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After several battles, in which the advantage was generally and under the pontificates of several subsequent popes filled on the side of the French, a decisive engagement took place many highly responsible offices. He was appointed in 1277 near Catania, on the 20th April 1676, when the Dutch / spiritual and temporal legate of the patrimony of St Peter fleet was totally routed and De Ruyter mortally wounded. under Pope Nicholas III., and in 1278 took possession, in The greater part of the defeated fleet was afterwards the name of the same Pope, of the provinces of Bologna and burned in the harbour of Palermo, where it had taken Romagna. In 1281 Pope Martin IV. named him vicar refuge, and the French thus secured the undisputed com- spiritual, and in 1283 governor of the temporalities of the mand of the Mediterranean. For this important service two provinces, in which office he had the direction of the Duquesne received a letter of thanks from Louis XIV., war against the rebellious province of Romagna. The town together with the title of marquis and the estate of of Castrum Riparum Urbanatium having been burnt down Bouchet. Owing to his being a Protestant, however, his during the war, he rebuilt it, and renamed it Castrum professional ronk was not advanced. His last achievements Durantis. Pope Urban VIII. subsequently gave to this were the bombardment of Algiers (1682-3), in order to town the name of Urbania, which it bears in the present etfect the deliverance of the Christian captives and the day. Pope Honorius IV. retained Durandus in the same bombardment of Genoa in 1684. On the revocation of the offices until the end of 1286, when his election to the Edict of Nantes Duquesne lost his commission, but he was bishopric of Meude, in Lauguedoc, was the occasion of his specially excepted from banishment. He died at Paris on
retiring for a short time from the conduct of civil affairs. the 20 February 1688.
Durandus, however, appears to have remained in Italy, and DURAN, AUGUSTIN (1789-1862), one of the leaders of to have revised at this time several of his works. He the literary movement in Spain during the present contury, refused in 1295 the archbishopric of Ravenna, which was was born at Madrid, where his father held the post of court offered to him by Pope Boniface VIII., and accepted in prephysician. He lost his mother in childhood, and, insteadference the more arduous office of governor of the province of being educated in the capital, was sent to the seminary of Romagna and of the march of Ancona. The party of the at Vergara, rather to gain strength and health than such Ghibellines, however, carried on hostilities against the Holy mathematics and Latin as his clerical teachers could supply. See with so much vigour that he found his strength unequal Thence he returned a firm believer in ghosts, and erudito in to the exigencies of governnient; and, having resigned his the traditions of Spanish romance. In 1817 he joined the office, he retired to Rome, where he died on 1st November
university of Seville for the study of philosophy and law, 1296. und in due course was admitted an advocate at Valladolid. | Durandus was the author of several very learned trorks. The From 1821 to 1823 he held a post in the direccion general most famous of them is his Speculum Judiciale. This work is ile estudios at Madrid ; but in the latter year he was
entitled in the printed copies, the earliest of which was published
at home in folio in 1474, as Speculum Juris ; but all the MSS. discarded on account of his political opinions, and it was have the title of Speculum Judiciale ; and Durandus himself, in his not till 1834 that he received a new appointment as secre epistle dedicatory to Cardinal Ottobonus Fiesco, afterwards l'ore tary of the board for the censorship of the press, shortly Adrian V., describes it under this latter title. It is a practicai afterwards supplemented by a post in the National Library |
treatise on civil and canon law, and it earned for its author, when at Madrid. The revolution of 1840 again led to his dis. I have completed it in 1271, at the age of thirty-four, and he revised
young, the surname of the Father of Practice. Durandus is said to missal ; but he recovered his position in 1843, and in 1854 it some time between 1287 and 1291. It has since his death acattained the rank of director of the library. Next year. quired much celebrity as one of the best sources of the dogmatic however, he retired, and the rest of his life was devoted to
history of law, and the canonists are accustomed to cito Durandus his literary work. He died in 1862. It was in 1828,
under the bye-name of the Speculator." The original work has been
cnriched by additions from the pen of John Andrræ in 1346, and shortly after his first discharge from office, that he published by further additions from the pen of Baldus. An alphabetic tablo luis discourse on the influence which modern criticism had of its contents (Inventorium) was drawn up by Cardinal Beranger in exercised on the ancient Spanish theatre (Discorso sobre il
the ancient Spanish theatre Discorso sobre al 1306, and the Speculum passed through thirty-eight editions influjo que ha tenido la critica moderna en la decadencia del
between 1474 and 1678. The next important work of Durandus
is his Repertorium Aureum or Breriarium, which is dedicated to teatro antiguo); and, though the work was anonymous, it Cardinal Matthæus ; Durandus himself in his preface designates this produced a marvellous effect on the tendencies of the national work by the name of Breviarium, but it is described by him in the drama. He next endeavoured to make better known to Preface to the Speculum by the title of Repertorium Aurcum, under his fellow-countrymen those half-forgotten treasures of their
which title it is more generally known. It is supposed to have
been composed by Durandus in the interval between the first comliterature, in the collection of which he had spared neither pletion and the revision of the Speculum. His Commentarius in money nor toil. Five volumes of a Romancero general Concilium Lugdunense is a work of much interest, as Durandus appeared from 1828 to 1832 (republished, with considerable | himself drew up the Decretals, which after his death were inserted additions and improvements, in 2 vols. 1849-1851), and
in the Scxtus. Durandus also wrote a commentary on the decretals
of Pone Nicholas III., which is only known to us from the cpitaph on Talia española, or a collection of old Spanish comedies, his tomb, as preserved by Sarti, and which enumerates all his chief in 3 vols., in 1834. As an original poet the author is writings, amongst which may be mentioned his Speculum Lcgatorum, best known by a poem in imitation of the style of the 15th inserted in the Speculum Judiciale, his Rationale Dirinorun century, entitled Las tres toronjas del vergel de amor, or
Officiorum, which has passed through many editions, the earliest of
which was printed at Marence in 1459, and a copy of which is stated * The Three Citron Trees of the Orchard of Love."
by the Allié Pascal to have been sold for 2700 francs. A manuDURANDUS, WILHELMUS (1237-1296), ocherwise script of his Pontificale Patrum, being a treatise on the duties of DURANTIS or DURANTI, was born at Puimisson, sometimes bishops, is preserved in the National Library of Paris. Durandus written Puimoisson, a small town in the diocese of Beziers,
the Speculator is sometimes confounded with Durandus of Santo
| Porciano, bishop of Meaux, who died in 1332, and was the author in Languedoc, whence he is sometimes described as a native
of two treatises, De Jurisdictioni and De Legebus, and with Wilhelmug of Provence. He studied lew under Bernardus of Parma, Durandus, his own nephew, who was the author of a work entitled in the university of Bologna, where he was promoted to the | De modo celebrandi Consilii, and who died in Cyprus in 1328. degree of doctor. He shortly afterwards migrated to the DURANGO, a towu of Spain, in the prorince of Biscay university of Modena, where he became so famous by his 16 miles south-east of Bilbao, at the confluence of the lectures on the canon law that he attracted the notice of Durango and the Mañaria. As a military position of some Pope Clement IV., who appointed him auditor of the palace, importance it is often mentioned in history ; its church of and subsequently subdeacon and chaplain. In 1274 he ac- San Pedro de Tavira is one of the earliest in the Biscayan companied Pope Gregory X. as his secretary to the Council of district ; and that of Santa Ana has some interesting altars Lyons, which is reckoned as the fourteenth general council, constructed by Ventura Rodriguez in 1774. The inhabite
antz, who number about 2600, are partly engaged in the | imperial library of Vienna nlso preserves a valuable collec. qanufacture of iron and steel, and carry on a trade with tion of Durante's manuscripts. Two requiems, several Hamburg in chestnuts. The foundation of the town is masses (one of which, a most original work, is the Pastoral ascribed to the early kings of Navarre, and in 1153 it Mass for four voices), and the Lamentations of the Prophet obtained the rank of a countship. The decres by which Jeremiah are amongst his most important settings. Don Carlos in 1839 ordered all foreigners taken in arms DURÃO, JOSE DE SANTA Ritta, a Brazilian poet, was against him to be shot was issued from Durango.
born at Marianna, in the province of Minas Geraes, in DURANGO, sometimes called CIUDAD DE VICTORIA, or 1737, and died at Lisbon in 1784. He studied at Coimbra, GUADIANA, a city of Mexico, the capital of the state of in Portugal, graduated as a doctor of divinity, became a Durango, lies near the foot of the south-eastern slope of the member of the Augustinian order of friars, and obtained a Sierra Madre, at a height of 6847 feet above the sea, in great reputation as a preacher. Having irritated the 21° 25' N. lat. and 105° 55' W. long. It is the centre of a minister Pombal by his defence of the Jesuits, ho retired Roman Catholic bishopric, and possesses a cathedral, ten from Portugal; and, after being imprisoned in Spain as a parish churches, a hospital, Government buildings, a peni- spy, found his way to Italy, where he became acquainted tentiary, a state prison, a bull-ring, and a large cock-pit. with Alfieri, Pindemonte, Casti, and other literary men of Formerly the seat of a Jesuit college, it still maintains an the time. On his return to Portugal he delivered the openepiscopal seminary, and an institute with literary, legal, and ing address at the university of Coimbra for the year 1778; scientific departinents. It is well supplied with water by but soon after retired to the cloisters of a Gratian convent. thermal and other springs, which not only satisfy the demands At the time of his death he taught in the little college of nine public baths, but also fill considerable channels along belonging to that order in Lisbon. His principal poem, the streets. Trade is carried on with the northern and north entitled Caramuru, poema epico do descubrimento da Bahia, western states; and, besides a mint, a gold refinery, and appeared at Lisbon in 1781, but proved at first a total other offices connected with the mining operations, there failure. Its value has gradually been recognized, and it are glass works, printing-presses, and factories for cotton now ranks as one of the best poems in Brazilian literature and woollen goods, leather, and tobacco. Durango was remarkable especially for its fine descriptions of scenery and founded in 1559 or 1560 by Alonso Pacheco, an officer of native life in South America. The historic institute of Rio the Viceroy Velasco, as a military post for the control of the de Janeiro offered a prize to the author of the best essay Chichimecas. It was soon after made an episcopal see, on the legend of Caramuru; and the successful competitor but did not attain any great importance till the discovery published a new edition of Durão's poem. There are two of the rich deposits of Guarisamey; and most of its public French translations, one of which appeared in 1829 in 3 buildings were erected at the expense of Zambrano, the vols. 8vo. owner of the mines. In 1783 it had no more than 8000 Sec Adolfo de Varnhagen, Epicos Brazilieros, 1845; Pereira da inhabitants ; about 1850 they were estimated at 30,000 or Silva, Os Varões illustres do Brasil, 1858 ; Wolf, Le Brésil littéraire, 40,000; in 1868 they were reduced to 12,449.
Berlin, 1863. DURANTE, FRANCESCO, a celebrated Italian composer, DURAZZO, the ancient Dyrrachium, or Epidamnus, in and one of the founders of the so-called Neapolitan school | Turkish Dratsh, and in Slavonian Durtz, a seaport town of music, was born at Frattamaggiore, in the kingdom of of European Turkey, in Albania, about fifty miles south Naples, and not, as has been erroneously stated, in the city of Scutari, on the easiern shore of the Adriatic. It is of that name. The date of his birth is generally given the seat of a Roman Catholic bishop and a Greek archnine years too late. In reality he was born on March 15, bishop, but in every respect has greatly declined from its 1684. At an early age he entered the Conservatorio dei former prosperity. The walls are dilapidated ;- plantain trees poveri di Gesù Cristo, at Naples, where he received lessons are growing on the gigantic ruins of its old Byzantine. from Gaetano Greco ; but soon he attracted the attention of citadel; and its harbour, once equally commodious and safe, the celebrated Alessandro Scarlatti, at that time the head is gradually becoming silted up. The only features worthy and ornament of another great music school of Naples, the of notice are the quay, with its rows of cannon, and the Conservatory of St Onofrio. Under him Durante studied bridge, 750 feet long, which leads across the marshy stretch for a considerable time, and left him only to go to Rome, along the coast. _Such trade as it still possesses is mainly where, during further five years, he completed his vocal carried on with Trieste, and consists in the export of grain, studies under Pitoni. On his return to Naples he obtained skins, wool, wood, and leeches. The population is estithe position of chapel-inaster at the school of St Onofrio, mated at 9000. which he occupied till 1742, when he succeeded Porpora DURBAN, or more correctly D'URBAN, a town of South as head of the Conservatorio Sante Maria di Loretto, also Africa, in Natal, in the county of Durban, situated on a at Naples. This post he held for thirteen years, till his sandflat about a mile to the north of the bay of Port Natal, death in 1755. His fame as a teacher was all but in 29° 52' S. lat. and 31° 2' E. long. It is well laid out unrivalled, and the most celebrated masters of the earlier with wide tree-shaded streets, carries on a considerable school of Italian opera are amongst his pupils. Only export and import trade, and possesses an Episcopalian Jomelli, Paesiello, Pergolesi, Piccini, and Vinci may be church, two Wesleyan chapels (one for natives and the mentioned here. Under him the Neapolitan school of other for Europeans), .a Government school, a prison, a music reached its climax of celebrity, and it was in this custom-house, a literary institution, and an agricultural school that the great traditions of Italian vocal art were and horticultural society. Durban was founded in 1834 established, the last remnants of which are rapidly dis as the capital of the republican colony of Victoria, and appearing from the modern stage. As a composer Durante its name was bestowed in honour of Sir Benjamin D'Urban, adhered to the severe style of the early Italian masters. the governor of the Cape. The population, mostly EngThe structure of his choral pieces is surpassed by Handel lish, was in 1866, 4991. alone amongst his contemporaries. His instrumentation DÜREN, a town of Prussia, at the head of a circle in also shows many new and beautiful effects. A complete the province of the Rhine, on the right bank of the Roer, collection of Durante's works, consisting all but exclusively at a railway junction eighteen miles east of Aix-la-Chapelle of sacred compositions, was presented by Selvaggi, a Besides two Roman Catholic and two Protestant churches, Neapolitan lover of art, to the Paris library. A catalogue it possesses three nunneries, á gymnasium, a mining school, of it may be found in Fétis's Biographie Universelle. The and a blind asylum--the Elizabeth Institution, which was
founded in 1845 and in 1863 was made a provincial , a ready sale at all the markets, fairs, and church-festivals establishment. Woollen goods, paper, and needles are of the land. Subjects of popular devotion predominated. manufactured on an extensive scale ; and flax-spinning, felt- Figures of the Virgin and child, of the apostles, the weaving, wire-weaving, rail-casting, and zinc-rolling are evangelists, the fathers of the church, the saints and martyrs, also carried on.
with illustration of sacred history and the Apocalypse, were Düren is probably to be identified with the Marcodurum of the supplied in endless repetition to satisfy the cravings of a Ubii, where they were defeated by Civilis in 69 A.D. It receivel pious and simple-minded people. But to these were quickly from Charlemagne the rank of an imperial city, and its claims were
added subjects of allegory, subjects of classical learningconfirmed by Rupert in 1407. Pawned by Frederick II. to Count William of Juliers as security for the payment of a debt, it was
confused mythologies of Hercules, Satyr, and Triton-subultimately incorporated with the duchy of Juliers. Its na:ne fre- jects of witchcraft and superstition, subjects of daily life, quently occurs in the history of the Palatinate. Population in scenes of the parlour and the cloister, of the shop, the field, 1875, 14,542.
the market, and the camp; and lastly portraits of famous DÜRER, ALBRECHT (1471-1528), was born at Nurem- men, with scenes of court life and princely pageant and berg on the 21st of May 1471 ; he was therefore six years ceremony. The emperor Maximilian himself, chivalrous, older than Titian and twelve years older than Raphael. In adventurous, ostentatious, on fire with a hundred ambitions, the history of art, Albert Dürer has a name equal to that and above all with the desire of popular fame, gave continual of the greatest of the Italians. North of the Alps, his only employment to the craftsmen of Augsburg and Nuremberg peer was Holbein. But Holbein was not born till 1497, in designing and engraving processional and historical and lived after 1525 principally in England; hence in representations, which were destined to commemorate him youth he came within the influence of the already matured to all time in his double character of imperial lawgiver arts of Italy, and in manhood his best powers were concen- and hero of romance. So the new art became the mirror, trated on the painting of portraits in a foreign country. for all men to read, of all the life and thoughts of the age. Dürer lived a German among Germans, and is the true re The genius of Albert Dürer cannot be rightly estimated presentative artist of that nation. All the qualities of his without taking into account the position which the art of art—its combination of the wild and rugged with the engraving thus held in the culture of his time. He was, homely and tender, its meditative depth, its enigmatic gloom, indeed, first of all a painter ; and though in his methods its sincerity and energy, its iron diligence and discipline-all he was too scrupulous and laborious to produce many great these are qualities of the German spirit. And the hour at works, and though one of his greatest, the Assumption of which Dürer arose to interpret that spirit in art was the the Virgin, has been destroyed by fire, and another
, the most pregnant and critical in the whole history of his race. Feast of Rose-Garlands, has suffered irreparably between It was the hour of the Renaissance, of the transition injury and repair, yet the paintings which remain by his between the Middle Ages and our own. The awakening of hand are sufficient to place him among the great masters of Germany at the Renaissance was not, like the other awaken- the world. He has every gift in art except the Greek and ing of Italy at the same time, a movement merely intellec- the Italian gift of beauty or ideal grace. In religious tual. It was, indeed, from Italy that the races of the North painting, he has profound earnestness and humanity, caught the impulse of intellectual freedom, the spirit of and an inexhaustible dramatic invention; and the accesscience and curiosity, the longing retrospect towards the sory landscape and scenery of his compositions are more classic past ; but joined with these, in Germany, was a richly conceived and better studied than by any painter moral impulse which was her own, a craving after truth before him. In portrait, he is equally master of the soul and right, a rebellion against tyranny and corruption, an and body, rendering every detail of the human superassertion of spiritual independence—the Renaissance was big ficies with a microscopic fidelity, which nevertheless does in the North, as it was not in the South, with a Reformation nct encumber or overlay the essential and inner character
The art of printing was invented at the right time of the person represented. Still more if we judge him by to help and hasten the new movement of men's minds. his drawings and studies, of which a vast number are preNor was it by the diffusion of written ideas only that the served in private as well as public collections, shall we new art supplied the means of popular enlightenment. Along realize his power in grasping and delineating natural with word-printing, or indeed in advance of it, there had fact and character, the combined gravity and minutecome into use another kind of printing, picture-printing, or ness of his style, the penetration of his eye, and the almost what is commonly called engraving. Just as books, or superhuman patience and accuracy of his line in drawword-printing, were the means of multiplying, cheapening, ing, whether from persons, animals, plants, or landscape, and disseminating ideas, so engravings, or picture-printing, whether with pen, pencil, charcoal, or (which was his were the means of multiplying, cheapening, and disseminat- favourite method) in colour with the point of the brush. ing images which gave vividness to the ideas, or served, for But neither his paintings nor his drawings could by themthose ignorant of letters, in their stead. Technically, the selves have won for him the immense popular fame and art of engraving was a development of the art of the gold authority which have been his from his own time to ours; Emith or metal-chaser. Between the art of the goldsmith that fame and that authority are due to his pre-eminence and the art of the painter there had always been a close in the most popular and democratic of the arts, that of alliance, hoth being habitually exercised by persons of the which the works are accessible to the largest number, the same family. and sometimes by one and the same person ; art of engraving. In an age which drew a large part of its so that there was no lack of hands ready trained, so to intellectual nourishment from engravings, Dürer furnished speak, for the new art which was a combination of the other the most masterly examples both of the refined and elabotwo, and required of the man who practised it that rate art of the metal engraver, as well as the most striking ho should design like a painter and cut metal like a gold. inventions for the robust and simple art of the wood smith. The engraver on metal babitually cut his own engraver. designs; whereas designs intended to be cut on wood were The town of Nuremberg in Franconia, in the age of usually handed over to a class of workmen-Formschneider Dürer, was a home most favourable to the growth and
-especially devoted to that industry. Both kinds of exercise of his powers of the free imperial cities of engraving soon came to be in great demand. Independently central Germany, none had a greater historic fame, none & of the illustration of written or printed books, separate more settled and patriotic government, none was more the engravings, or sets of engravings, were produced, and found favourite of the emperors, none was the seat of a more activa
and flourishing connierce Nuremberg tras the great mart | Wohlgemuth and his assistants also produced woodcuts for for the merchandise that came to centrul Europe fron the book illustration, and probably thongh this is a vexed Fast through Venice and over the passes of the Tyrol. question-engravings on copper. In this school Dürer She held not only a close commercial intercourse, but also learnt much, by his own account, but suffered also not a a close intellectnal intercourse, with Italy. Without being little from the roughness of his companions. At the end s forward as the neighbour city of Augsburg to enıbrace of his term under Wohlgemuth, he entered upwn the usual the architectural fashions of the Italian Renaissance,—nay, course of travels--the Wander jahre-of a German youth. continuing to be profoundly inbued with the old Gern.an The direction of these travels we cannot retrace with cerburgher spirit, and to wear, with an evidence which is tainty. It had been at one time his father's intention to almost unimpaired to this day, the old German civic apprentice him to Martiu Schongauer, of Colmar in Alsace, aspect, she had iniported, before the close of the 15th incomparably the most refined German painter and engraver century, much of the new learning of Italy, and numbered of his time. To Colmar, among other places, Albert Dürer among her citizens a Willibald Pirkheimer, a Sebald went in the course of his travels; but Schongauer had Schreyer, a Hartmann Schiedel, and others fit to hold a already died there in 1488. We also hear of him at place in the first rank of European humanists. The life Strassburg. It is a moot point among biographers whether into which Albert Dürer was born was a grave, a devout, a towards the end of his Wanderjahre about the year law-loving, and a lettered life, in the midst of a community 1494—the young Dürer did or did not cross the Alps to devoted to honourable commerce and honourable civic Venice. On the one hand it is argued that he did; first, activities, proud of its past, proud of its wealth, proud of because, on the occasion of an undoubted visit to Venice in its liberties, proud of its arts and ingenuities, and abouod- / 1506, he speaks of adıniring no longer that which he had ing in aspects of a quaint and picturesque dignity. His vastly admired “eleven years before ;” secondly, because family was not of Nuremberg descent, but came from the several careful drawings by his band from the engravings village of Eytas in Hungary. The name, however, is of Mantegna and other Italian masters, bearing the date German, and the fainily bearing-an open door-points 1494, show that in this year he was making a special to an original form of Thürer, meaning a maker of doors, study of Italian art; and thirdly, because he has left a or carpenter. Albrecht Dürer the elder was a goldsmith number of coloured drawings of the scenery of Tyrol, such by trade, and settled soon after the middle of the 15th as he would have to traverse on the road between Bavaria century in Nuremberg. He served as assistant under a and Venice, and these show a technical finish and minute. master goldsmith of the city, Hieronymus Holper, and ness of execution, characteristic of his studies at this early presently married his master's daughter, Barbara. This period but not later. Those who do not believe in this early was in 1468, the bridegroom being forty and the bride visit to Venice reply, first, that the allusion interpreted as fifteen years of age. They had eighteen children, of whom above in Dürer's correspondence is too vague and unAlbert Tras the second. The elder Dürer was an esteemed certain, and that what Dürer, in 1506, had really craftsman and citizen, sometimes, it seems, straitened by “ admired eleven years ago " was probably not the work the claims of his iminense family, but living in virtue and of Venetians seen at Venice, but of a Venetian artist honour to the end of his days. The accounts we have of kunwn as Jacopo de' Barbari, or Jacob Walch, who him proceed from his illustrious son, who always speaks resided about that time in Nuremberg, and who, we know. with the tenderest reverence and affection of both his had a very considerable influence on the art of Dürer ; parents, and has left a touching narrative of the deathbed secouuly, that the prints of Mantegua and other Italians, of each. He painted the portrait of his father twice, once undoubtedly copied by Dürer in 1494, may very well about 1490, the second time in 1197. The former of these have been brought to Germany with other wares on sale two pieces is in the Uffizj at Florence; the latter, well from Venice, or have been shown him by the same Jacopo known by Hollar's engraving, is in the possession of the de' Barbari ; and thirdly, that other landscapes, bearing duke of Northumberland. A third “Portrait of his Father” | the date of 1506 or later dates, do in fact show the hy Dürer, in the gallery at Frankfort, is probably so called same techuical characteristics as those which are assigned, in error. The young Albert was his father's favonrite son.) by the other side in the argument, to 1494. The ques“ Vy father,” these are luis own words, “ took special delight tion will probably remain open to the end. With rein me. Secing that I was industrious in working and ference, however, to the third head of the argument, the learning, he put me to school ; and when I had learned to character of Dürer's early landscape work, it has not been read and write, he took me home from school and taught sufficiently observed that his ideal of scenery shows itself me the goldsmith's trade." By-and-by the boy found fully formed and developed by the time of the publication himself drawn by preference from goldsmith's work to of his Apocalypse woodcuts and his earliest engravings on painting; and after some hesitation, his father at first copper, that is, about the year 1497 ; that this ideal backopposing his wishes on the ground of the time already ground, of a lake with castled and wouded beadlands sloping spent in learning the former trade, be was at the age of down from either side, and sloops afloat in the distance, is fifteen and a half apprenticed for three years to the taken not from the neighbourhood of Nuremberg but from principal painter of the town, Michael Wohlgemuth. the northern borders of Tyrol-it is the scenery, not of the Wohlgemuth furnishes a complete type of the German banks of the Pegnitz nor even the Danube, but rather of painter of that age. At the head of a large shop with the Würmsee or the Tegernsee; that to the alps and lakes, numerous assistants, his business was to turn out, generally therefore, of the Northern Tyrol, whether on his way to for a small price, devotional pieces commissioned by Venice or otherwise, Dürer must certainly have conio mercantile corporations or private persons to decorate their during these travels of his youth. chapels in the churches,-the preference being usually for At the end of May 1494, being twenty-three years old, scenes of our Lord's Passion, or for tortures and martyrdoms Albert Dürer returned, at his father's summons, to his native of the saints. In work of this class, the painters of upper Nuremberg, and within two months was married to Agnes, Germany before the Renaissance show considerable the daughter of a well-to-do merchant of the town named technical knowledge, and a love of rich and quaint costumes Hans Frey. It is probable that the marriage had been and of landscape, but in the human part of their representa arranged between Hans Frey and the elder Dürer while tions often a grim and debased exaggeration, transgressing | Alhert was on his travels ; and possible that a portrait of all bounds in the grotesqueness of undesigned caricature. the young painter very richly hubited, executed by himself in the previous year 1493, anil showing him in the first | angels of the Eupkzates to slay the third part of nien; bloom of that almirable mauly beauty for which he was these and otbers are conceptions of such force. such afterwards renowned, may have been destined to recommend grave or tempestuous grandeur in the midst of grotesquehim to the good graces of the lady. Their marriage was ness, as che art of no other age or hand Las prichildless. Agnes survived her husband. The petulance of duced. At the same time, Dürer was pructising hiniself an old frieud of her husband's has unjustly blackened her diligently in the laborious art of copper engraving. In the reputation. Her name has for centuries been used to point years immediately about or preceding 1500, le produced a a mural, and among the unworthy mates of great men the number of plates of which the subjects are generally fanciful wife of Dürer was as notorious as the wife of Socrates. The and allegorical, and the execution is more or less tentative origin of this tradition must be sought in a letter written a and uncertain. Of several of these, other versions exist by few years after Dürer's death by his close friend and life contemporary masters, and it is disputed in most of such long companion, Willibald Pirkheimer, in which Pirkheimer cases whether Dürer's version is the original, or whether, nccuses Agnes of having playued her husband to death with | being at that time young and comparatively unknown, he her parsimonious ways, of having made him over-work him. | did not rather begin by copying the work of older nien; self for money's sake, of having given his latter days no in which case, the originals of such engravings would lave to peace. But a closer study of facts and documents shows be sought in versions bearing other signatures than Dürer's. that there is not a jot of evidence to support these splenetic Oae signature of frequent occurrence on German engravings charges. Pirkheimer, when he made them, was old, broken of this time, and among them, on several subjects which with gout, and disgusted with the world, and the immediate are also repeated by Dürer's hand, is the letter W. As to occasion of his outbreak was a fit of peevishness against the the identity of this W, criticism is much divided. He has widow becanse she had not let him have a pair of antlers- been generally identified with one Wenzel of Olmütz, whom a lousehold ornament much prized in those days—to which we know to have engraved copies after Martin Schougauer he fancied himself entitled out of the property left by Dürer. and other masters. Others, again, attribute some at least On the other hand, there is abundant evidence of the close of the prints signed W to Dürer's teacher Wohlgemuth, confidence and companionship that subsisted between Dürer and when the same composition is found engraved by each and his wife; she accompanied him on his journey to the of the two masters, conclude that the younger has copied Low Cointries in 1521; after his death she behaved with the work of the elder. Instances are the subjects of the peculiar geuerosity to his brothers; it is perfectly probable Four Naked Women with Death and the Fiend ; the Old that Dürer lad in her a kind and beloved as well as a care- Mau's Dream of Love; the Virgin and Child with the Ape, ful partner; the old legend of his sufferings at her hands &c. The question is difficult to decide. It seeins certain must be regarded as completely discredited. So far from that the work of several different bands is signed with being forced to toil for money to the end, he died well off, this same initial W; and we are of those who hold that, though he had in his latter years occupied himself more and of the engravers so signing, one, whether Wollgemuth or more with uuremunerative pursuits with the theoretical not, is a very accomplished master, whose work Dürer, uutil studies of Perspective, Geometry, Fortification, Proportion, near the age of thirty, was in the habit of occasionally for which lie shared the passion of Leonardo, and on copying. From another master, again, whose name we have which, like Leonardo, he has left written treatises.
already mentioned, the half Venetian half German Jacopo For more than eleven years after his marriage, Dürer de' Barbari, Dürer learned much. The Italians had already lived at Nuremberg the settled and industrious life of his begun to work out a science of the human structure and of profession. Within this period his masterly powers unfolded ideal proportions; and from Jacopo de' Barbari, as Dürer and matured themselves. Two important devotional pictures himself tells us, he received in youth the first hints of this are attributed to his early practice; one a large triptych science; which he subsequently investigated for himself with painted in tempera on linen, now in the gallery at Dresden, his usual persistent industry. These early notious received the other also an altar-picce with wings, now in the summer from Jacopo de' Barbari led to one ininediate result of palace of the archbishop of Vienna at Ober St Veit; both value, the famous engraving of Adam and Eve published pirobably painted for the Elector Frederick of Saxony. ( iu 1504. The figures here, as we can see by many preThese pictures have been executed, like those of Wohl. paratory sketches, are planned on geoinetrical principles, gemuth, hastily, and with the help of pupils. (Of painters not drawn-as was the common German custoin, and trained in the school of Dürer, we know the names and Dürer's own in a large majority of his works-(lirect from characters of Schaufelein, Springinklee, Hans Baldung the model, with all the crudities of the original faithfully Grün, and Hans of Culmbaca). A finer, and somewbat delineated. The background of foliage and animals is a later, example of the master's work in this class is the miracle of rich invention and faithful and brilliant execualtar-piece painted for the family of Baumgartner, having tion; the full powers of Dürer as an engraver on copper are a Birth of Christ in the centre and the figure of a knight here for the first time asserted. In another elaborate engrayon either side ; this is now at Munich. The best of Dürer's ing which probably soon followed this, the Great Fortune energies, both of mind and hand, must have been given in or Nemesis—the opposite principle is observed ; above a these days to the preparation of his sixteen great woodcut mountain valley, of which every detail is rendered in bird's designs for the Apocalypse. The first edition illustrated eye view with amazing completeness, an allegorical figure with this series appeared in 1498. The Northern mind had of a woman rides upright upon the clouds, bearing a cup long dwelt with eagerness on these mysteries of things to in one hand and a bridle in the other; in her countenance come, and among the earliest block-books printed in and proportions there is nothing ideal, there is the most Germany is an edition of the Apocalypse with rude figures. literal and graceless commonness. In his own journals But Dürer not only transcends all efforts made before him Dürer calls this plate Nemesis ; it has been conjectured in the representation of these strange promises, terrors, and that the piece was composed in allusion to the unfortunate transformations, these thaumaturgic visions of doom and expedition sent by the emperor Maximilian to Switzerredemption; the passionate energy and undismayed land, in which a number of Nuremberg citizens took part, simplicity of his imagination, enable him, in this order with Pirkheimer at their head. In the meantime Dürer of creations, to touch the highest point of human achieve- had been variously exercising his inexhaustible power ment. The four angels keeping back the winds that of dramatic invention on the subjects of Christian story they blow not; the four riders; the loosing of the He had completed the set of drawings of the Passion