evening.
DUBLIN, a maritime county of Ireland, situated in the province of Leinster, and containing the Irish metropolis. It is bounded on the N, by the county Meath, E. by the Irish Sea, S. by Wicklow, and W. by Kildare and Meath. With the exception of Louth and Carlow, Dublin is the smallest county in Ireland. Its greatest length is 32 miles, ita greatest breadth 18; and the area is 354 square miles, or 326,805 anna.
Geology.—The greater part of the county rests on the eastern extremity of the great bed of flotz limestone that extends over the middle of the island, widening as it spreads westward. It rises in its southern part into a range of mountains, which forms the verge of an elevated district, extending thence for more than thirty miles to the south through the county of Wicklow. Through this tract a large body of granite passes in a south-western direction, commencing at Blackrock and passing by Dundrum and Rathfamham, and forming the loftiest summit in the county, bounded on its eastern and western sides by incumbent rocks of great variety of structure and relations; micaceous schist exists at Killiney and Rathfarnham, and argillaceous schist, on both sides of the granite- and quartz rock, in the eastern side alone, forming the promontory of Bray Head, and reappearing in the more northern part of the county, where it forms the picturesque peninsula of Howth, and rises to the height of 567 feet above the level of the sea. The country near Bray presents, within a small space, an instructive series of rocks; and at Killiney schistose beds are to be seen, of considerable extent, reposing on granite. Near Booterstown, a mass of compact limestone is visible within a few fathoms of the granite. Calp, or" black quarry stone," a variety of limestone, is the prevailing rock in the immediate vicinity of Dublin, and is much used for buildiug; and the granite of Dalkey and the neighbourhood is also much used for architectural purposes in the city and environs; quantities of it are exported to England. Petrifactions abound in many parts of the limestone country. In the peninsula of Howth gray ore of manganese, brown ironstone, and brown iron-ore occur in abundance.
Surface.—The northern portion of the county is flat, and the soil good, particularly on the borders of Meath; but on the southern side the land rises into elevations of considerable height The mountains are chiefly covered with heath, except where a subsidence in the ground affords a nucleus for tie formation-of bog, with which about 2000 acres are covered. There are also a few small tracts of bog in the northern part of the county. The mountain district is well adapted for timber, to the growth of which some attention has lately been paid.
Coast.—The northern coast of the county from Balbriggan to Howth has generally a sandy shore, and affords oniy the small harbours of Balbriggan and Skerries. In the promontory of Howth, the coast suddenly assumes a bolder aspect; and between the town of Howth and the picturesque rocky islet of Ireland's Eye an artificial harbour has been constructed, at an expense of above one-third of a million sterling, which is useful only to vessels of small burthen,*and those engaged in the fisheries. Soon after the harbour was finished it was discovered that a shifting sandbank was likely to render the refuge quite useless; and the slow but certain filling up of the harbour is made apparent at low tide. Kingstown harbour, on the south side of Dublin Bay, is by far the best in the county. It was commenced in 1816, and was not quite finished until 1859,—at a total expenditure of £825,000. A quay runs out into the harbour to a distance of 500 feet, at which vessels drawing 24 feet of water may unload at any state of the tide. The petty harbours of Bullock and Coolomore are on this coast, the former being quite dry save at high tide, and the mouth of the latter being much higher than the bed. Balbriggan is little better, and that at Skerries is hardly to be mentioned. Opposite Coolamore harbour lies Dalkey Island, and the sound between the island and the shore is held to be dangerous in certain -conditions of weather The island is 22 acres in extent and stands about midway between Kingstown harbonr-and the beautiful hay of Killiney. North of Howth lies Lansb«y Island. about 600 acre9 in area, the property of Lord Talbot de Malahide. Shell-fish, especially lobsters, are caught here in abundance. Small islets lie not far off, tie most interesti of which is that known as Inispatrick, noted as the spot upon which St Patrick first landed in Ireland, and where he built his first church. Ireland's Eye, off Howth, is a very picturesque rock standing on about 54 acres of grass land It has afforded great room for geological disquisition.
The fishery districts are Dublin and Howth. The chief stations are Howth and Skerries, the former of which is much used by the Manx and Cornish fishermen, who resort in considerable numbers to the harbour during the fishing season. Dublin Bay haddocks and herrings hare long been esteemed, and justly, for their superior quality and flavour.
Jiivert and Mountain*.—The chief river in the county is the Liffey, which rises in the Wicklow Mountains about twelve miles south-west of Dublin, and, after running about 50 miles, empties itself into Dublin Bay. The course of the river is so tortuous that 40 miles may be traversed and only 10 gained in direction. The scenery along tho banks of the Liffey is remarkable for its beauty. The mountains which occupy the southern border of the county are the extremities of the great group guarding the adjacent county of Wicklow. The principal summits are the Three Rock Mountain and Garry Castle, the former having an elevation of 1586 feet, ana the latter of 1869; and the group formed by Kippure and the Seefin range, Kippuro being 2527, and Seefin 2150 feet high. But the grandest features of these hills are the great natural ravines which open in them, the most extraordinary being the Scalp, through which the traveller passes from Dublin to Wicklow.
Agriculture.—Of the 226,895 acres which form the-area of the county, 100,236 acres were returned in 1871 as under tillage, 91,503 as pasture, 4716 wood, 15,700 in towns, and 14,470 waste, bog, mountain, and water. The face of the county has indeed changed but little during the century, and Jhe statistics as to the treatment of the soil exhibit an almost stationary-result. The growth of the towns suburban to the city has made the only appreciable change, and that change has been not inconsiderable. The farms are in general small. Near Dublin, particularly on the southern side of the city, a very considerable portion of the county consists of ornamental grounds, and the rents are proportionately high.
The produce of the crops is generally greater than in any other county,—not so much on account of any natural superiority in the soil, as by reason of the facilities afforded by the neighbourhood of a large city, and the greater expenditure of capital on the land. Of cereals the principal crops are oats and wheat; and of green crops, potatoes. In live stock the county is particularly rich in proportion to its extent. The following tables give the acreage of crops and numbers of stock in 1873 and 1876 :—
Other Green Meadow
Crape. and Clover. 10,107 8828 45,674 9,863 6566 49,789
BTMfcJn4 Celtic Sheep. Pig* Qoete. Poultry
1873...21,098 64,502 88.604 20,032 6245 1 94,880
187S. 20,016 62,770 64,203 17,273 6878 213,531
As regards the division of the land, the number of holdings in the county has somewhat diminished within recent years. In 1863, there were 9016 separate holdings, while in 1876 there were only 8792. According to the Owners' Returns of 1876, the county was divided in 1874 among 4100 proprietors, of whom 2526, or 61J per cent, held less than one acre of ground, a proportion almost identical with the average of Leinster. From the same
authority it appears that the total area held amounted to 217,457 acres, giving an average oi 53 acres per holding (that of the pro vine; being 187); and the total valuation amounted to £686,794, giving an average of £3, 3s. 2d. per acre, as against 18s. ll^d. for the whole province. Fourteen proprietors held more than 2000 acres each, and 57,969 acres in all, or 20i per cent of the area, viz Charles Cobbe, 9662 acres"; Earl of Howth, 7377; Sir C. C. W. Domville, 6252; Oeorgs Woods, 4141; Sir Roger Palmer, 3991; Lord Langford, 3659 ; Ion Trant Hamilton, 3G47; Mrs White, 3422; W. W. Hackett, 3198; Eyra Coote's representatives, 3107; R Q. Alexander, 2973, Earl of Pembroke, 2269; Lord Annaly, 2139; Marquis of Lansdowne, 2132.
The manufacture! of the county are mainly confined w the city of Dublin and its neighbourhood. There is, however, a manufactory of cotton hosiery at Balbriggan of some importance.
Administration, <£•&—There are nine baronies in the county:—1 and 2. Balrothery East and West, containing Bush and Lusk (population 1800), Skerries ,(2236), and Balbriggan (2332); 3. Coolock, containing Cloutarf (3442), and several minor villages; 4. Netbercross, containing the ancient parliamentary borough of Swords (1008), and the village of- Glasnevin; 5. Newcastle, con taining the village of Lucan, and Newcastle, which was represented in the Irish Parliament by two members: 6. Uppercross; 7. Rathdown, containing the towns of Dundrum (540), Blackrock" (8089), Kingstown (16,378), Dalkey (2584), and Killiney (2290); 8. Castleknock, in which is situated the Phoenix Park; and 9. Dublin, containing the city and many outlying villages. The village of Donnybrook, famous for its fair and accompanying riotous pleasure, is now part of Pembroke township, one of the richest and most beautiful suburbs of the city.
The nine baronies,including the city, are divided into 99 parishes, all within the archdiocese of Dublin. The county proper, excluding the capital, contains 222,709 acres; the rateable property is valued at £700,854; the population at the last census (1871) was 168,936; and the number of houses, 28,803. Between 1841 and 1871 the increase of population was nearly 13-5 per cent, although between May 1851 and December 1871 there emigrated from the county 68,774 persons. In 1871, 701 per cent of the total population were Roman Catholics. In the city that denomination forms 79 per cent The numbers of the last religious census were—Catholics, 111,964; Episcopalians, 39,289; Presbyterians, 2995; and various, 4688. There are two poor-law unions, Balrothery and Rathdown, but portions of the county are in unions situated in adjacent counties. The average daily number of paupers in the county workhouses in 1875 was 674.'
Dublin is the head-quarters of the military district, and of the general conimanding-in-chief and staff of Ireland.
The total number of children receiving education in 1824— 26 was reported in a parliamentary return to be 33,008. In 1853, there were 159 national schools in operation, attended by 28,799 children, and in 1876 there were 52,127 children attending the national schools.
Previous to the union with Great Britain, this county returned ten representatives to the Irifh Parliament,—two for the county, two for the city, two for the university, and two for each of the boroughs of Swords and Newcastle. The number of representatives was reduced to five by the Act of Union, one member being withdrawn from the uiuversity, and the boroughs of Swords and Newcastle disfranchised. The Reform Act of 1832 restored the second member to the university, leaving the representation iu other respects unchanged.
BMory.—Jt la stated by Ptolemy that the county Dublin ni inhabited by the tribe of the Eblani, who dwelt for the most port in Heath county, but on their settling in Dublin founded the city Kblana, now presumed to be Dublin. Later writers affirm that the Eblani were driven out by the Danes, who held sway until the battle of Clontarf (1014) resulted in the overturn of their power. When the English landed, the people to the north of the Liffey were known among the Irish as Fingall, or white foreigners, and those living south of the river were called Dubhgall, or black foreigners. Tho Eev. Caesar Otway professed to be able to discern signs of the different races even as late as his day ; but the modern observer will fail to catch any marks whereby different portions of the community may be distinguished.
In 1210, King John formed this district into a county, comprising the chief portion of country within the English pale. The limits of the county were, however, uncertain, and underwent many changes before they were fixed. Althongh so near tho seat of
Svernment, 67,142 acres of profitable land were forfeited in the hellion of 1641, and 34,536 acres in the Revolution of 1688. In 1603 the boundaries were definitely marked, the country inhabited by the OTooles and the O'Byrnes being formed into the county of Wicklow. Tho absence of any considerable towns decreases the interest in Dublin county, and it has no historic fields to boast of. In 1867 the most formidable of the Fenian risings took place near the village of Tallaght, about seven miles from the city. The rebels, who numbered from 500 to 700, were found wandering at dawn, some by a small force of constabulary who, having in vain called upon them to yield, fired and wounded five of them; hut the great bulk of them were overtaken by the troops under Lord Stratlinairn, who captured them with ease and marched them into the city.
Sir John Forbes, a distinguished Scotch, physician, who visited
Ireland in 1862, speaks thus of the county in bis Memoranda :— "■Without leaving the county of Dublin, the antiquary would have no difficulty in finding numerous objects of interest and instruction, casting light upon the early history of the country. Among the ancient ruths, duns, or forts constructed by the natira Irish or the Danes, and more probably by both people, for defence or security in positions of natural strength, improved by art and labour, several remain in this county. One at Raheny, althongh much reduced in its proportions, is still traceable ; several yet more imperfi-ct are faintly visible at Coolock ; one near Lucan is furnished with the subterranean vaults and passages not unusually found in connection with the larger specimens ; and another at Shankhill or Rathmichael, near the remarkable natural pass througk the mountain called the Scalp, is of greater extent thait the others, more commanding in position, and in close proximity to the ancient church, and supposed fragment of a round tower. Numerous sepulchral mounds of the same period also exist scattered throughout the county, occasionallv somewhat similar in appearance to the raths, but generally smaller in extent, altogether artificial, and of conical form. Among its most interesting antiquities this county reckons three of the ancient round towers almost peculiar to Ireland,—one at Swords, another at Lusk, forming one of the angles of the church steeple, and a third in the higheU state of preservation at Clondalkin."
DUBLIN', the metropolis of 2v-eland, in the county of Dublin and province of Leinater, is a county in itself, and a municipal and parliamentary borough; the area of the former is 3808 a;res. It is distant 292 miles W.N.W. from
London, 138 miles W. from Liverpool, and 60 miles W. from Holyhead, in 53" 20' 38" N. lat. and 6° 17' 13" W. long., and is situated in the great central limestone district which stretches across the island fror. the Irish Sea to the Atlantic Ocean, on the River Liffey, extending to the junction of that river with the Bay of Dublin, the waters of which wash its south suburban shores.
In the reign of James LL the population-of Dublin was 64,483 ; in 1728 it had more than doubled; in 1753 it was 161,000; in 1798 Whitelaw estimated it at 182,000; according to the first census (taken in 1821) it was 185,881; it was f 32,726 in 1841, 254,808 in 1861, and 246,326 in 1871. This last decrease w due to the recent
increase in wealth and the consequent extra-city residence of the traders and rrerchants. The suburbs of Dublin have wonderfully improved within the past twenty years, and constitute at present the chief of the many attractions which the stranger is wont to admire. The outlying townships of Rathmines and Rati)gar, Kingstown and Pembroke, Clontarf and Dalkey, are all inhabited by persons engaged ia the commerce of the city. If we include these populations, the city may be said to contain about 330,000 souls. The parliamentary borough, whose limits are more extensive than those of the municipal borough, covers an area of 5501 acres, and contained in 1871 a population of 267.717 persona, It returns two members to the imperial parliament. _