« EelmineJätka »
No. of No. of
Thos' we find that, in 201 instances of relationship be- there was no issue. We find four instances of the marriage of a tween the parents of mutes, 85 were in the degree of first congenital deaf mute with an acquired deaf mute, from three of cousins, 63 in that of second, 32 in that of third, 7 in that
which 7 children resulted, one of whom was deaf and dumb. There of fourth, and in 14 they were more remotely related.
were 13 instances of the intermarriage of persons both of whom
were deaf and dumb, and from 12 of these marriages 44 children Dr Bondin, at a meeting of the Academy of Sciences, Paris, resulted, of whom only one was deaf and dumb, and another was noticed the following striking result of such unions :
The grand-parents of the former on the mother's side, "Two brothers in perfect health, and well constituted men,
and a grand-uncle of the father's, were also deaf and dumb. Of 316 had married two sisters, their cousins-german. The elder brother
children resulting from 87 of the afore-mentioned marriages, only
two were deaf and dumb, and one deaf ónly. In a case of the has had several children, one of whom is deaf and dumb.. The intermarriage of congenital deaf mutes, although the husband's other brother has had six children, the first, third, and fifth of parents were second cousins and the wife's also related, and her whom can hear, while the second, fourth, and probably the sixth (an sister deaf and dumb, yet none of the 8 children resulting from the infant) are deaf and dumb."
marriage were in any way afflicted.' The report of Dr S. M. Bemiss of Louisville, Kentucky, that it is much the most common for
the children of deaf and
The Principal of the New York Institution says, “We can show to the American Medical Association on the subject of the dumb parents to possess the faculties of which their parents are influence of marriages of consanguinity on offspring and re- deprived; still, although the offspring may not be defective, they cords the following results of 833 such marriages :- may likely inherit that peculiar taint of constitution by which the
disease will be transmitted to future generations, which is so often Of the 3942 children of those marriages 1134 were defective in one
the case." way or another, viz.,-deaf and dumb, 145; blind, 85;'idiotic, 308; insane, 38; epileptic, 60; scrofulous, 300; and deformed, 98; 883 died Mr Turner, in a paper on Hereditary Deafness, gives the young; and the writer concludes by remarking, "I feel satisfied, following table :however, that my research gave me authority to assume that over 10 per cent of the deaf and dumb, and over 5 per cent of the blind, and nearly 15 per cent. of the idiotic, in our State institutions for subjects of those defects, and throughout the country at large, are the offspring of kindred parents, or of parents themselves the descendants of blood intermarriages.'
One hearing and one
30 15 77 92 congenitally deaf
One incidentally and one Another great cause of deafness is hereditary transmis
congenitally deaf ..... sion. “It has clearly been ascertained,” says Dr Harvey Both congenitally deaf..... 24
57 (On the Ear), “ that the most common cause is a strumous
237 27E and delicate habit of body, generally hereditary."
The subjoined table from the census returns for Ireland in 1871 proves that deaf-muteism is often transmitted by From this it appears that in 86 families with one parent hereditary taint or family peculiarity. The table is divided a congenital deaf mute there were 218 children, of whom into two sections,—the first showing where the disease is 21 were deaf and dumb, or about one-tenth of the whole.
In the 24 families with both parents congenital deaf mutes transmitted by the father, the second by the mother.
there were 57 children, of whom 17 were deaf and dumb, Mute relations on Father's side.
or about one-third of the whole. The proportion of deafmute children of parents both congenitally deaf is thus
more than three times greater than of parents only one of No. of
whom is congenitally deaf. family.
The subjoined table shows the proportion of the families, constituted as above, who had deaf-mute children in
them :One.. 1 Two
1 Three.... Four... 1
1 One hearing and one
One or more deaf
and dumb in 5
9 Mute relations on Mother's side.
The proportion of families having one congenitally deaf parent, with at least one deaf-mute child, is about one-tenth
of the whole, while the proportion of the families having Mother. Onde. Aunt. Cousin. Total femily
both parents congenitally deaf with a deaf-mute child or children is more than one-third of the whole. The above
tables show the amount of deafness transmitted by the
67 marriage of one congenitally deaf with one bearing person. Two...
The cases of deafness resulting therefrom are only oneThree.. Four un
tenth of the whole, whereas those from the intermarriage of 2
deaf mutes are about one-third. Similar results could be obtained from reports of many of the institutions, but from what has already been stated on this cause of deafness, it
appears that, while there is sufficient reason to justify the The Commissioners' Report is as follows:
prohibition of the intermarriage of deaf mutes, the excep“Although it has been shown that muteism is transmitted by tional cases of deaf mute offspring as the result of unions hereditary taint, yet it very seldom descends directly from the parent to the offspring, which is manifest from the following results
of deaf mutes with hearing persons would not justify interof the inquiry made respecting the marriage state of the congenitally ference in such marriages. deaf. After a minute investigation of this subject, we find 115 History of Instruction.-In early times, it was an opinion instances, 77 males and 38 females, of the marriages of congenital maintained, even by philosophers, that the education of the instances we ascertained that only one of the parties was congenitally deaf and dumb was not possible
. It was then believed deaf, and that 264 children, none of whom were deaf and dumb, that language could only be acquired through the medium resulted from 87 sach marriages ; in the remaining 14 instances of the ear. The couplet of Lucretius is well known
19 19 Total.
"To instruct the dt af vo art could ever reach,
years before Dr Wallis's valuable and able work had No care improve them. and oo wisdom teach."
appeared. In the year 1669, some years after Dr Fallis's Parents, insnericed log this belief. allowed their children to writings and practice of instructing the deaf and dumb grow nji without culture. They were ahaudoued to them had been known, Dr W. Holder, rector of Bletchinginn, Belves, and exiled from the conınınuity of rational beings. published & work eutitled Elements of Speech, with an To such à culpable extent was this prejuilice carried, that appendix concerning Persons Deaf and Dumb: in 1670 it has been the practice in suine couutries to destroy George Sibscote issued a T'rerilise concerning those who ure children who rewained at three years of age incapable of Rorn Deaf and Dunb; and in the year 1680 George either hearing or speaking, and by the code of Justinian Dalgarno, a native of Aberdeen, published an able and deaf mutes are declareil to be incapable of civil philosophical work, under the title of Didascalocophus, acts. In 'Frauce, the very birth of such children was or the Deaf and Dumb Mun's Tulor, which was repriuled accounted a sort of disgrace to the family from which some years ago by the Maitland Club. This last-named they sprang, and the duties of humauity were deemed work is considered by Professor Porter as
one of the to extend no further in their behall than to the most remarkable and important productions in the lule maiutenance of their auimal existeuce, while they were history of the art.” To an early work of bis, entitled carefully secludel from the eyes of the world either within Ars Šiynorum, buth Bishop Wilkius and Dr Tallis wero the walls of the cluister or in some bidden asylum in the indebted, but they never unentivu lis name. This incountry. Abandoned thus early to their fate, and regarded generous silence unfavourably contrasts with Leibuitz's as little better than idiots, it is not surprising that their frequent commendation of the work. Above all others, future behaviour should have been such as might seem to John Conrad Animan, a Swiss physician living at Amsterjustify the erroneous views which had prompted this un- dam, distinguished himself by liis ingcuivlis and successful generous treatment. The progress in the art of instructing method of teaching ti.e deaf and dumb to speak. He the deal and dumb was in consequence greatly retarded; reduced the work to a fixed art or wethod, which he attempts to instruct them were scarcely known, and no published in his Surdus Loquens, 1692, whereof an school was estal·lished till the middle of the 18th cen- English translation was afterwards published by Daniel tury. In the 4th century, St Augustine, influenced by the Fout. dictum of Aristotle, expresses ḥis ipfavourable opinion In France the work of teaching the deaf and dumb was respecting their ability to obtain any religious knowledge, late in receiving the attention it deserved, in consequence remarking, “ that deafness from birth makes faith impos- of the still prevalent doubt as to its practicability, althongh sible, since he who is burn deaf cau neither hear the word many instances of success in other countries were generally nor learn to read it." But in this enlightened age it has known. It was not till about the middle of the 17th been fully poruved that the neglect and forgetfulness to century that the subject was taken up with any interest. wlrich these oulcasts were forinerly consigned were founded | Vanin, a Father of the Christian Doctrine, made some op very mistaken notions of their mental capacities. attempts to alleviate the condition of the deaf and dumb,
The first instance of a deaf mute being instructed is but his work was cut short by death. After him came mentioned by Bede in 686. No other case is met with Ernaud, Rodriguez Pereira, the Abbé Deschamps, and the till some centuries afterwards. Rodolphus Agricula, of Abbé de l'Épée. In Silesia. at the begiuning of the 18th Heidelberg, who was born in 1442, and died in 1485, century, W. Kerger established his method on the principles makes mention in his De Inventione Dialectica, of an of John C. Amman; and in 1718 George Raphel, a educated deaf mute ; but this instance, and probably others, German, and contemporary with Kerger, published the were discredited on the ground of their impossibility. system he had carried out in the education of three deaf Jerome Cardan, a native of Pavia, born in 1501, took a mutes in his own family. All this interesting work had more pbilosophical view of the subject, and says, "Writ- been accomplished before any public school for the deaf ing 18 associated with speech, and speech with thought, and dumb had been established; and it was not till 1760 but written characters and ideas may be connected without that Abbé de l'Épée started the first school in Paris. the intervention of sounds;" from which he further argues About the same time Thomas Braidwood opened a school that “the instruction of the deaf is difficult, but it is in Edinburgh; and in 1778 Heinicke in Germany founded possible.” It was no duubt this enlightened view that gave another at Leipsic under the patronage of the Governto the education of the deaf and dumb its first and greatest ment, where he pursued the system of articulation and impulse. A Spanish Benedictine monk of the convent of lip reading which forms the basis of instruction in the Sabugun in Spain, named Pedro de Ponce, who was born German schools of the present day. Thomas Braidwood in Valladolid in 1520 and died in 1584, is the first person made himself famous by his remarkable success. нө who is recorded to have instructed the deaf and dumnb and was visited by Dr Johnson when on his tou the taught them to speak. He was fifty-six years old when Hebrides, who expressed himself highly gratified with the Jerome Cardan died, and he had no doubt, from his success in what he considered a great philosophical curiosity. association with Cardau, imbibed his principles. He has, In 1783 Braidwood left Edinburgh and opened & -school however, left no work upon the subject, though it is at Hackney, near London, where he continued his arduous probable that the substance of his method is contained in a duties till 1806, when he died. Two of his sons becamo book of Bonet, secretary to the constable of Castile, printed instructors of the deaf and dumb. A school was opened at Madrid in 1620 under the title of Reduccion de las in Edinburgh by one of them in 1810, and the other letras y artes para enseñar á hablar á los mudos. In the started a school at Birmingham in 1825. In the year time of Bonet the teaching of the deaf and dumb was 1792 the first public school in Great Britain for the grabecomiug more general and was entered upon by several tuitous education of the deaf and dumb was opened in persons, both in Italy and in England. Dr John Bermondsey, London, of which Dr Watson, the nephew of Bulwer, an English physician, and Dr Wallis, professor of Thomas Braidwood, was for thirty-seven years the head mathematics in the university of Oxford, were both engaged instructor. Since the above date (1792) schools have been in the work in England aber:t the same time, though it is established in many of the princival towns of Europe and not accurately known to whom the honour of being its | America. priine mover is due. The former published a treatise Methods of Instruction. All the institutions and schools pa the education of the deaf and dumb .in 1648, several for the education of the deaf and dumb employ one or other of the two following methods (1) that in which the sign | been found "as impracticable to make the change as to language and manual alphabet form the basis of instruction, substitute articulation and lip reading. Signs to the with articulation and lip reading to a greater or less extent, educated deaf and dumb should be as crutches to the bat, as a rule, only for the semi-mute, semi-deat, and those halt— to be used only when occasion requires,—otherwise of the congenitally deaf of good capacities, and who show their constant use will tend to enfeeble rather than an aptitpde for it; and (2) that in which articnlation and lip strengthen the intellect. In the sixth report of the reading form the basis of instruction, and the sign language American Asylum at Hartford, Connecticut, the following and the manual alphabet are used more or less as a means is given as an answer of a deaf mute to the question, to the end. The former is the more general, and is carried “Which do you consider preferable—the language of out in all the schools of the United Kingdom (although in speech or of signs ?”the London Asylum articulation and lip reading are professedly and systematically taught to every pupil), in America, language of signs is capable of to give me elucidation and under.
"] consider to prefer the language of signs best of it, because the and in some of the Continental schools. The latter is the standing well. I am fond of talking with the deaf and dumb one chiefly employed in the German and Austrian schools, quickly, without having the troubles of the voice : therefore the and is followed in one or two private schools in London.
langriage of signs is more still and calm than the language of The signs in use in all schools are of two kinds—the speech, which is full of falsehood and trouble." natural, and the conventional or arbitrary. The former are
The Abbé de l'Épée, to whom teachers of mutes are greatly those with which all deaf mutes are familiar before coming indebted for the methodical and ingenious system of signs, to school, and which they use in ordinary intercourse with altogether mistook their function as a means of educating their friends. The latter are chosen and systematized by the deaf and dumb and in consequence his method failed the teachers of the several schools, and, in combination with entirely. He gave to each word its peculiar and appropriate the natural signs, are employed to convey ideas of a complex gesture in the natural order of the language; and by the nature. Every action, the visible part of which can be intervention of these gestures he succeeded in enabling imitated by gesture, admits easily of being so expressed, as his pupils to transcribe whole pages of the most abstract the action of eating by lifting the hand to the mouth disquisitions. The substance and diction of these, how. followed by the motion of the jaws, and of sleeping by ever, were not theirs but his own, and, of course, the closing the eyes and reclining the head ; the expression of gestures, which they had mechanically associated with different passions, of approbation or disapprobation, of sur- certain characters, conveyed to them no notion of the real prize, curiosity, &c., may all be signified very intelligibly signification of those characters. Notwithstanding the by modifications of the countenance. “It is in this simple radical and glaring defects of De l'Épée's method, which manner," observes Dr Watson, “that two or more deaf could have had no utility to those who followed it, the persons are enabled to bold instant converse with each other ostentatious display he made (which was of a nature though brought together from the most distant parts." particularly calculated to impose upon superficial observers) Thus far these signs may be termed natural, but the excited the astonishment and applause of a host of spectanaturally deaf do not stop with this language of pantomime. tors; and, being seconded by the impulse of his religious When they are fortunate enough to meet with attentive zeal and beneficent character, it soon raised him to a high eompanions, especially where two or more deaf persons degree of reputation. His fame spread all over Europe, happen to be brought up together, it is astonishing what and his lectures and exhibitions attracted everywhere approaches they will make towards the construction of an crowds of enthusiastic admirers. Some, however, saw artificial language. By an arbitrary sign fixed by common through the delusion. At a public exhibition of the pupils consent, or accidentally hit upon, they will designate a of the Abbé Storck, who were taught according to this person, place, or thing, and this sign is ever after used by method at Vienna, Nicolai, an Academician of Berlin, prothem as a proper name. It is impossible to give a verbal posed to the Abbé to require one of his pupils to describe description oi those signs, because they are as various in writing the action he was about to perform. The chalas the fancies and circumstances of their inventors. Yet lenge being accepted, the Academician struck his breast being grafted on the parent stock of natural and universal with his hand, upon which the deaf and dumb boy wrote signs, they may in some measure be regarded as dif- the words, "hand, breast.” Nicolai withdrew satisfied ferent dialects of the same language. But since it would with this proof of total failure. It was evident that, be impossible by means of natural signs alone to convey notwithstanding their apparent knowledge and their quickto the minds of the deaf aná dumb ideas of a complex ness in writing down any question together with its nature, recourse must be bad to that system of signs answer, both had been equally dictated by their master, known as conventional or arbitrary, These signs have in the same language of gesture, but without any corre been extended and systematized on natural and philo sponding ideas or the exertion of any intellectual faculty, sophical principles by the several teachers of the deaf and except that of memory. They were utterly incapable of dumb, and they differ in degree in all schools. It would composing a single sentence of their own. accord; and be impracticable to maintain the same system of signs it was found, accordingly, that their spontaneous answers throughout, even should such be desirable, but it is of the to questions were limited to the monosyllables yes and utmost importance that those in use in each school should no, of which it iis even doubtful whether they fully be so cultivated as to prevent any confusion of ideas by the understood the meaning. The proper method by which improper use of them. It is by their aid chiefly that the pupils' knowledge of the construetion of language can all instruction is carried on, and, as used by missionaries be tested is by dictating the lesson in the sign language in for the deaf and dumb, they are remarkably serviceable, the manner in which deaf mutes themselves use it, without there being always to be found, in an assembly of deaf any regard to logical or grammatical distinctions. Most mutes, many whose minds cannot be reached by any other pupils after a few months instruction will be able
Attempts are often made in the institutions to write down a very fair piece of composition if for the deaf and dumb to dispense with signs, and to use dictated by the method as employed by the Abbés de l'Epés the mangal alphabet alone after the pupils have acquired and Storck, but without understanding its meaning. The a certain proficiency in language. Althongh this would following instance will at once explain the way in which prove of immense educational advantage, attachment to the sign language is employed by the teachers, and used the natural language of signs is so strong that it has always amongst the deaf and dumb themselves
Let it be supposed that a girl lal been seen ing a deaf mute properly instructed converse with the utmost rapidity by child to drop a cup of milk which she was carrying home. He this method ; habit enables them to follow with the eye would relate the incident in the following order of sign words. Saw.l. girl-walk-cup-milk.carro-home-drop). This mode of dictating is the only sure road to the acquisition of language by those who have nothing but the natural language of gesture and feature to assist them.
The value of the language of signs is well expressed by the principal of the Ohio Institution for the Deaf and Dumb, who says :
“The use of good scaffolding must attend the crection of every building. As scaffolding in architecture so is the sigu language in deaf mute education, and only tytos in architecture or education would dispense with either. The riper the experience the deeper the conviction comes of the necessity ard usefulness of the sign langriage, and in its rise we find the corner stone of all deaf mute institutions. The cultivation of it and its effective use is the only reculiar, althongh not the chief qualification of the teacher. He will teach written language by the sign, saying aside the latter as soon as the ready use of the former has been secured. It is not necessary to descant upon the beauty, the grace, or the power of the sigp language. The mute has no other, and the teacher must use and improve it as best he may."
The first lesson in which the pupils are instructed on their entrance into school is the mode of visible communi2:ation known as the finger or manual alphabet. There are two kinds of this,—the doubled-handed alphabet, where the letters are expressed by the dispositions of the fingers
Z of both hands, and the single-handed, in which the letters are formed with the fingers of one hand. It is supposed that the former was derived from a finger-alphabet which appeared in a work by Dalgarno; and the latter is said to have been invented in Spain, and appears to have been published in a work by Bonet to which the Abbé de l'Epća
The Single-handed Alphabet, as used in the American and Contio
nental schools, and also in one or two English schools. was much indebted.
motions which to others would be too rapid for obserration. They readily catch at the meaning of a word or questivu before it is half spelt.
Articulation. Another very important branch of the education of the deaf and dumb is that system by which deaf mutes are taught to speak and to understand the speech of others by merely watching the motion of the vocal organs. This method is by no means novel, as it bas long been practised in some of the schools in England, and the earliest attempts to teach the deaf and dumb to speak appear to have been as successful as those in moren times. We learn from the Venerable Bede's Eclesiastical History (quoted by the Abbé Carton in his Annwal of the Deaf and Dumb and Blind) that a deaf man was taught to pronounce words and sentences by John, bishop of llagulstadt (Hexham), in the year 685 ; and from that tiine se meet with only isolated cases, till the latter part of the 18th century, when Samuel Heinicke established a school where this system formed the basis of instruction,
It would at first sight appear scarcely credible that a person, without the guidance of the sense of hearing, would be able, merely by watching the position and actions of the organs of the voice, to utter articulate sowils, with any tolerable perfection. Experience, however, has shown that this accomplishment, though laborious and tedious of acquisition, is not attended with extreme difficulty. Great patience, perseverauce, and kindness are qualificativos
necessary on the part of the teacher to ensure success in The Double-banded Alphabet, as in use in most of the schools
ordinary cases, and the degree of success will greatly depend for the deaf aud dumb in England.
upon the number of children among whom the teacher has
to divide his attention. A wide difference niust ever be Talking with the fingers is an art easily acquired and perceptible between the speech of the deaf and those who retained, or recovered if lost, and it furnishes a ready sub- hear. This artificial speech is laborious and constrained. stitute for pen or pencil ; but it must not be forgotten by It frequently conveys the idea of pain as well as effurt, and those familiar with it that the extent to which the deaf as it cannot be regulated by the ear of the speaker, it is mute will be able to understand any commuication will often too loud, and generally monotonous, barsh, aud disdepend entirely upon the state of his education, or upon cordant. It is often from this cause scarcely intelligible his knowledge of language. The deaf and dumb when except to those who are accustomed to its tones, The
system of articulation and lip reading prevails in the Ger- | words, written or articnlate. Wo who hear consider wonls chiefly
as sound; the deaf who have learned to speak consider them man and other Continental schools, where this art has been cultivated with greater success than in England, which languages to them a sort of tangible
, which is of vast must be attributed to the adaptability of the German importance both as respects its retention in the memory, and one language to this peculiar mode of acquiring speech ; the of its most important uses, the excitation of ideas in their own decision of this question, as far as it concerns any necessary to articulate speech by those who are dumb through particular individual, must, however, depend in a great
want of hearing, would be well bestowed, even if their speech were measure on peculiar circumstances, such as condition in life not intelligible to others.” and future destination, &c. Children congenitally deaf, of In America oral teaching is now receiving much attengood capacity, with a well-toned voice, can make surpriz tion. It has been introduced into several of the existing ing progress in the hands of private tutors; but the limited institutions, and two or three schools have been established success which has attended this method of instruction with in which the German system is exclusively carried out, numbers has not induced teachers to introduce it generally and in order to facilitate the acquisition of articulate speech, into large institutions, but rather to restrict it to special the ingenious method called "Visible Speech,” invented by cases. Most of the German teachers consider that arti- Mr Melville Bell, has been introduced.1 In England, algo, culation is necessary for the acquisition of thought, and there are several ardent advocates of the oral system. can be successfully taught to the majority of the deaf and
Time of School Attendance. --After the foregoing sketch domb ; but most teachers of experience in England hold and criticism of the different methods which have been quite the opposite opinion, and teach it only to the semi- adopted for the education of the deaf and dumb, it is mute and semi-deaf. This subject continues to be much natural to inquire what general end in their education is disputed, and the question, whether or not it should form proposed by teachers, and what principal aims in conformity a part of the course of the education of the deaf and with that end should be regarded. Obviously the fundadomb, and, if so, to what extent, is still keenly dis- mental object should be to qualify the pupils to hold ready cussed. The American institutions have sent over to communication with persons who, having the faculties of Europe from time to time some of their most distinguished hearing and speech, employ the current language of the instructors to investigate the methods carriesi
. on in the country for the purposes of mutual intercourse. They English aad Continental schools. They made most minute must above all things be taught the use of ordinary examinations of the different systems, and were somewhat language, both as an instrument for expressing their own disappointed to find that the German system so-called did thoughts and for understanding those of others. This not possess such advantages over theirs, or the French qualification, it is evidert, is absolutely necessary to their system, as they had been led to expect. Mr Gallaudet, in becoming members of that community from which by his report to the board of directors of the Columba Insti- nature they would have been excluded, and to which it is tution for the Deaf and Damb, says "Nothing in my our chief aim to restore them.2 Teachers are not agreed foreign investigations has led me to question the character as to the age at which the deaf and dumb should comof the foundation on which the system of instruction pur- mence their education with the greatest benefit, nor sued in our American institutions is based. It is plainly yet as to the term required for school attendance. It is evident, from what is seen in the articulating schools of the opinion of some that infant schools for the deaf and Europe and from the candid opinions of the best instruc- dumb would prove of immense advantage in compentors, that oral language cannot, in the fullest sense of the sating for the extra length of time requisite to acquire anyterm, be mastered by a majority of deaf mutes.” The fol- thing like a perfect knowledge of the English language, lowing is the opinion of the Rev. George Day “As à but others are strongly opposed to these for social, physical, regular part of a system of public instruction, its introduc- and intellectual reasons, ---socially, as it tends to alienate the tion into our institutions, i am persuaded, would be a children from their parents ; physically, as being naturally serious misfortune.” Mr Hawkins (for many years a of delicate constitutions they require the years of childhood teacher in the London school), who may be said, in this to be invigorated, and so to be fitted to undergo the strain connection, to represent the consensus of English authori- of a regular and systematic course of instruction; and ties, says :-“Scarcely more than one in thirty attains intellectually, as it has been found by experience that anything approaching success.”
children of an early age have not that power of compreThe experience of Dr Watson, for many years principal hension or memory to enable them to advance with satisof the London Asylum, is decidedly in favour of its utility. faction. Doubtless, they would benefit somewhat by In support of his opinion he states the following argu- coming to a school for the deaf and dumb for a short
, time ment, which must doubtless be allowed to have some daily;
but ae the deaf-mute population is so scattered, very weight :
few would be able to avail themselves of such a privilege. * The more numerous are the means of observation, the more per: The only available remedy would be their attendance at the recurrence of words and their corresponding ideas to the mind. ordinary schools for a stated time daily, where they would Thus, persons who can hear, speak, read, and write retain a be disciplined and taught—the girls to sew, knit, and discourse much better, and have far greater facility in expressing write, and the boys to write and draw. By this suggestion themselves, than persons who possess only two of these faculties, it is not meant to affirm the possibility of educating deaf that is, illiterate persons, who can hear and speak, but who cannot read or write. Now, as deaf and dumb persons educated without mutes along with hearing children. The plan has been articulatioa can only have two of the means, viz., the third and tried but has not been successful. The constant observation the fourth, that is, the impressions made upon the eye by characters of the deaf mutes of the superiority of others over them and the action of the hand in writing, can it be questioned that we tends to dishearten and depress them, and as they are at render them an essential service by adding the actions of the organs of speech, a very powerful auxiliary, since by it words become, as * Mr Bell has also invented an instrument called a Phonautograph, it were, a part of ourselves, and more immediately affect us! In which he says has been found useful for educational purposes, as was learning the promunciation of letters, a very important operation demonstrated by a young deaf and dumb pupil from the Boston insti. is going on in the mind of a deaf persun, namely, the association and understanding of the figures of written or printed character $ " Most institutions experience some difficulty in securing and then with certain movements or actions of the organs of speech. The retaining able and efficient teachers, as the sphere of labour in the profes very habit of regarding the one as the representative of the other sion is so circumscribed and the salaries offered are far frum being an paves the way for considering combinations of those actions or equivalent remuneration for the sacrifice of brighter prospects and the characters, as the sign of things or ideas—that is, significant depressing infuence of the work."