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Prussia conferred upon him the honorary title of a privycouncillor. In 1308 he obtained the degree of doctor in divinity, which was given him as a reward for his theological writings. He died January 6, 1809.

Eberhard's attainments in philosophy and literature were extensive and profound. He was master of the learned languages, spoke and wrote French with facility and correctness, and understood English, Italian, and Dutch. He bad read a great deal, was thoroughly versed in the philosophical sciences, and possessed a just and discriminating taste for the fine arts. He was a great lover of music, and was himself a proficient in the art.

The following is a list of his works:—Neui Apologie del Soerata, &c., 2 vols. 8to, 1772-8; Allgcmcinc Theoru da Dmkens und limpfindens, fcc., Berlin, 1776, 8vo, an essay which gained the prize assigned by the Royal 8ociety of Berlin for that year j Von dem Bcgriff dcr Philosophic und ihren Thcilcn, Berlin, 1778, 8vo,—a short essay, in which he announced the plan of his lectures on being appointed to the professorship at Halle j Lohschr\ft auf JTerrn Johann Thunmann Prof, der Wcltweithcit und Bcrcdsambit auf der Univcrsiltit Iu Halle, Halle 1779, Svo ; Amynlor, tine Oetchichte in Brieftn, Berlin, 1782, 8vo,—written with the view of counteracting the influence of those sceptical and Epicurean principles in religion and morals then so prevalent in France, and rapidly spreading amongst the higher ranka in Germany; Veber die Zeiclicn der Aufklarung einer nation, &c, Halle, 1783, 8vo; Theorie der Schbncn KunsU und WissenschafUn, &c, Halle, 1783, 8vo, 3d ed. 1790; Vcrmischte SchrifUn, Halle, 1784 ; Keue Vermischte Schriften, lb. 1786 ; Allgemcine Oetchichte der Philosophic, He., Halle, 1788, 8vo; 2d ed. with a continuation and chronological tables, 1790; Vertuch einer Allgemeinen-Deutachen Synonymik, &c. Halle and Leipsic, 1795-1802, 6 vols. 8vo, long reckoned the best work on the synonyms of the German language (an abridgment of it was published by the author in one large volume 8vo, Halle, 1802); Handbuch der Aesthcttk, Sc.. Halle, 1803-1805, 4 vols. 8vo. Besides the works above mentioned, Eberhard contributed a number of small tracts and essays to rarioua periodical and scientific publications, and translated several foreign works. He was also the editor of the Philosophical Magazine, Halle, 17881792, and of the Philosophical Archives, Halle, 1793-1795. These two periodical works, which are now little read, were instituted for the purpose of controverting the metaphysical principles of Kant, and of vindicating the doctrines of Leibnitz and Wolf. Frederick Nicolat published a memoir on the life and character of Eberhard, Berlin and Stettin, 1810, 8ro. See also K. H. Jordens, Lexicon Jkuttcher Dichter und Prosaieten.

EBEBT, Feiedbich Adolf (1791-1834), a very eminent bibliographer, was born at Taucha, near Leipsic, July 9, 1791. He received his early education partly from his father, preacher to the Georgenhaus at Leipsic, and partly at the Nicholas School At the age of fifteen he was appointed to a subordinate post in the town library of Leipsic, in which his literary tastes, early awakened, were fostered and strengthened.' He studied theology for a short time, first at Leipsic and afterwards at Wittenberg, but, by the advice of a friend, renounced it in favour of history. After the close of his academical studies, he mode his appearance as an author by the publication in 1811 of a work on public libraries, and in 1812 of another work entitled Uicrarchice in religionem ac literal commoda. In the following year he took part in the reorganization of the Leipsic University Library, and in 1814 was appointed secretary to tlie Royal Public Library of Dresden. The same year he published F. Taubmann'tLeben und Verdienstc, nndin 1819 Torquato Tcutora translation from Ginguend with annotations. Anxious to- tarn to good account the rich resources open to him in the Dresden library, he undertook the work on which his reputation chiefly rests,, the Allgemeinet bibliographische Lexikon, the first volume of which appeared in 1821, and the second in 1830. This was the first work of the kind produced in Germany; but nevertheless it had a higher aim and a more scientific character than its non-German precursors. In 1823 Ebert was called to the post of chief librarian and professor at Breslau, and at the same time was offered that of librarian to the duke of Brunswick at WolfenbiitteL He accepted

the latter. Bat early in 1825 he returned to Dresden as

public librarian; he was soon after named private librarian to the king, and in 1828 chief librarian and anlio councillor. Among his other works are—Die Bildung da JBibliothckars (1820), Gescldclde und Saehreihung der JCuniglichcn offcntlichen Bibliolluk in Druden (1822), Zur Handschriftenkunde (1825-27), and Culturperioden da obersdchsuchai MitlelaUert (1825). Ebert was a contributor to various journals and encyclopedias, and took part in the editing of Ersch and Gruber's great work. He died at Dresden, November 13, 1834, in consequence of a fall from the ladder in his library a few djys before.

EBINGEN, a town of Wiirtemberg, in the circle of the Schwarzwald, on the Schmieha, a left-hand tributary of the Danube, 22 miles south of Tubingen and 37 miles west of Ulm. It has rather more than 5000 inhabitants, who are engaged in woollen-weaving, stocking-weaving, hat-making, bleaching, and cattle-dealing.

EBIONITES, a Christian sect which was separated from the general Christian church about the end of the 2d century. The origin of the name has been much disputed, some deriving it from Ebion as the founder of the sect, and others from the Hebrew word (P*?V) meaning poor. For the former opinion the authority of Tertullian is quoted, who makes references to the existence of such a person as Ebion; but as counterbalancing these references there has to be considered—lit, that Tertullian being careless and inaccurate, and having no knowledge of Hebrew, may have merely fallen into the error of assuming that the sect took its name from that of a person; 2d, that no mention is made of the existence of such a pcrsou either by Irencua or by Origen, and tltat any references to him byEpiphanius and later writers are probably borrowed from Tertullian; and 3d, that the name Ebionites had a very general signification, and represented a natural Judaizing tendency which must have liad a more comprehensive beginning than tint originating in an individual influence. Those who derive the namo from the Hebrew word explain it in two ways— as applicable either to the poverty of the doctrines of the Ebionites, or to the poverty of their circumstances. Undoubtedly the name was applied to them with the former significance by their enemies, but it is more probable that they employed in a bad sense a name already existing, than that they coined it to suit their purpose. That the term was originally applied to the circumstances of the Ebionites seems the only probable supposition; and the argument in support of it may be stated thus:—That the early Christians, both Jewish and heathen, were designated the poor; tltat the poverty of the Jewish Christians continued longer than that of the heathen Christians, and Origen states that they in particular were named the poor (E/3uuvau» Xpijfumitowru' ol &irb TovSouon' T6k "Ii/o-ow Ws Xpurrov wapaScfriiitvoi); and that, as the Judaizing Christians came gradually to be the only Jewish Christians who required to be distinguished from the heathen Christians, they retained the name. The fathers show a very imperfect knowledge of the origin, history, and doctrines of the Ebionites, but there cannot be any doubt that at first all Judaizing Christians went under that name. In the New Testament there is evidence of the existence of such a party, though it had not then developed into a recognized Beet This apparently did not happen till after the second destruction of Jerusalem and the founding of the heathen colony of £\in Capitolina, when the emperor Hadrian banished from the neighbourhood all Jews who still retained their national peculiarities. As to the particular opinions of the Ebionites the statements of the fathers are somewhat contradictory, and this for the threefold reason—that by the isolation of the Ebionites from the general church the information obtainable regarding them could only be imperfect; that under

the general name Kotonites a good many varieties of opinion are included; and that tbeir opinions varied at different periods of their history. The term Ebionites is used by some writers to include the Nazarenes, who, while recognizing the binding obligation of the Mosaic law on all Jews, did not regard it as binding on heathen Christians (see Nazarenes); but at an early period the stricter Ebionites must have separated themselves from the Nazarenes, who soon became merged in the general church. Of Ebionites proper Origen distinguishes two classes—those who affirm and those who deny the miraculous birth of Jesus; and in this he is followed by Eusebius. The extreme Ebionites, according to Origen, were only distinguishable from common Jews by the acceptance of tho moral teaching of Christ; while those Ebionites who admitted the miraculous birth of Christ did not recognize His divinity proper, but believed that with His human nature the spirit of an angel or archangel, or even of Adam, was incorporated. Both classes of Ebionites seem to have had these points in common:—1st, They emphasized the unity of God; 2d, they affirmed the universal obligation of the Mosaic economy; 3d, of the books of the New Testament they received as genuine only the gospel of St Matthew; 4th, they denounced St Paul as a separatist; and 5th, they believed that Jerusalem was yet to bo the city of Ood, and some of them at least believed in Christ's millennial reign. In the time of Eusebius the Ebionites inhabited chiefly the coasts of the Dead Sea, but they dwelt also in Borne and Cyprus. They vanished from history in the end of the 4th or beginning of the Sth century.

The ancient authorities on the Ebionites are Ireuaraa, Hyppolytua, £uaebius, Tertullion, Origen, and Theodoret la modern literature there are—Gieseler, in St&udlin und Ttsehirner's Archie far diltere und neuere Kirchengeechichte, vol. ii. Leipaic, 1820; Credner in Winer*e ZciUchrift filr vnseenechafll. Theologie, Suizbach, 1829; Baur, l)t Ebionilarum origin* et doctrina ab Essais repetenda {Tubinger Osterprogramm ton 1831); Hilgenfeld, Vie Clemenlinischen Becogniiionen, Jena, 1848; the article "Ebjoniten" in Herzog's Real Encyclopadie; and Mausel's Gnottic Uertsits of the First and Second Centuries, London, 1875.

EBOLT, or Evoli, a town of Italy, in the province -of Frincipato Citeriore and district of Campagna, situated about thirteen miles from Salemo, on an elevated site commanding a fine prospect over land and sea. It has an ancient castle belonging to the princes of Angri, and its church of St Francis of Assist contains a curious picture of the Crucifixion by Boberto di Oderisio. Between the town and the Silarus or Sele are the ruins of the ancient Eburi, a place of municipal rank; and the river is still spanned by a bridge of fino Boman construction. Population, 8947.

EBONS' (e/3cwx), the wood of various species of trees of the genus Dioepyrot and natural order Ebenaceae, found in the tropical parts of Asia and America. The best kinds are very heavy, are of a deep black, and consist of heartwood only. On account of its colour, durability, hardness, and susceptibility of polish, ebony is much used for cabinet work and inlaying, and for the manufacture of pianoforte keys, knife-handles, and turned articles. Ciylon ebony is furnished by D. Ebenum, which grows in great abundance throughout the fiat country west of Trincomalee. The tree is distinguished from others by the inferior width of Jts trunk, and its jet-black, charred-looking bark, beneath which the wood is perfectly white until the heart is reached (See Baker, Eight Ytari Wanderingt in Ceylon, p. 293, 1855). The wood is stated by Sir J. E. Tennent to excel that obtained from D. recticulata of the Mauritius and all other varieties of ebony in the fineness and intensity of its dark colour. Although the centre of the trees alone is employed, reduced logs 1 to 3 feet in diameter can readily

be procured. Much of the East Indian ebony is yielded by the species D. Mdanoxylon, a large tree 8 to 10 feet in circumference, with irregular rigid branches; oblong or oblong-lanceolate, entire leaves ; white flowers, having a 5« cleft calyx; and a round, pulpy berry, containing 2-8 seeds. -The bark of the tree is astringent, and mixed with pepper i3 used in dysentery by the natives of India. The wood of D. Ebencuter, the species called by the Singhalese Cadooberia, is black, with rich brown stripes; it is not so durable' and heavy as the true ebonies. That of D. tomentota, a native of North Bengal, is black, hard, and of great weight. D. montana, another Indian species, produces a dark wood, variegated with white-coloured veins. D. quanta is the tree from which is obtained the wood known in Ceylon by the name Calamander, derived by Pridham from the Singhalee kalu-miiidru, black-flowing. Its closeness of grain, great hardness, and fine hazel-brown colour, mottled and striped with black, render it a valuable material for veneering and furniture-making. CochinChina ebony is believed to be the wood of a species of Maba, a genus of Ebenacea. What is termed Jamaica or _ West Indian «bony and profcably also the green ebony of commerce Are produced by Brya Ebenut, a leguminous tree or shrub, having a trunk rarely more than 4 inches in diameter, flexible spiny branches, and orange-yellow, sweetscented flowers. The wood is greenish-brown in colour, heavier than water, exceedingly hard, and capable of receiving a high polish.

From the book of Ezekiel (xxvii. 15) we learn that ebony was among the articles of merchandise brought to Tyre; and Herodotus states (iii. 97) that the Ethiopians every three years sent a tribute of 200 logs of it to Persia. Ebony was known to Virgil as a product of India (Qeor., ii. 116), and was displayed by Pompey the Qreat in his Mithridatic triumph at Borne. By the ancients it was esteemed of equal value for durability with the cypress and cedar (see Pliny, Nat. Mitt., iii. 9, xvL 79). According to Solinus (Polyhittor, cap. lv. p. 353, Paris, 1621), it was employed by the kings of India for sceptres and images, also, on account of its supposed antagonism to poison, for drinking-cups. The hardness and black colour of the wood appear to have given rise to the tradition related by Pausanius, and alluded to by Southey in Thalaba, i. 22, that the ebony tree produced neither leaves nor fruit, and was never seen exposed to the sun.

EBRO (in Latin Iberut), the principal river of Spain, rises in the Cantabrian Mountains, near Beinosa, in the province of Santander, flows in a general south-east direction through Old Castile, Navarre, Aragon, and Catalonia, and falls into the Mediterranean about 80 miles south-west of Barcelona, in 40' 41' N. lat and 0* 50' E. long., forming by its delta a very considerable excrescence on the otherwise regular outline of the coast. It has a total length of about 340 miles, and its drainage area is calculated at 31,445 square miles. Already a noble stream when it breaks through the pass of Horadada, it becomes navigable about Tudela; but its value as a means of communication is almost neutralized by the obstacles in its channel, and seafaring vessels cannot proceed further up than Tortosa. The great Imperial Canal, commenced by the emperor Charles V., proceeds along the right bank of the river from a point about three miles below Tudela, to the monastery of Monte Terero, five miles below Saragossa; and the San Carlos Canal affords direct communication between Amposta at the head of the delta and the harbour of Los Alfaques. The principal tributaries of the Ebro are—from the right hand the Jalon with its affluent the Jiloca, the Huerva, tho Aguas, the Martin, and the Guadalope; from the left the Aragon, the Oallago, and the Segre with its elaborate system of confluent rivers.

'6CARTE (French, icarli, separated, discarded), a game at cards, of modern origin, probably first played in the Faiis salotis, in the first quarter of the 19th century. It is a development of a very old card game called la triomphe, or French-ruff (Aisdemie des Jeux, various editions; Cotton and Seymour, Compleat Gamester, various editions; and Paul Boiteau D'Ambly, La Carta a jouer, Paris, Hachette, 1854).

£carte is generally played by two persons, but a pool of three may be formed, the player who is out taking the place of the laser, and the winner of two consecutive games winning the pooL At French tarte" (but not at English) bystanders who are betting may advise the players, by pointing to the cards they desire them to play, and the loser of the game goes out and one of the rentraiU* takes his place, unless the loser is playing la ch&uette (i.e., taking all the bets that are offered), when he.does -not .have to resign his seat if ho loses.

A pack of cards is used from which the small cards (rrom the two to the six both inclusive) are removed. The players cut for deal, the highest having the choice. The dealer gives five cards to his adversary and five to himself, Dy two at a time to each and by three at a time to each, or vice versa. The eleventh card is turned up for trumps. If it is a king, the dealer scores one.

The non-dealer then looks at his cards If satisfied with them he plays, and there is no discarding; if not satisfied he proposes. The dealer may either accept or refuse, 11 he accepts each player discards face downwards as many cards as he thinks fit, and fresh ones are given from the nndealt cards or stock, first to complete the non-dealer's hand to five, then to complete the dealer's. Similarly, a second proposal may be made, and so on, until one player is satisfied with his hand. If the dealer refuses the hand is played without discarding.

If the non-dealer announces that he holds the king of trumps, he scores one; and similarly, if the dealer holds the king and announces it, he scores one.

The non-dealer, teing satisfied with his hanl, leads a card. The dealer plays a card to it, the two cards thus played forming a trick. The winner of the trick leads to the next, and so on. The highest cord of the suit led wins, the cards ranking king (highest), queen, knave, ace, ten, nine, eight, seven. Trumps win other suits. The second to play to a trick must follow suit if able, and must win the, trick if he can, whether by trumping or otherwise.

The scorns are for the king (as alseady explained), and for the majority of tricks. The player who wins three tricks scores one for the point; if he wins all five tricks, he scores two for the vole. If the non-dealer plays without proposing, or the dealer refuses the first proposal, and fails to win three tricks, the adversary scores two, but no more even if he wins the vole. The game is five up.

Hurra To Playebs.—The following hints, which merely touch on the elements of the play, may be of service to beginners:—

Shuffle thoroughly after every Msl to prevent the cards pocking in suits, otherwise the trump card 1b not unlikely to be of the same suit as those preceding it, wMch are in the dealer's hand. It ia an act of courtesy to the adversary to shuffle your own pock well, to save him the trouble of making your cards.

Do not look at your hand when dealer, until after the non-dealer hxs decided whether he will propose or not. The countenance or manner, often betrays the nature of the band.

Do not announce the king until in the act of playing your first card.

Propose quickly, as hesitation enroaes the nature of the hand. In order to be quick, the hands which should be played without proposing, called jeux dt regie, ought to be thoroughly known. They are as follows:—-_

1. All hands with three trumpr, whatever the other cards.

2. Hands with two trumps whist/ contain

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a. Any three cuds of one plain suit;

b. Two cards of one plain suit, one being as high as a queen;

c Two small cards of one suit, the filth card being a lung of another suit:

<L Hands intermediate between b and c, i.e., with higher cauls in one plain suit, and lower in another, e.g., two trumps, knave, aoo of one suit, and nine or eight of another; or ace, ten of one suit, and ten of another : or ten, nine of one suit, and knave of another;

e. •Three cards of different suits, as high as king, knave, and a small card, or cards of equal value in different suits, as king, ace, nine; or king, and two tens j or two queens; or queen, knave, ace ; or three Knaves.

8. Hands with one trump, which contain also—

a. King, queen, knave of one suit, and a small cord of another;

b\ Four cards of one suit headed by king;.

e. Three cards of one suit headed b other suit.

4. Hands with no frump, which contain three queens or cards of equal value in different suits, e.g., four court cards.

5. Hands from which only two cards can be discarded without .throwing a king or a trump.

Holding cards which make the point certain, propose, as yon have the chance qf a refusal, and one good card taken in may give you the vole. If you hold a jcu de regie, and one of the trumps is the king, it 'is generally right to propose, as your adversary, if he accepts, cannot then take the king. But, except in the case of the king, the value of the trumps does not affect the proposal hand*, as the game is not to lead trumps originally (without the king), unless you have three, but to keep them for trumping, and for this purpose high trumps are no better than low ones.

When discarding, throw out all cards except trumps and kings.

If your adversary proposes you should accept, unk-sj yon are guarded in three suits (a queen being a sufficient guard), or in two suits with a 'trump, or in one suit with two trumps. Hence the rule not to discard two cards, unless holding the king of tramjM, applies to the dealer.

The hands with which to refuse are the same as those with which to play without proposing, except ss follows:—

1. Two trumps and three cards of one plain suit should not be played unless the plain suit is headed by a court card.

2. One trump and a tierce major is too weak, unless the fifth card is a court card. With similar hands weaker in the tierce major suit, accept unless the fifth card is a queen.

8. One trump and four cards of a plain suit is too weak to play.

4. One tram p and two queens is too weak, unless both queens are singly guarded.

t\ One trump, queen' of one suit, snd knave gnsrded of snolb*r should not be played unless the queen is also guarded, or the cord of the fourth suit Is a court card.

0. One trump, a king aud a queen, both unguarded, should not be played, unless the fourth suit contains a card as high ss an ace

7. Four court cards without a trump are too weak to play, unless they are of three different suits.

Refuse with .three queens, if two are aingly guarded; otherwise, accept

Lead from your guarded suit, aud lead the highest An exception to this rule is with two sinaH trumps, a guarded queen, and a small card of another suit, when the single card should be led.

When playing a weak hand after a refusal, with no hope tbe point and. fear of losing the vole, lead the strongest single canl, unless yon have a king.

If the strong suit led is not trumped, persevere with it, unless with king of trumps, or queen (king not having been announced), or knave, ace, when lead a trump before continuing your suit. Also, when playing for the vole with a weak tramp and high ... . ^ made

three tricks, then lead the trump.

cards, change the suit esch time to avoid a ruff. Having: "ren tricks, then lead the trump.

You should not lead trumps at starting, even if your bestsrit, unless you hold king, or queen, knave, or knave, ace, with court cards out of trumps. Holding three trumps, the two beet being in sequence, lead a trump.

If cards are refused, it is better to lead from two small cards \n sequence, than from a high tenace.

If you have won two tricks, your opponent one, and you hold a trump and a plain card, lead the plain card ; but if your adversary has won two tricks and you win the third, lead the trump.

If you make two tricks and have the queen and two small t (the king having been .announced against you), by leading a a trump you must win the point

The score has to be considered. K the dealer is at four, and the king is not in your hand nor turned up, play any cards without proposing which give in even chance of three tricks, e.g.. a queen, a guarded knave, and a guarded ten. The same rale applies to the dealer's refusal, but he ought to be protected in three suits, e.g., three knaves, or a knave and two guarded tens. At the sd verse

More of four, and king not being in hand or tamed up, as; lrand with one trump should be played, unless tiie plain cards are very small and of different suits. Further, the rule to ask fur carda with the point certain does not hold at the adverse score of four, unless king is in hand or turned up.

If the non-dealer plays without proposing when he is four to three, and the dealer holds the king he ought not to mark it. The same rule applies to the non-dealer after a refusal, if the dealer is four to three.

At the score of non-dealer three, dealer four, the dealer should refuse, on moderate cards, as the player proposing at this score must have a very bad hand.

At four a forward game should not be played in trumps, as there is no advantage in winning the To'

Laws Of Ecaeti—The following laws are abridged from the revised code adopted by the Turf Club:—

Cutting.—1. A cut must consist of at least two cards. Card exposed in cutting, fresh cut. Dealing.—2 Order of distribution of curds, whether by three and two, or via versa, once selected, dealer must not change it during game. If changed, or wrong number of cards dealt, non-dealer, before he looks at his hand, may claim fresh deal. 3. Dealer turning up more than one card, non-dealer, before looking at his hand, may select either for trump, or may claim fresh deal. If he has looked at his hand there must be a fresh deal. 4. Faced card discovered in pack before trump card is turned, fresh deal 5. Dealer exposing own cards in dealing, no penalty; exposing non-dealer's cards, non-dealer, before looking at his hand, has option, of fresh deal. 6. Deal out of turn, discovered before trump turned up, void; after, too late to rectify. 7. Misdeal discovered after trump card turued, and before proposing or playing, non-dealer has option of fresh deal. If deal stands, dealer cannot mark king turned up, and non-dealer having superfluous cards discards them; dealer having superfluous cards, non-dealer draws and looks at them; either having too few cards, hand is completed from stock. 8. Either player playing with wrong number of cards, adversary has option of fresh deal. Marking king.—9. King turned up may be marked any time before trump card of next deal is turned; king in hand must be announced before playing first card, or if king is card first led by non-dealer before being played to, or cannot be marked; if king is card first played by deafer, it must be announced before he plays again. 10. Flayer announcing king when he has not got it, and playing a card without declaring error, adversary may correct score and have hand played over again- If offender wins point or vole that hand, he scores one less than he wins. Proposing.— 11. Proposal, acceptance, or refusal mado cannot be retracted. Discarding.12. Cards discarded must not be looked at 13. Either player taking too many cards, and mixing any with his hand, adversary may claim fresh deal. If deal stands, adversary draws superfluous cards, and may look at them if offender has seen any of the cards given. Non-dealer asking for less cards than he discards, dealer counts as tricks all cards that cannot be played to. Same rule for dealer, but if he discovers error before playing a card, he may complete hand from stock. 14. Dealer giving more or less cards than aaked for, non-dealer may claim fresh deal. If deal stands, non-dealer with too many cards discards superfluous onesj with too few, has hand completed from stock. 15. Faced card in stock after discarding, players may look at it; it is put aside and next card given. 16. Cards exposed in giving cards to non-dealer, he has option of taking them or of having next cards; dealer exposing his own cards, no penalty. 17. Dealer turning up top card after giving cards, cannot refuse second discard. 18. Dealer accepting when too few cards in stock to supply both, non-dealer may take cards, and dealer must play his hand. Playing.—19. Card led in turn cannot be. taken up again. Card played to a lead can only be taken up prior to another lead, to save revoke or to correct error of not winning trick. Card led out of turn may be taken up prior to its being played to. 20. Player naming one suit and leading another, adversary has option of requiring suit named to be led- If offender has none, no penalty. 21. Player abandon- ing hand, adversary is deemed to win remaining tricks, and scores accordingly. Revoking, and not winning trick.—22. For either of these offences same penalty as in law 10. Incorrect packs.—28. Deal in which discovery made, void; preceding deals good. Bystanders.—24. If players declare to play English ecarte, bystanders, betting or not, not allowed to make remarks or give advice, nor to play out game of player resigning. If bystander makes remark which affects score, player prejudiced may call on him to pay his stakes and bets. 25. At French Ecarte, those betting may correct score, give advice (by pointing only), or play game of player who resigns.

ftse AeadMU dta Jeux (various editions after the first quarter of the 19th century); Hoyle's Oamet (various editions about lame dates); Ch. Van-Tenac et Louis Delanoue, Traitd du Jru de TEzarti, Paris, 1846 (translated In Bonn's Handbook of Qatmt, London, 1850); "Cavendish/ Tho Lmu of £tart4, adopttd est* Twf duA, with a Trtatiu <m tkt Bonn, Loudon, 1878. (H.1)

ECBATANA (Greek, 'E^aVara), or, as it is found in iEschylus, 'AyParam, a name applied by the classical writers to several and possibly to no fewer than seven distinct sites,— the capital of Media Atropatene, the capital of Media Magna, the citadel of PersepoUs, a Syrian city on Mount Carmel, the Assyrian castle of Amadiyah, tho Arsacidan stronghold of Europus, and the city of Ispahan. This diversity of application doubtless arises from the faci that the word was a descriptive epithet; but its derivation has not been ascertained, and it is even possible that under the Greek disguise we may have two totally distinct originals. According to the usual hypothesis tho meaning is treasury or place of assemblage, from the Old Persian hagmjtan. The Median use of the name is the only one of special moment, involving, as it docs, a difficult question of identification. It has long been admitted on all hands that the modern Eamadan, a town of Persia at the foot of the Elvend Mountains, occupies the site and preserves the name of the great city of Ecbatana, which was the summer residence of the Persian kings from the rime of Darius Hystaspis to the Greek conquest, and afterwards became the capital, of the Parthian empire. But the further identification of this Ecbatana with the Ecbatana of Herodotus, still maintained by some authorities, has been disputed by Sir Henry Rawlinson, who locates^be latter city at Takht-i-Suleiman, a conical hill about half-way between Hamadan and Tabriz, which agrees in its main topographical features with the Herodotean description, and is still covered with extensive ruins of ancient date. There it was at least possible for tho Median monarch Deioces to surround his palace with seven concentric walls of different colours, rising one behind the other; but, if the sito of Hamadan be adopted, this part of the account, recently shown by the similar arrangement at Borsippa to be so probable in itself, must be relegated to the region of myths. One or other of the cities is possibly mentioned in the Old Testament as Achmatha or Amatha; in the Apocrypha the name frequently occurs in the form of Ekbatana.

See Sir Henry Bawlinson's 41 Memoir on the site of the Atropatenian Ecbatana," in Journ. of the Roy. Geogr. Soct 1841 ; Canon Q. Rawlinson's Herodotus, voL L 1875, p 226.

ECCARD, Johannes (1563-1611), a celebrated composer of church music, was born at Muhlhausen on the Unstrut, Prussia, in 1553. After having received his first musical instruction at home, he went, at the age of eighteen, to Munich, where he became the pupil of Orlando Lasso, one of the greatest masters of the Franco-Belgian school. In his company Eccard is said to have visited Paris, but in 1574 we find him again at Muhlhausen, where he resided for four years, and edited, together with Johann von Burgk, his first master, a collection of sacred songs, called Crtpundia sacra Udmboldi (1577). Soon afterwards he obtained an artistic appointment in the house of Jacob Fugger, the great Augsburg banker, and in 1583 he became assistant conductor, and twelve years later first chapel-master, at Eonigsberg in Prussia. In 1G08 he received a call to Berlin as chief conductor of the elector's chapel, but this post he held only for three years, owing to his premature death in 1611. Eccard's works consist exclusively of vocal compositions, such as songs, sacred cantatas, and chorales for four or five, and sometimes'for seven, eight, or even nine voices. Their polyphonous structure is a marvel of art, and still excites the admiration of musicians. At the same time his works are instinct with a spirit of true religious feeling. They have indeed a religions and historic significance beyond their artistic value. The important position of music in the service of the Reformed churches is well known. It was derived from, and therefore appealed again to, the feelings of the people. Luther himself recognized the elevating influence of the art by cultivating it with zeal and success. HU sstting of tlie beautiful words "Ein' feste Burg ist nnser Gott" is still regarded by the Germans as their representative national hymn. Eccard and his school are in the same way inseparably connected with the history of the Reformation. Of Eccard's so:»gs a great many collections are extant; for an enumeration of the old and rare editions the reader is referred to the works by Winterfeldt, whu has devoted great care to the study of Eccard, and by Doring (Choralkuwle, p. 47).

ECCELINO, or Ezzejjno Da Romano (1194-1259), fourth of the name, a famous Ghibelline chief, was born April 25, 1194. The family traced its origin to Eccelin. a knight who about 1036 followed the emperor Conrad II. into Italy, and received from him among other fiefs that of Romano, in the neighbourhood of Padua. Eccelino IV. was the elder of the two sons of Eccelino III., surnamed the Monk, who divided his little principality between them in 1223, and died in 1235. In his youth Eccelino displayed the dauntless courage and the power of dissimulation which characterized him through life. In 1226, at the head of a party of Ghibellines, he got possession of Verona, and was appointed podestat He became one of the most faithful servants of the great emperor Frederick IL, who by a charter granted in 1232 confirmed him in his possessions. Four years later (1236) he invited Frederick to enter Italy to his assistance, and in August met him at Trent. Eccelino was soon after besieged in Verona by the Guelfs, and the siege was raised by1 the emperor. Vicenza was next stormed, and the government was given to Eccelino. In 1237 the latter marched against Padua, became master of the city by capitulation, and crushed the spirit of the people by remorseless cruelty. The same year he took part in the siege of Mantua, and made himself master of Trevisa. On the return of Frederick to Italy he joined him with a large force, and contributed to the great victory over the Guelfs at Cortenuova (November). In the following year he strengthened his connection with the emperor by marriage with Selvaggia, his natural daughter. In 1239, after entering Padua with Frederick, he was excommunicated and declared deprived of his estates by the Pope. But he still went on fighting and augmenting his dominions and perpetrating such incredible cruelties that the emperor, it is said, would fain have been rid of him. Nevertheless Eccelino was among the auxiliaries of Frederick at the siege of Parma in 1247. At the time of Frederick's death, in 1250, Eccelino, who had been named vicar-imperial of all the districts between the Trentine Alps and the river Aglio, had extended his authority from the Adriatic to the environs of Milan. He had married a second wife in 1249. At length (1256) a crusade against this foe of the church was proclaimed by Pope Alexander IV., and a powerful league was formed, which the Venetians joined. Padua was soon lost to him ; but in 1258 he defeated the army of the league and reduced Brescia. In 1259 he was called to Milan by the Ghibelline party and attempted to march on the city. He was, however, encountered by his enemies at Cassano, September 16, 1259, and was severely wounded and taken prisoner. His troops then disbanded. The great leader was resolved not to survive his fall, nor would he make his peace with the church. He tore the bandages from his wounds, refused to take food, and died at Soncino, September 26, 1259. By the death of his brother Alberico about a year later the family became extinct, and their possessions were distributed among the conquerors. The character of Eccelino is thus drawn by Mr Kington in his History of Frederick the Second (L p. 503):—" He was bold, clear-sighted in politics, and staunch to the side he had chosen as his own. He had a most commanding intellect, and his counsels were sure not to be slighted. Ho was t

first-rate soldier, and could overawe his enemies with a glance. He was, however, superstitious, as many found to their cost. Covetous of power, ho was unscrupulous as to the means by which it was won or kept His merciless cruelty and his callousness to human suffering brand him as an, enemy to mankind." In the Divina CommeJia (Inferno, xii) Eccelino is seen amongst those who expiate the sin of cruelty in the lake of blood in the seventh circle of hell.

ECCHELLENSIS, or Echellensis, Abraham, a learned Maronite, whose surname is derived from Eckel in Syria, where he was born towards the close of the 16th century. He was educated at the Maronite college in Rome, and, after taking his doctor's degree in theology and philosophy, became professor of Arabic and Syriao in the college of the Propagandists. Called to Paris in 1630 to assist Le Jay in the preparation of his polyglot bible, lie contributed to that work the Arabic and Latin versions of the book of Ruth and the Arabic version of the third book of Maccabees. A quarrel with Gabriel Sionita, one of his coadjutors, whose work he had revised, led to a sharp controversy in which De Flavigny took part He returned to Rome in 1642, but resumed his residence in Paris in 1645. Being invited by the Congregation of the Propaganda to take part in the preparation of an Arabic version of the Scriptures, he went again in 1652 or 1653 to Rome, where he died in 1664. Ecchellensis published several Latin translations of Arabic works, of which the most important was the Chronicon Orientate of Ibu-ar Rahib (Paris, 1653). He was engaged in an interesting controversy with Selden as to the historical grounds of episcopacy, in the course of which he published his Eutychiut Vhidicatui, tire llesponsio ad Seldeni Origines (Rome, 1661). Conjointly with Borelii he wrote a Latin translation of the 5th, 6th, aud 7th books of the Conies of Apollonius of Perga (1661).

ECCLES, a populous village of England, in the county of Lancaster, four miles west of Manchester by railway, and practically an outlyiug suburb of that city. The parish church of St Mary, an ancient structure, was enlarged and extensively repaired in 1863-4; aud several dissenting places of worship have boen built in the present century. The cotton-manufacture is extensively carried on in the immediate neighbourhood. Previous to the Reformation the monks of Whalley Abbey had a grange at what is still called Monks' Hall; and in 1864 many thousands of silver pennies of Henry III. and John of England and William L of Scotland were discovered near the spot. Ainsworth, the author of the Latin and English dictionary .so long familiar to English students, was born at Eccles in 1660; and it was at the vicarage that the Right Hon. William Huskisson expired on 15th September 1830 from injuries received at the opening of the Liverpool and Manchester Railway.

ECCLESIA, in Grecian antiquity, the general assembly | of Athenian citizens, who met from time to time to discuss public affairs. Ecclesiie were of two kinds, ordinary and extraordinary. The first of these were held, according to the laws of Solon, four times in each prytany, or period of thirty-five days; while the others were only summoned ou some pressing emergency. When any measure of uuusual importance was to be publicly debated, the people were summoned from the country by special messengers. An assembly thus convened was called a cataclesia. Much discussion has taken place as to the exact days of the month on which the ecclesias were held; but the result has only been to prove either that there were no days invariably fixed for them, or that we have no data by which to determine accurately what these days were. In Ulpian it is stated that when there were three assemblies a-month, the first fell on the eleventh, the second on the twentieth, and

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