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her royal daughter, Queen Mary, and the room in which James VI of Scotland and I. of England was born. Here also is the Crown Room, in which are deposited the Scottish regalia, or "The Honours of Scotland," as they are called, along with a beautiful sword of state presented to James IV. by Pope Julius II., and the jewels restored to Scotland on the death of Cardinal York, the last of the Stuarts. The arsenal, a modern building on the west side of the castle rock, is capable of storing 30,000 stand of arms. In the armoury a display of arms of various dates is made; and on the Argyll battery, immediately to the south of St Margaret's Chapel, stands a huge piece of ancient artillery, called Mona Meg, of which repeated mention is made in Scottish history.
Holyrood Palace, the venerable abode of Scottish royalty, was originally an abbey of canons regular of the rulo of St Augustine, founded by David I. in 1128. The ruined nave of the abbey church still retains portions of the original structure. Conjoined to this is a part of the royal palace erected by James IV. and V., including the apartments occupied by Queen Mary, and the scene of the murder of Rizzio in 1566. The abbey suffered in repeated English invasions. It was sacked and burnt by the earl of Hertford in 1544, and again pillaged and left in ruin by the same invaders in 1547, almost immediately after the accession of Edward VI. to the English throne. In a map of 1644, preserved among the Cotton MSS. in the British Museum, the prestnt north-west tower of the palace is shown standing apart, and only joined to the abbey by a low cloister. Beyond this is an irregular group of buildings, which were replaced at a later date by additions more in accordance with a royai residence. But the wholo of this later structure was destroyed by fire, while in occupation by the soldiers of Cromwell, in 1650; and the more modern parts of the present building were commenced during the Protectorate, and completed in the reign of Charles IL by Bobert Mylne, in accordance with a design of Sir William Bruce of Kinross. They include the picture gallery, 150 feet in length, famous for its fanciful array of 106 mythical portraits of Scottish kings, the reputed descendants of King Fergus I., but also adorned with a remarkable triptych, painted about 1484, containing portraits of James IIL and his queen, Margaret of Denmark, and believed to have formed the altar-piece of the collegiate church of the Holy Trinity, founded by the widowed queen of James IL in 1462, and only demolished in 1848. The picture gallery is interestingly associated with festive scenes during the brief presence of Prince Charles Edward in Edinburgh in 1745; and in it the elections of representative peers for Scotland take place. The exiled Comte d'Artoia, afterwards Charles X. of France, had apartments granted for the use of himself and the emigrant nobles of his suite, on their escape from the first French Revolution, and they continued to reside in the palace till August 1799. When driven from the French throne by the revolution of 1830, the same unfortunate prince once more found a home in the ancient palace of the Stuarts. In the interval between those two visits it was graced by the presence of George IV. in 1822; and it has been repeatedly occupied for brief periods by Queen Victoria and the Prince Consort A beautiful fountain, the design of which is a restoration of the ruined fountain in the quadrangle of Linlithgow Palace, stands in the centre of the outer court of Holyrood, ind forms a memorial of the interest evinced by Prince Albert in the ancient Scottish palace.
The Parliament House, in which the later assemblies of the bcottish estates took place, until the dissolution of the Parliament by the Act of Union of 1707, has ever since been set apart as the place of meeting of the supreme courts of law. The great hall, with its fine open-timbered oaken
roof, under which the last Scottish Parliament assembled still stands, and forms the ante-room of the advocates and other practitioners, and of their clients, during the session of the supreme courts. But the surrounding buildings, including the court-rooms, the Advocates' and the Signet Libraries, are all modem additions. The Advocates' Library is the largest and the most valuable library in Scotland. It was founded in 1682, at the instance of Sir George Mackenzie, king's advocate under Charles II., and then dean of the faculty, end has been augmented by important gifts. It is regarded with just pride as the national library, and is one of the five libraries entitled by the Copyright Act to receive a copy of every work printed in Britain. The number of volumes now included in the collection is estimated to amount to 260,000. The Library of tho Society of Writers to the Signet contains upwards of 50,000 volumes, and, although more private in its character, it has always beeu available for research by literary students.
The General Register Mouse for Scotland, which standi at the east end of Princes Street, is an important adjunct to the supreme courts; and, in its ample provisions for tho registry and safe-keeping of all deeds and judicial records, it compares favourably with the system in vogue in England. Not only is there adequate accommodation, in fire-proof chambers, for all Scottish title-deeds, entails, contracts, and mortgages, and for general statistics, including births, deaths, and marriages, but there also aro deposited all the ancient national records, the full historical value of which is only now beginning to be generally appreciated. The general record department is in charge of the lord clerk register and keeper of the signet, assisted by a deputy clerk register, a deputy keeper of the records, a curator of the historical department, and other officials.
The Royal Institution, a fine structure of the Grecian Doric order, surmounted by a colossal statue of the Queen, executed in stone by Sir John Steel!, furnishes official accommodation for the Board of Trustees for Manufactures, and the Board of Fishery, and also for the School of Art and Statue Gallery of tho Royal Institution, the Museum of Nations'. Antiquities, and the libraries and public meetings of the Royal Society and the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland. This beautiful building is thus mode the centre of varied intellectual activity, inartistic culture and design, scientific, historical, and archaeological research, as well as in the practical application of the fine arts, and of the newest disclosures in science, to the manufacturing and trading interests of the whole nation.
Among those the National Museum of Antiquities claims special attention. The Society of Antiquaries of Scotland was founded in the year 1780 by a body of noblemen and gentlemen, Who held their first meetings at the house of the earl of Buchan; and almost immediately after its foundation they devoted themselves to the formation of an Archaeological Museum. The history of the early years of the society is a curious commentary on the manners of the Scottish capital a century ago. With the dukes of Montrose and Argyle, the earls of Buchan, Bute, Fife, and Kintore, and many of the leading Scottish gentry among its active members, a suitable hall secured for the meetings of the society in the Cowgate was successively exchanged for others in Webster's Close, and Gourlay's Close, Lawnmarket—the reason assigned for abandoning the latter being that the alley was too narrow to allow of the members reaching the society's hall in their sedan chairs. After passing through various vicissitudes, and occupying more than one hall in the New Town, it was found that the collections of the society had attained to a magnitude and value which rendered it no longer possible for a private society to do justice to them. Archaeological investigations. moreover, have now come to occupy a no less important relation to the researches of science than to the study of history; and in many of the capitals of Europe similar collections are promoted as objects of national importance. Negotiations were accordingly entered into with the Government in 1849 and subsequent years, which resulted in the appropriation of the galleries in the Royal Institution, formerly devoted to the exhibitions of the Royal Scottish Academy, to the reception of the collections of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland as a National Museum of Antiquities. The council of the society, with the addition of two members of the Board of Trustees as representatives of the Crown, continue to have the charge of the collections, which are open to the public, like the British museum and other national collections. The museum is specially rich in Scottish antiquities, illustrative alike of prehistoric archaeology, of Roman, Celtic, and Teutonic remains, and of mediaeval civil and ecclesiastical art; and its native and foreign collections of primitive antiquities are arranged with a view to illustrate modern archaeological science, by the comparative classification of numerous examples of primitive flint, stone, and bronze relics, sepulchral pottery, implements and weapons, and of personal ornaments of gold, silver, and bronze. The society publishes its proceedings annually, and from time to time issues its transactions, embodying the more important historical and archaeological treatises submitted to its meetings, in the quarto volumes of the Archaologia Scotica,
The Royal Snciely of Edinburgh was incorporated by royal charter in 1783, for the encouragement of philosophical inquiry and scientific research. Its extensive library and other collections are accommodated in the apartments occupied by it in the Royal Institution buildings; and its proceedings and transactions are now voluminous, and embody many important scientific papers.
Tine Royal Scottish Academy of Painting, Sculpture, and Architecture, was instituted in 1826, and incorporated by royal charter in 1838, on the model of the Royal Academy of London. Subsequent to the completion of the Royal Institution buildings the central range of galleries was appropriated to the annual exhibitions of the Academy; but in August 1850 Prince Albert laid the foundation-stone of the National Gallery, a building exclusively devoted to the promotion of the fine arts in various ways, including the accommodation of the Royal Scottish Academy, and which has also greatly contributed to the arch itectural beauty of the city. The low valley, or ravine, which separates the Old from the New Town, is not only spanned by the North and Waverley Bridges, but is also crossed midway by a huge earthen viaduct, formed by depositing the materials excavated for the foundation of the houses erected on the neighbouring terrace of Princes Street This, which long formed an unsightly blemish, was at length utilized for the improvement of the city, as the site of the Royal Institution building. But there still remained in the rear a huge excrescence styled the Earthen Mound, cumbered with temporary buildings, and an eyesore to all who appreciated the amenities of tho general view. The property ,of this as a building site was acquired by the Board of Trustees under an Act of Parliament, which vested it, and the buildings erected thereon, in the Board, subject to the Lords Commissioners of the Treasury; and in 1854 the new galleries were completed. The building is of the Greek Ionic order, thereby pleasantly contrasting with the more massive Doric of the Royal Institution building; and the view of the two, as seen from East Princes Street, grouping together with the Castle, the Free Church College, and the masses of the Old Town buildings rising behind, is singularly striking and effective. The National Gallery provides for the public display of a fine national
collection of pointings and sculpture, acquired by purchase and bequest, for the annual exhibitions of the Royal Scottish Academy, and for the Life Academy and other schools specially designed for the advancement of the fine arts in Scotland.
The University of Edinburgh was founded in 1582, by a royal charter granted by King James VL, and its rights, immunities, and privileges have been remodelled, ratified, and extended at various subsequent periods. In 1621 an Act of the Scottish Parliament ratified to the university of Edinburgh all rights and privileges enjoyed by other universities in the kingdom, and those were renewed under fresh guarantees in the Treaty of Union between England and Scotland, and in the Act of Security. Important changes have since been made on the constitution of the university by an Act of the British Parliament passed in 1858. But while the college, as such, bears the name of the College of King James, or King's College, and James VI. is spoken of as its founder, it originated in the liberality of the citizens of Edinburgh. William Little of Craigmillar, and his brother Clement Little, advocate, along with James Lawson, the colleague and successor of Knox, may justly be regarded as the true founders of the college. In 15 SO Clement Little gave all his books, amounting to 300 volumes, for the beginning of a library, and this was augmented by other valuable benefactions, one of tho most interesting of which was the library of Drummond of Hawthomden, the friend of Ben Jonson—a collection rich in choice specimens of our rarer early literature. The University Library now contains about 139,000 printed volumes, and above 700 volumes of MSS., many of which are of great interest and value.
The buildings of the university occupy the site of the ancient collegiate church of St Mary in the Field, or the Kirk of Field, as it was familiarly termed. The present structure is a classical building, inclosing an extensive quadrangle. The older parte of it, including the east front, are from the design of Mr Robert Adam; but his plana were revised and modified with great taste by Mr W. H. Playfair, with a view to the completion of the building; and the whole is now finished, with the exception of a cupola designed to surmount the east front, for which the requisite funds have been bequeathed to the university. This edifice affords accommodation for the lecture rooms in the four faculties of arts, law, medicine, and theology, and for the museums and library. But although entirely reconstructed on a greatly enlarged scale during the present century, they have already proved to be inadequate for the requirements of this celebrated school of science and letters; and extensive new buildings are now in progress at Teviot Row, designed to accommodate the departments of science and medicine, and to leave the older building exclusively for the departments of arts, law, aad theology. The new buildings will accordingly include a university convocation hall, class-rooms, laboratories, dissecting rooms, and museums.
In connection with this, the Royal Infirmary is also in progress of completion, on a new site, and on a greatly enlarged scale, with operating theatre and other requirements in connection with the medical school, and with all the most modern improvements in the arrangement and construction of hospitals. For this a site nearly adjoining to that of the new college buildings, previously occupied by George Watson's Hospital, has been selected. It embraces a large area between tbfe Heriofs Hospital grounds and the Meadows, and separated by the fine avenue of the Meadow Walk from the new medical schools. By this means the important requisites of free air and the immediate vicinity of extensive pleasure grounds are secured; and thus the primary object of the infirmary as a benevolent institution for ministering to the wants of those afflicted with disease, *
or (offering from injuries, is efficiently combined with its indispensable uses as a school for clinical instruction and practical training in the healing art.
The Royal Botanical Garden is another important adjunct to the university as a school of science. The professor of botany is regius keeper of the garden; but its special requirements necessitate its removal from the crowded centre of the city. It has accordingly undergone four successive changes of site since its foundation in 1670 by Sir Andrew Balfour and Sir Robert Sibbald. It now occupies a fine area of 27 acres on the north side of the city, in Invedeith Row. This is carefully laid out with a special view to botanical instruction. It includes a herbarium and palm houses, with an extensive range of hot-houses, a museum of economic botany, a lecture room, and other requisites for the students of botany who attend here the lectures of the professor during the summer term.
The Royal Observatory, which has already been referred to as one of tho architectural adornments of the Calton Hill, also constitutes an important adjunct to the university. The astronomer royal for Scotland holds along with that office the professorship of practical astronomy.
Museum of Science and Art.—One other important institution cf practical instruction, in intimate connection with the university, is the Museum of Science and Art, situated immediately to the west of the university building, and in direct communication with it. The first keeper of the museum, Dr George Wilson, was also professor of technology in the university, but the chair has not been filled since his death, though his successor in the charge of the museum delivers lectures from time to time in the large lecture room in the east wing of the building, which is capable of accommodating about 800 sitters. The Museum of Science and Art embraces not only the objects of science included in the departments of geology, mineralogy, palaeontology, and natural history, as well as other allied sciences, but also of industrial art, and of the raw productions of commerce, illustrative of nearly all the chief manufactures of Great Britain, and of many foreign countries.
Royal College of Surgeon*.—The museum and lecture rooms of the Royal College of Surgeons are accommodated in a handsome classical building in Nicolson Street, in the immediate vicinity of the university buildings. The College of Surgeons is an ancient corporate body, with a charter of the year 1505, and exercises the powers of instructing in surgery and of giving degrees. Its graduates also give lectures on the various branches of medicine and science requisite fur the degree of doctor of medicine, and those extra-academical courses are recognized, under certain restrictions, by the university court, as qualifying for the degree. The museum contains a valuable collection of anatomical and surgical preparations adapted to the advancement of the stndy of surgical science.
Royal College of Phyriciant.—The Royal College of Physicians is another learned corporate body, organized as such, with special privileges by a charter of incorporation granted to them by Charles II. in 1681. The meetings of the body take place in their hall, a handsome building on the terrace overlooking the Queen Street Gardens, where they have a valuable library and a museum of materia medica. But the college as a body takes no part in the educational work of the university.
The three older Scottish universities of St Andrews, Glasgow, and Aberdeen were all founded in tho Kith century, by the authority of papal balls, and derived their original endowments cbiefly from the liberality of influential ecclesiastics, who had large revenues and church property at their disposal. They originated a part of that grand conception of the 15th century, which aimed at organizing the learning of the age into local branches of one university system, embracing the whole scholarship of Christendom, and recognizing
the graduates of all universities as members of one corporate brotherhood, co-extensive with tho Christian world. The Scottish universities still diner from those of Oxford and Cambridge in perpetual' ing some curious relics of this cosmopolitan university system.
The first conception of the University ofTSdinburgh is also due to a learned Scottish ecclesiastic, Kobcrt Reid, bishop of Orkney,
a favourite councillor of James V., who died at Dieppe in 1558, as
was believed from poison,—when on his way home, after fulfilling hia duties as one of the commissioners for the marriage cf the Quoen of Scots to the Dauphin of France. Ho left a bequest of 8000 merles towards the founding of a college at Edinburgh, and is stated by the historian of the family of Sutherland to have destined a much larger sum for the same pin-pose, but it was diverted by the earl cf Morton to his own use. The above-named bequest was only recovered after long delay, when, in 1581, it was appropriated to the purchase, from the provost of the Kirk of Field, of the grounds now occupied by tho university buildings. The circumstances attendant on the death of this first benefactor of the University remind us of the ecclesiastical changes already in progress in the 16th century. The actual foundation of the University of Edinburgh dated subsequent to the Reformation; and it is honourably distinguished among the national universities of Great Britain as the creation of the citizens themselves.
The Royal Charter granted by James VI. is 1582 contemplates a university on a wide basis, with the conditions necessary for liberal study, and arrangements suited to the progress of modern science; and it is wonderful how much has been accomplished in spite of the meagreness of the whole endowment By the Universities (Scotland) Act of 1858, provision is made for the better government and discipline of the Scottish universities, and that of Edinburgh was materially arTected by its operations. The civio origin of tho university had placed the patronage of the chairs, and the supremo control of the university, to a very considerable extent in the hands of the city corporation. The administration of the responsible duties thus devolving on the town council reflects, on the whole, great credit on the city ; and its exercise of the patronago of university chairs was abundantly justified by the high rank attained by the university under the distinguished professoi-9 selected by it. But the university had long outgrown the Healthful operation of such anomalous relations; and by the new Act, it has been remodelled as a corporation-, consisting of a chancellor, vicechancellor, rector, principal, professors, registered graduates and. alumni, and matriculated students. The chancellor is elected for life by the general council, of which he la head; and th« rights of the city an the original founder of the university have been recognized by giving to the town council the election of four of the seven curators, with whom rests the appointment of the principal, the sole patronage of seventeen of the chairs, and a share in other appointments. For further details see Universities.
New College.—One of the proceedings consequent on the disruption of the Church of Scotland in 1843, and the formation of the Free Church, was the establishment of New College at Edinburgh, in connection with that church. As originally projected, it was designed to include Bcicntifio and literary as well as theological chairs. Since then, however, this and the other colleges of the Free Church of Scotland, established at Aberdeen and Glasgow, have assumed the mere limited character of purely theological colleges—though in that of Edinburgh a chair of natural science is still retained. New College Buildings, designed in the pointed Btyle of the 16th century, are erected on the site of the palace of Mary de Guise, and include a hall for the general assembly, or supreme court of the church. They ocenpy a prominent site at the head of the Mound, immediately in the rear of the National Gallery; and the two central towers, with a lower one in the same style, attached to the church at the north-east angle, contribute to give elevation to the facade which has been aptly designed to harmonize with the lofty surrounding buildings of the Old Town.
The United Presbyterian Church has also its theological hall for the training of its ministers. The building hitherto occupied for the accommodation of the students, and also for the meetings of its ohurch conns, is situated in Queen Street; but in September 1877 the New Edinburgh Theatre, in Castle Terrace, was purchased with the view of being converted to those uses.
Literary Institutions.—Next door to the United Presbyterian premises in Queen Street is the Philosophical
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Institution, of which Mr Thomas Carlyle is president. The lending library of this institution is extensive and valuable, and its annual winter courses of lectures are of a high character, and command great popular interest. The Edinburgh Literary Institute, formed on a nearly similar basis, has its building in South Clerk Street, in the southern part of the city.
Schools.—The public seminaries of Edinburgh, including the hospitals and other charitable foundations chiefly directed to the training' and education of youth, are npon a very liberal scale. The High School of the burgh dates its existence from an early period in the 16th century. The Burgh Record, nnder date March 12, 1554, contains an order for the building of the grammar school on the east side of the Kirk of Field Wynd. At a later date, and down to the present century, it occupied the site of the Blackfriars' monastery founded by Alexander II. in 1230. But in the year 1825 the foundation stone was laid of the beautiful classical building which now occupies a prominent site on the southern slope of the Calton Hill. It was originally, and till a comparatively recent date, a purely classical school; but it now furnishes systematic instruction in all the departments of a liberal and commercial education, including the ancient arid modern languages, the natural sciences, mathematics, ic
The Edinburgh Academy, which was established in 1821, and incorporated by royal charter of George IV., is a proprietary school under the superintendence of a board of directors elected by the subscribers. It is arranged into two divisions, the classical and the modern school, for the senior classes. It has established a high character for its classical training, and has already taken an honourable rank among the public schools of Great Britain, by the distinctions achieved by its pupils both at the English and Scottish universities.
Charitable Foundations.—Foremost among thecharitable foundations for the education and training of youth is George Heriot's Hospital, founded by the jeweller of James VI. of Scotland and L of England, who at his death in 1624 left his 'estate in trust to the magistrates and ministers of Edinburgh for the maintenance and education of poor fatherless sons of freemen of the city. The building erected for the purposes of the charity is a noble quadrangular edifice, enriched with the elaborate details of the transitional style of domestic architecture of the earlier Stuart kings of England. It occupies a commanding site on the summit of a ridge known of old as the High Riggs, lying between the Grassmarket and the Meadows, and forms a striking feature in the view of the city from various points. 180 boys are maintained on the foundation, 120 resident, and 60 non-resident. Those among them who give proof of diligence and ability are afterwards maintained during a full course of four years at the university; and those who are apprenticed to trades are also provided with funds for five years, amounting in all to £50 sterling, with an additional £5 on proof of good behaviour at the close.
The popular character of Heriot's Hospital, and the effective architecture of its building, have largely influenced the disposition of later charitable bequests in Edinburgh, somewhat to the detriment of the university. Following the example of the jeweller of King James, successive benefactors have founded George Watson's Hospital, the Merchant Maiden Hospital the Trades' Maiden Hospital, the Orphans', John Watson's, Donaldson's, and Stewart's hospital*—all more or less modelled on the original foundation. Several of their buildings are also possessed of considerable architectural beauty, foremost among which is Donaldson's Hospital, the founder of which amassed a large fortune as a printer, and bequeathed nearly the whole of it in trust for the erection and endowment of a hospital for
the maintenance of poor boys and girls. The trustees have taken advantage of the liberty of choice permissible under snch terms to select one-half of the children admitted to the hospital from tho class of the deaf and dumb. The building has accommodation for 300 children. In 1877 it contained 214, of whom 120 were boys and 94 girls. Of those 70 of the former and 45 of the latter were deaf and dumb. Experience has thus far tended to show that the constant intercourse between the deaf mutes and their more fortunate companions exercises a beneficial influence on both.
George Watson's Hospital, founded by the bequest of another citizen in 1738, and the Merchant Maiden Hospital, founded so early as 1605, were designed to extend to the sons and daughters of merchants, of Edinburgh similar advantages to those which tie Heriot's Hospital secured for burgesses' sons. The Trades Maiden Hospital provided for burgesses daughters, and John Watson's, Daniel Stewart's, and other similar institutions provided in like manner for the maintenance and education of poor children of various classes. But the multiplication of snch charities threatened to outgrow the legitimate wants of the community, and needlessly to withdraw many children from the healthful ininnences of home training. Hence t growing feeling of the abuses of the system, at the very time when the revenues of Heriot's Hospital wen greatly increased in consequence of the extension of the New Town over its lands, at length led to an application to Parliament for power to modify the disposition of the surplus revenue. By the Act thus obtained the governors of that institution were empowered to expend such surplus funds in erecting and maintaining elementary schools for the free education of poor children of deceased burgesses and freemen, and generally of the children of poor citizens of Edinburgh. There are now eighteen of those Heriot foundation schools, m different parts of the city, divided into the two classes of juvenile and infant schools, giving free education, and, in certain cases of extreme poverty, also a sum of money in lieu of maintenance, to 4400 boys and girls.
The example thus set has been followed by the governing bodies of other similar institutions. The Merchant Company, as trustees of the George Watson's, Merchant Maiden, Gillespie's, and Stewart's charities, taking advantage of powers given by the Endowed Institutions (Scotland) Act, obtained power to convert the George Watson's Hospital into a school; and since then, they have sold the building and grounds to the corporation of the Royal Infirmary, and the New Infirmary is now in progress on the site. The Edinburgh Merchant Company's Schools now include the George Watson'sCollege-Schools, in which ample provision is made for furnishing a liberal education for boys, qualifying them for commercial or professional life, for the civil service, and for entering the university. Bursaries are also offered for competition, which secure a free enjoyment of tho entire course of studies to the successful competitors, and furnish the sum of £25 annually, for four years, after leaving the schools. A similar institution provides corresponding advantages for girls; and the Edinburgh Educational Institution, or Ladies' College, in like manner furnishes a high-class education in the ancient and modem languages, mathematics, the natural sciences, and in music and other more strictly feminine accomplishments; and bursaries and other prizes, of like value to those offered for com peri, tion in the College Schools, are placed within reach of the ablest and most diligent female students.
Experience has, therefore, amply confirmed the wisdom of the course thus pursued in the readaptation of this class of charities to the wants of the age; and the example of Edinburgh is likely to influenoe other cities where similar endowments are, in some cases at least, very partially turned to useful account.
Edinburgh is otherwise well provided with both public and private schools, to which pupils resort, not only from many parts of the kingdom, but from the colonies. The Fettes College was apparently designed by the terms of the will of its founder, Sir William Fettes, to correspond very nearly to Heriot's Hospital. But the trustees have so far modified that idea as to establish a college for boys modelled after the great public schools of England, and designed to furnish a liberal education in the fullest sense of the term. The college building which has been erected at Comely Bank, the estate of the founder, on the north side of Edinburgh, is a structure of an imposing and stately character in the semi-Gothic style of architecture prevalent both in France and Scotland in the 16th century.
The Church of Scotland Training College, the Free Church Normal School, Merchiston Academy, occupying the antique tower of Napier, famous aa the inventor of logarithms, and the Watt Institution and School of Arts, all merit notice among the more important educational institutions; and under the Edinburgh School Board efficient schools are now in operation in various districts of the city, mostly lying beyond the range of the Hanoi's schools.
Charities.—Among the public charities of the city the Trinity Hospital, no longer maintained as a hospital with resident pensioners, now expends its income in pensions of from £10 to .£20, to 172 poor burgesses, their wives, or children, not under the age of fifty years. The benevolent branch of the Gillespie's Hospital endowment is similarly administered. The Chalmers' Hospital, founded by George Chalmers in 1836, destined for the reception of the sick and hurt, stands on the southern slope of Lauriston, overlooking the Meadows, and at no great distance from the New Royal Infirmary, to which it is a useful adjunct In addition to those, it may suffice to name the Convalescent House—where, in a pleasant country home near Corstorphine, the convalescents of the Infirmary are transferred from the surgical or fever wards of that hospital to healthful fresh air,—the Royal Hospital for Sick Children, the Home for Crippled Children, the Hospital for Incurables, the Royal Maternity Hospital, along with other kindred institutions. The Royal Asylum for the Insane is at Morningside, on the southern outskirts of the city; and the Royal Blind Asylum, and the Deaf and Dumb Benevolent Society, each provide for the soecial classes indicated by their names.
Prisons.—The different city prisons are grouped together on the southern terrace of the Calton Hill, styled of old the Dow Craig, so as to form a very striking feature in the general view of the city from various points. They are constructed in a semi-castellated style; and the house of the governor of the jail, built on the summit Of a rock overlooking the whole, and on the very edge of a bold perpendicular cliff, looks not unlike one of the old castles familiar to the voyager on the Rhine.
The General Post-Office is the central office for Scotland, alike for postal and telegraphic service, and the building devoted to those purposes is a large and effective structure in the Italian style of architecture, at the east end of Princes Street, directly opposite to the Register Office.
General Assembly of the Church of Scotland.—During the establishment of Episcopacy in Scotland, Edinburgh was the seat of a bishop, and the ancient collegiate church of St Giles rose to the dignity of a cathedral. The annual meeting of the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland at Edinburgh is now the grand public manifestation of the predominance of Presbyterianism as the national church. Annually in the month of May a nobleman, commissioned to act as the representative of die Queen, takes up his abode at the Palace of Holyrood, and proceeds from thence in state to the High Church, and thence to the Assembly Hall on the Castle Hill, as the lord high commissioner to the General Assembly of the national church. The lord provost and magistrates loyally offer to him the keys of the city. Levees, receptions, and state dinners revive in some degree the ancient glories of Holyrood ;-and, as the General Assembly of the Free Church and the Synod of the United Presbyterian Church are usually held at the same time, the streets of Edinburgh present a singular aspect to~a stranger.
Places of Worship —The buildings set apart as places of worship by the various denominations include 30 belonging to the Church of Scotland, 29 to the Free Church, 23 to the United Presbyterian Church, 14 to the Episcopal Church, and about 30 others to different religious denominations, including a Jewish synagogue.
St Giles's Church.—Among the buildings dedicated to the worship of the. different denominations, the ancient collegiate church of St Giles is the most important, alike in its architecture and its historical associations. The Regent Murray, the marquis of Montrose, and Napier of MerchLston are distinguished among the eminent men interred in the ancient church, by monuments marking their tombs. The choir, which has recently been cleared of encumbering galleries, and tastefully fitted up with oaken stalls, and a fine carved pulpit of Caen-stone, is a beautiful example of the ecclesiastical architecture of the 15th century; and tho fine Gothic crown which surmounts the central tower forms one of the most characteristic features in every view of the city. The domes, towers, and spires of the various churches add to the general effect of the city, and in sumo cases they even present an imposing aspect from their elevated and commanding sites. But uone of them « of sufficient importance to invite notice for any special architectural beauty, though several are works of merit. By the bequest of Miss Walker of Coates and Drumsheugh, who died in 1.871, funds have been set apart for the erection of a cathedral for the use of the Scottish Episcopal Church. The plans have been prepared by Sir G. Gilbert Scott, in the Early Pointed style of the 14th century, and include a nave, choir, transepts, and chapter-house. If completed according to the approved design, it will be the largest and finest church erected in Scotland, if "ot in Britain, since the Reformation.
Monuments.—Themonnmeutsand statuoswhichadorn the city are of a peculiar character, and iron tribute to the singular aspect which Edinburgh presents to the eye of a stranger. The fame of Sir George Mackenzie, David Home, Dugald Stewart, Playfair, Burns, and Scott is commemorated in the case of each by an effective monumental structure dedicated to his memory. Of these the most remarkable is the monument erected by public subscription in memory of Sir Walter Scott, which stands in the eastern division of the Princes Street Gardens. The design, which was furnished by a young architect, Mr G. W. Kemp, is that of a spiral Gothic cross, of great elegance both in outline and in details. A marble statue of Scott, by Sir John Steell, is placed under the central canopy; and the principal niches are occupied by figures of characters in Scott's writings. The Nelson monument, a lofty castellated turret which crowns the highest cliff of the Calton Hill, though of questionable architectural taste, is a striking feature in the general view of the city; and the Melville monument, a graceful and well-proportioued column 136 feet in height, surmounted by a colossal statue of Viscount Melville, first lord of the admiralty under Pitt, rises from the centre of St Andrew Square, and terminates the eastern vista of George Street, with a reproduction, in- its proportions and general outline, of the celebrated Trajan column at Rome. Distant half a mile from this, at the west end of George Street, Charlotte Square furnishes a corresponding site for the monument of Prince Albert, from the design of Sir John SteelL. A central pedestal, Which sustains the equestrian statue ot the Prince Consort, has at each of the four angles at its base a group of figures representing different classes of the community paying honour to him; and bas-reliefs, executed, like the statues, in bronze, illustrate characteristic incidents in the Prince's career. George Street is further adorned at the intersection of two of the intermediate' streets between St Andrew and Charlotte Squares, with colossal bronze statues by Chantrey of George IV. and Pitt The beautiful garden terrace of Princes Street, on which the Scott monument stands, also affords appropriate sites for the statues of Allan Ramsay, John Wilson, and other distinguished Scotchmen; at other prominent points in