« EelmineJätka »
and Jark the choleric: and it is characteristic of Dürer's | Historische Nac:richt ron den Nürnbergischen Mathematicis und thought that I'eter is put in the background, studying off
Künstlern, Nuremberg, 1731); Von dlurr, Chr. G., Jourial cut
Kunstgeschichte, as above; Bartsch, Adam, Le Peintre-Grareur, a book held open by John, the favourite evangelist of the vol. vii. Vienna, 1808 ; Passavant, J. P., Le Peintre-Grareur, vol. Reforniation and of Luther: in this representation of iii. Leipzig, 1842; Roth, J. F., Leben Albrecht Dürer's, Leipzig, John some have recognized the features of Melanchthon: / 1791 : Heller. Das Leben und die Werke Allrecht Dürers, vol. ii., its likeness to the poet Schiller is a coincidence much more
Barr.berg, 1827-1831; Von Eyc, Dr A., Leben und Werken Al. obvious.
brecht Dürer's, 2d ed., Nördlingen, 1869 ; Haussniann, d., Dürer's These various classes of work were carried on
Kupferstiche, Radirungen, Holzschnitte und Zeichnungen, Han. in the face of failing health. In the canals of the Low over. 1861 : Von Zahn. A. Dürer's Kunstlehre, Leipzig, 1866 ; Countries Dürer had caught a fever, of which he never Allihn. Max., Dürer-Studien, Leipzig, 1871; Nagler, G. V., shook off the effects. The evidence of this we have in
Albrecht Dürer und seine Kunst, Munich, 1827; Rett berg, R. von,
Nürnberg's Kunstleben, Stuttgart, 1854 ; Rettberg, R. von. Dürer's his own written words, as well as in a sketch which he
Kupferstiche und Holzschnitte, Munich, 1876; Heaton, Mrs Charles, drew to indicate to some doctor with whom he was in The History of the Life of Albrecht Dürer of Nurembery, London, correspondence the seat of his suffering; and again, in 1872; Scott, W. B., Albrecht Dürer, his Life and Works, London, the record of his physical aspect—the shoulders already
1872; Thausing, Prof. Moritz, Durer, Geschichte seines Lebens und somewhat bent, the features somewhat gaunt, the old pride
seiner Kunst, Leipzig, 1876; W. Schmidt in Dohme's Kunst und
Künstler des Mittelalters und der Neuzeit, Leipzig, 1877 ; Euvres of the abundant locks shorn away-which is preserved in de Albert Dürer reproduit et publié par Amand-Durand, texte par a portrait engraved on wood just after his death, from a Georges Duplessis, Paris, 1877.
(S.C.) drawing made no doubt not long previously. That death D'URFEY, THOMAS, more generally known by the came suddenly, so suddenly that there was no time to call familiar name of Tom d'Urfey, an English satirist and song his dearest friends to his bedside, on the night of the 6th writer, was descended from a family of French Huguenot of April 1628. Dürer was buried in the vault belonging refugees, and was born at Exeter.. The year of his birth is to his wife's family, but since disturbed, in the burying- unknown. He was originally bred to the law, which hə ground of St John at Nuremberg. He left a name that forsook for the more congenial employment of writing plays will be lionoured by the latest posterity, and a place that and songs. His humour both in writing and in singing the nothing could fill in the affections of his noblest contem- latter procured him access to the highest circles, and made poraries. This is the grave and feeling Requiescc:t of Luther, him a favourite even at court. Addison in the Guordian in a letter written to their common friend, Eoban Hesse : (No. 67) relates that he remembered more than once to “ As for Dürer, assuredly affection bids us mourn for one have seen Charles II. leaning on Tom d'Urfey's shoulder who was the best of men, yet you may well hold him happy and humming over a song with him. He was a strong Tory that he has made so good an end, and that Christ has taken and Protestant, and it is said that his songs had considerhim from the midst of this time of troubles, and from yet able influence in strengthening the cause of his party. His greater troubles in store, lest he, that deserved to behold dramatic pieces, numbering upwards of thirty, were well nothing but the best, should be compelled to behold the received, but were so licentious that none of them kept the worst. Therefore may be rest in peace with his fathers : stage after the dissolute period for which they were written. Amen."
D'Urfey, by imprudence and extravagance, became poor as The principal extant paintings of Dürer, with the places where he grew old ; and having prevailed on the managers of the they are to be found, have been mentioned above. Of his draw. playhouse to act his comedy of the Plotting Sisters for his ings, by far the richest collection is in the Albertina Palace at benefit, Addison wrote the above mentioned paper in the Vienna ; the next richest is probably that of the British Museum,
Guardian, with another (No. 82) giving a humorous account where a large volume, forming part of Lord Arundel's collection, is preserved. By the acquisition of the Posonyi-Hullot collection,
of his eccentricities, in order to procure him a full house. the Berlin Museum has now (1877) taken certainly the third place.
He died at an advanced age in 1723. His songs, pub. The Louvre also possesses some good examples, and many others lished in 6 vols., under the title of Pills to Purge Melanare dispersed in varioas public collections, as at Munich, Ham
choly, were reprinted in fac-simile in 1872. burg, Rremen, Basel, Milan, and Horence, as well as in private hands all over Europe.
DURHAM, COUNTY PALATINE OF, one of the northern The principal editions of Diirer's theoretical writings are these:- shires of England. The county is triangularin form, its castern GEOMETRY AND PERSPECTIVE.—Underwcysung der Messung mit limit or base being a coast-line exposed to the German Ocean. dem Zirckel und Richtschcyt, in Linien, Ebnen und ganzen Cor- | It is separated from Northumberland chiefly by the Tyne poren, Nurenberg, 1525. A Latin translation of the same, with a long title, Paris, Weichel, 1532, and another ed. in 1555.
and its tributary the Derwent, and from Yorkshire by the Again in Latin, with the title Institutionum geometricarum libri Tees. Towards its western extremity it joins Cumberland quatuor, Arnheim, 1605.
and Westmoreland. Its greatest length is 45 miles, and its FORTIFICATION.-Elliche Underricht zur Befestigung der Schloss,
greatest breadth 36 miles; and it contains an area of 1012 Stult, und Flecken, Nuremberg, 1527, and other editions in 1530 anul 1538. A Latin translation, with the title De urbibus, arcibus,
square miles, or 647,592 acres. It is divided into four castellisque muniendis ac condendis, Paris, Weichel, 1535.
wards,—Chester and Easington in the north, and Darlington HUMAN PROTORTION.-Hicrin sind begriffen vier Bücher von menschlicher Proportion, Nuremberg, 1548. Latin translation: outlying portions of the county, shown in old maps, and De Syiñetria partium in rcctis formis humanorum corporum libri | in latinum conversi, de varietate figurarum, dc., libri II., Nur.
known as North Durham (including Norhamshire and emberg, 1532.
Islandshire), Bedlingtonshire, and Crayke. These were The private literary remains of Dürer, his diary, letters, &c., attached to the county as having formed parcels of the were first published, partially in Von Murr's Journal zur Kunst ancient “ patrimony of St Cuthbert,” of which the land geschichte, Nuremberg, 1785-1787 ; afterwards, in Campe's Reliquien von A. Dürer, Nuremberg, 1827; and again, carefully edited
between Tyne and Tees was the chief portion. by Professor Moritz Thausing, in the Quellcnschriften für Kunst.
Physical Features. The western angle of the county geschichte und Kunsttechnik, Vienna, 1872.
is occupied by spurs of the Pennine chain, and hence is The principal remaining literature of the subject will be fonnd mountainous, with black, naked, and barren regions, from in the following books and treatises, the elaborate monograph of Pro
which issue numerous streams flowing to the sea. The fessor Thausing being the latest, and by far the fullest and most ingenious of them all :-Neudörfer, Johann, Schreib- und Rechen.
elevations vary from 1000 to 2196 feet. There are some meister zu Nürnberg, Nachrichten über Künstlern und Werkleuten beautiful and fertile valleys in the eastern and.central parts, daselbst. Nuremberg, 1547; republished in the Vienna Quellenschrift, I pleasantly varied with hill and dale, and alterna 1875; Scheurl, Chr., Vita Antonii Kressen, 1515, reprinted in the collection of Pirkheimer's works, Frankfort, 1610 : Wimpheling,
priated to corn and pasture. Extensive tracts, principally Epitome rerum Germanicarum, ch. 68, Strassburg, 1565 : Sandrart. in 'the western part of the county, are waste, but rich in Joachim von, Deutsche Academie, Nuremberg, 1675; Doppelmayr, i minerals. In the southern districts the area of cultivation
has been considerably increased within the last few years. grindstones are procured at Gateshead Fell; and firestone The ancient common fields belonging to the townships are of high estimation, for building ovens, furnaces, and the like, now mostly inclosed. Draining having been carried on to is obtained in various parts of Durham, and exported in a great extent; there is very little marshy ground left. considerable quantity. Near the river Tees, and in some places bordering on the Towns. Besides the city of Durham, the county includes other rivers, the soil is loam or a rich clay. At a farther seven ancient boroughs, viz., Hartlepool, Barnard Castle. distance froin these rivers it is of an inferior quality, with Bishop Auckland, Darlington, Sunderland, Stockton, and patches of gravel interspersed. The hills between the sea Gateshead. The large villages of Staindrop, Wolsingham, and an imaginary line from Barnard Castle on the Tees to Stanhope, and Sedgefield are “ market towns." The port Alansford on the Derwent, are covered with a dry loam, the of Stockton-upon-Tees is well situated for commerce fertility of which varies with its depth. From this line Hartlepool, being on a promontory, nearly encompassed by westward the summits as well as the sides of the hills are the German Ocean, which forms a capacious bay to the in great part mvorish wastes.
south of the town is advantageously placed for maritime At the distance of about three miles from Darlington, at traffic; Sunderland and South Shields are also well placed Oxenhall, are cavities in the earth, called “ Hell Kettles.” at the mouth of the Wear and Tyne. There are similar natural pits in the neighbourhood of No county in England presents a closer network of Ripon, and elsewhere. The diameter of the largest is not railways than Durham. The York, Newcastle, and Berwick less than 114 feet, and that of the least 75. About five trunk line enters the country south of Darlington, and miles from Hartlepool is one of the most singular clusters continues due north until at Gateshead it crosses the Tyne of racks in the north of England, called “ Black Halls,” and enters Northumberland. From this a great many formed by the force and constant action of the waves, which smaller lines diverge to the ports and mineral fields. have separated enormous masses of the magnesian limestone, Agriculture.— Improvements in agriculture have been washing some entirely away, but leaving others standing, pursued with considerable spirit and success.
On some like vast towers. In some places the rock is perforated so spots of gravelly soil
, turnips and barley are grown in almost as to form curious arches.
perpetual succession, a crop of clover being sometimes The only considerable river, beside those just mentioned, interposed. The manures are chiefly lime and the produce is the Wear, which rises in the western hills and flows past of the fold-yard ; and though abundance of sea-weed might Durham to join the sea at Bishop-Wearmouth and Monk- be collected on the coast, as it was in mediæval times, the Wearmouth, which places unite with Sunderland to form farmers now make but little use of it. The farms are of one great town. The Team, which gives its name to the moderate size, few of them exceeding 200 acres. The Team Valley Railway, is a mere rivulet.
largest portion of each is arable, except towards the western Trees are chiefly confined to the parks and seats of extremity of the county, where the whole is pasture. The the nobility and gentry; but many plantations have been farm houses are well situated and commodious; and improve made of lato years. The banks of the rivers and brooks, ments in farming and farming machinery keep pace with the particularly in the vicinity of Durham, are fringed with age. The cattle of Durham have long been in great repute; wood of long growth and much ralue, and the deep wooded in point of form, weight, produce of milk, and quickness denes or ravines which open on to the sea-coast, each of fattening, there are none better. The cows yield from 25 having a small stream at the bottom, are very characteristic. to 30 quarts of milk daily. The sheep also stand high in Castle Eden dene is about four miles in length, and famous estimation, particularly the Tees-Water breed. The Wearfor its beautiful trees and wild flowers.
dalo sheep are small, but their mutton is finely flavoured. Minerals.—The western hills are composed of carbonifer The following figures, taken from the Agricultural Returns ous limestone, succeeded eastward by millstono grit, coal- for 1873 and 1876, show the acreage of the principal crops measures, magnesian limestone, and new red sandstone and the numbers of the live stock in the county in those The south-east portion of the limestone is covered with sand, years :resulting from disintegration of the coal-measures and often
Turnips. stone contains productive veins of lead ore, which are
Barley and Green
Grase under rotation
Crops. showing black beds of coal-detritus. The mountain lime
1873...99,243 37,669 87,631 18,470 32,803 22,153 50,884 extensively worked, also zinc oro. The beds of coal in the 1876...91,109 28,359 85,815 23,070 83,616 22,196 68,170 coal-measures are from 5 to 6 feet thick, and have long 1873. ......16,204
62, 452 224,714 12,053 been source of enormous wealth. The mines are among 1876.......17,486 61,028 202,109 12,182 the most extensive and productive in the kingdom. At According to the Owners of Land Return, Durham was Sunderland the coal trade furnishes employment for hundreds divided in 1873 among 34,317 separate proprietors, of of vessels, independently of the “keels" or lighters which whom the large proportion of 91 per cent. owned less convey the coal from the termini of the railroads and than 1 acre—the average of England and Wales being 71 tramways to the ships. The seams now worked extend per cent. The gross rental of the land amounted to horizontally for many miles, and are from 20 to 100 £2,889,152, or an average of £5, lls 24d. per acre-28 fathoms beneath the surface. Under almost every seam compared with £3, Os. 2d., the average of England and of coal is a bed of fire-clay, full of roots of primeval Wales. This unusual value per acre is to be ascribed to the forest trees. The basaltic formation known as the “Great presence of minerals. The proprietors possessing more Whin Sill” appears in Teesdale, and is also remark- than 8000 acres were as follows :duke of Cleveland, able at Cockfield. A beautiful variety of the mountain 55,837 acres; Ecclesiastical Commissioners, 26,868; Vislimestone known as Frosterley marble, has for many count Boyne, 15,310; earl of Durham, 14,664; marquis centuries been quarried near Stanhope for decorative of Londonderry, 12,823 ; earl of Eldon, 11,841 ; Joba purposes, in Durham Cathedral and elsewhere taking the Bowes, 8313; dean and chapter of Durham, 8089. place of Purbeck marble, while in modern houses it is used Natural History:-Except in the moorlands of the west chiefly for chimney-pieces. Ironstone is extensively worked only a few scraps of the county have been left in their natural in the neighbourhood of Swalwell and Winlaton. Some state ; but these portions are of great interest to the student excellent quarries of slate for buildings have been opened in of natural history. The ballast-hills at Shields and different parts of the county. The neighbourhood of Hartlepool are overgrown with aliens, many of which are Wolsingham abounds in fine millstones. The Newcastle | elsewhere unknown in this country. Nearly fifty different
species have been found Cypripedium, Epipactis, Pyrola, / periods are very scantily represented, on account, as is Ophrys, under the yews of Castle Eden, are visited by supposed, of the incessant wars between England and butterflies found nowhere else in England, as Oreinablandina, Scotland in the 14th and 15th centuries. The principal Polyommatussalmacis, and the little moth Acidalia monastic remains, beside those surrounding Durham blomeraria. The most interesting birds left are the dotterel Cathedral, are those of its subordinate house or “cell,” (Charadrius morinellus), pied flycatcher (Muscicapa luc- Finchale Priory, situated in a lovely valley by the Wear. tuosa), and crossbill (Loxia curvirostra), which still breed The most interesting castles are those of Durham, Raby, occasionally in the west of the county, Tho siskin Brancepeth, and Barnard. There are ruins of castelets, (Chrysomitris spinus) and black redstart (Ruticilla tithys) or peel-towers, at Dalden, Ludworth, and Langley Dale. hare-reared their young near the city of Durham The The hospitals of Sherburn, Greatham, and Kepyer, founded stockdove has within the last few years becomepot uncommon. by early bishops of Durham, retain but very few ancient Red grouse and black game are abundant in suitable features. localities, and one heronry still remains. But the shores of The principal noblemen's seats are Raby Castle (duke of Durham are deserted by the sea fowl, which 200 years ago Cleveland), Lambton Castle (earl of Durham), Wynyard were so abundant by Tees and Tyne that, as an old writer Castle (marquis of Londonderry), Ravensworth Castle (earl says, “ip tyme of breeding one can bardly sett his foote of Ravensworth), Brancepeth Castle (Viscount Boyne), and so warylye that he spoyle not many of theyr Destes." The Whitham Hall (Sir Hedworth Williamson, Bart.) badger and the otter still linger in one or two nooks ; the
The county is divided for parliamentary purposes into last marten was killed in Weardale 30 years ago, and two divisions (North and South Durham), each of which meantime the squirrel has become common. Stockton is returns two members. The northern division includes 20 almost the last retreat in England of the native black rat. polling-places, and the southern 33. The population has Of the former abundance of deer, wild ox, and boar every greatly increased within the last thirty years. In 1851 the peat bog testifies by its rerzains; the boar appears to have inhabitants numbered 390,997; in 1861, 508,666 ; and in existed in the reign of Henry VIIL, and records of red | 1871, 685,089—353,117 males and 331,972 females. The deer in the county may be traced down to the middle of increase between 1851 and 1871 amounts to 724 per cent. the last century.
The population is estimated at upwards of 850,000 in Antiquities of pre-Roman date, whether implements of 1877. stone or bronze, or sepulchral remains, are scarcely found
History. Before the arrival of the Romans the county formed part except in the valley of the Wear. A very remarkable dis
of the British territory of the Brigantes, which comprised all between covery was made some years ago at Heathery Burn Cave, Tyne and Humber. Then it became part of the Roman province near Stanbope, where, under a coating of stalagmite, were
Maxima Cæsariensis. In Anglo-Saxon times it was included in preserved a great m ny bronze weapons and other objects, Conquest it gradually acquired in one way or another that peculiar
Bernicia, in the kingdom of Northumbria. After the Norman including almost every article which appears to have been independence which was attached to “ Counties Palatine. The known in Brite in at that remote period. One mile north of bishops of Durham were temporal princes as well as spiritual rulers, Eggleston are some remains of an ancient structure called exercising most of the royal prerogatives, such as paramount prothe Standing Stones. This originally consisted of a cairn perty in all lands, and supreme jurisdiction both civil and military, in the centre, surrounded by a trench, and that again privileges would be the more readily conceded to this county on encompassed by a circular arrangement of rough stones, account of its remoteness from the metropolis, and its proximity to many of which have been removed and broken to repair the hostile kingdom of Scotland, in order that the inhabitants, the roads. Near a brook, at a small distance, is a large having
justice administered at home, might not be obliged
to go out of
their county, and leave it open to an enemy's incursions. For they barrow, crossed from east to west by a row of stones.
pleaded privilege not to pass over Tees or Tyne for military service, There are frequent references to “Standing Stones” now their special charge being, as was alleged, to keep and defend the gone in old charters, where they are referred to as marking sacred body of st Cuthbert, whenco they were called " Haliwer boundaries. The principal Roman remains are connected
folo” (Holy war folk). By an Act passed in the 27th year of Henry with the ancient Watling Street, which entered the county bishops of Durham had enjoyed, and at the death of Bishop Van
VIII. a heavy blow was struck at the regal powers which tho by crossing the Tees at Pierse-bridge, and left it on crossing Mildert in 1836, an Act was passed whereby all temporal jurisdic. the Derwent just north of Ebchester. The boundaries of tions and privileges were declared to be for ever removed from the the four stations of Pierse-bridge, Binchester, Lanchester, bishopric. Up to that time the bishops opened the assizes in and Ebchester, on the line of this road, may still be clearly the judges sitting by virtue of the bishop's writ. Durham is now discerned. At Lanchester there are considerable remains included in the province of York, and in the north-eastern circuit, of masonry, and at Binchester the most perfect hypocaust The principal county histories are those by Hutchinson and in the north of England. Chester-le-Street, as its name Surtees, the latter incomplete, but, so far as it goes, it is a noble indicates, occupies the site, now obliterated, of a Roman handbooks to the county and to the cathedral, though occasionally
work, one of the very best of that class ever published. Murray's station, on a subsidiary Roman road ; and there was a camp, inaccurate, are full of interesting and valuable information. still partly to be recognized, on “ Maiden Castle Hill," near the city of Durham. Many Roman altars and sculptured DURHAM City, a municipal and parliamentary borough stones from Lanchester and elsewhere are preserved in the of England, and the chief town of the county of Durham, chapter library at Durham. Roman altars, coins, &c., is situated on the River Wear (which is crossed there by have been found at South Shields, as well as about the four bridges), 14 mies S. of Newcastle and 60 miles above-mentioned stations. To the Anglo-Saxon period N.N.W, of York. Though there was a small Roman camp. are to be referred portions of the churches of Monk at Maiden Castle Hill, about a mile distant, Durham itself Wearmouth and Jarrow, and numerous sculptured crosses, dates only from the end of the 10th century, when the monks two of which are in situ at Aycliffe. The best remains of Lindisfarne rested there with the body of St Cuthbert, of the Norman period are to be found in Durham after wandering about with it almost all over the north of Cathedral (the finest Norman building in England) and England. Soon afterwards a church was built by Bishop in the castle, also in some half-dozen parish churches. Ealdhune, and the removal of the see from Lindisfarne of the Early English period are the eastern portion of the thither, together with the growing fame of the incorruptible cathedral (see below), the fine churches of Darlington, body of the saint, led to the rise of the city. The rocky Hartlepool, and St Andrew, Auckland, and portions of a peninsula on which Ealdhune's church was founded, about fow other churches. The Decorated and perpendicular 80 feet above the river, was called Dunholme (Hill Island,
which in Norman times was softened to " Duresme," whence the abbey, contains a number of curious and interesting
England. The total revenue
Castle, dec.—The castle of Durham consists of a polygonal
keep, now reconstructed to form a very inconvenient set of college rooms; the great hall built by Bishop Hatfield, which in some respects exceeds any hall in the older universities; the Norman hall, now cut up into rooms; the old Norman crypt chapel ; Bishop Tunstall's chapel, at present in use; the Black Staircase, built by Bishop Cosin ; and the kitchen, the gate-house, and other offices. These are grouped round a court very irregular in plan, and not less picturesque in general effect. Durham Castle was the chief residence of the bishops of tho Palatinate, but is now appropriated to the uses of the university, with the exception of the state apartments, which are partly reserved for the bishop and for Her Majesty's judges of assize. The university was opened in 1833 ; an account of it will be found under UNIVERSITIES. Besides the cathedral, Durham has seven parish churches. There are also places of worship for
Roman Catholics, and for various denominations of ProtesPlan of Durham.
tants. The grammar school attached to the cathedral was church was rebuilt by Bishop Carileph, who changed the founded by Henry VIII. in 1541, and possesses eighteen Anglo-Saxon establishment of married priests into a “ king's scholarships," of the annual value of nearly £40 Benedictine abbey.
each. There are also several scholarships and exhibitions The Cathedral.—Carileph's grand Norman church still tenable at the universities. The original school-room is now forms the main part of the cathedral buildings; but used by the university of Durham ; the new buildings are numerous additions have been made from time to time, the beautifully situated to the west of the city, and are very chief of which are—the Galilee or western chapel, of the handsome and commodious, including residences for the Transitional period, the eastern transept or “ Nine Altars" head and second masters, and a school infirmary. Durham and the western towers (Early English), and the central possesses flourishing diocesan training colleges for schooltower (Perpendicular). Decorated and Perpendicular win. masters and schoolmistresses ; and about four miles to the dows have, as is usual in old churches, been freely inserted. west of the city is the great Roman Catholic College called The interior presents the appearance, as Dr Johnson St Cuthbert's College, Ushaw, the present representative of remarked, of “rocky solidity and of indeterminate duration,” | the old college at Douai. and combines, we may add, absolutely perfect proportion The civil corporation of Durham and Framwellgate conin all its original parts with a harmonious magnificence of sists of the mayor, six alderdetail in its massive columns, arches, and stone groining. men, and eighteen councillors, It has recently been thoroughly cleaned, and supplied with with a recorder, a chaplain, much painted glass and very costly modern fittings, includ- and town clerk, two elective ing a now organ built on the largest scale and of fine tone. auditors, and two elective Durham Cathedral, or “ The Abbey,” as old-fashioned assessors. On the passing of residents still call it, has long been celebrated and still the Corporation Act, 5 and 6 maintains its reputation for its choral services, as being at Will. IV. c. 76, the election least equal to any in England in point of musical execution. of the eighteen councillors was This glorious building has been admirably illustrated in vested in the citizens occupyCarter's Plates, and in Billings's Architecture of Durham ing houses and paying poor Cathedral. It is 507 feet in length, by 200 in extreme and other rates. The counbreadth, with a central tower 214 feet in height, and two cillors so elected have to Corporation Seal. smaller ones 138 feet high at the west end. The Galilee choose the six aldermen, and the aldermen and councillors or western chapel was built by Bishop Pudsey between 1153 have the election of the mayor. Four charters (all, except and 1195, and contains the supposed remains of the Vener- the third, preserved in the “ Hutch" at the Guild Hall) able Bedé. In the chapel of the Nine Altars are the have been granted to the city by different bishops of remains of St Cuthbert, brought to light in 1827. The Durham :- the first by Hugh Pudsey, confirmed by Pope cathedral library, formerly the dormitory and refectories of Alexander III., 1179 or 1180; the second by Tobias