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Darmstadt Teulet has disputed the genuineness of the document in which the statement is contained, because "it er'sts only in one manuscript of the 15th century, and it contains an evident r.nachronism." The anachronism, however, is a mistake on the part of Teulet, for ho understands by " pedagogium Sancti Bonifacii " a school taught by St Boniface, whereas it plainly means L school in the monastery of St Boniface, as Jaffa takes it. Tho date of his birth can only be conjectured, but it must be somewhere about the year 770 A.D. His parents were noble, aci probably their names were Einhart and Engilfrit. He was educated at the monastery of Fulda, There is documentary evidence that he was resident in that place in the years 788 and 791. Owing to hi* intelligence and ability he was transferred from the monastery by its abbot Baugolfus to the palace, where he became intimate with the emperor and his family, and received commissions of great trust and importance. His removal to the balace took place not later than 796.
He was entrusted by the emparor with the charge or public buildings. He thus became one of the imperial ministers, and resided with the emperor at Aix-la-Chapelle. In reference to his artistic skill he received the Scripture name of Beieleel (Exod. mi. Iff, and xxxv. 30ff), according to a fashion then prevalent of giving ancient names to contemporaries. Some suppose that he constructed the basilica at Aix-la-Chapelle and the other buildings mentioned in chapter xvii. of his Life of Charlemagne, but there is no express statement to that effect. The emperor employed him in 806 as legate to Rome to obtain the Pope's signature to a will which he had made in regard to the division of his empire. Hence the inference has been drawn that he was the emperor's secretary; but no contemporary ascribes this office to him.
It was owing to Eginhard'a influence that in 813 Charlemagne made his son Louis partner in the empire. Louis, on becoming sole emperor, proved grateful to Eginhard, retained him in the office of head of public works, made him tutor to his son Lothaire in 817, and showed him every mark of respect.
Eginhard married Imma, a noble lady, a sister of Bernharius, who was bishop of Worms and abbot of the monastery of Wizenburg. Later tradition converted Imma Into the daughter of Charlemagne", and invented a romantic story in regard to the marriage of Eginhard and Imma.1 It is doubtful whether he had any offspring. Eginhard addresses a letter to a person called Yussin, whom he styles "fili," "mi nato." These expressions and the tenderness of the language almost compel the belief that Yussin was his son; but as Vussin is never mentioned in several deeds in which his interests would have been concerned, and in which the names of Eginhard ai.d Tmma appear, some have supposed that Yussin was merely a spiritual son.
On January 11, 815, Louis bestowed on Eginhard and his wife the domains of Michelstadt and Mulinheim in the
1 The story of bis courtship, although apocryphal, deserves to be noticed, as it frequently appears in literature. He is said to hare made a practice of visiting the emperor's daughter secretly by night. On one of these occasions a fall of snow occurred which made it impossible for hun to walk away without leaving footprints that would nave led to his detection. The risk was obviated by an expedient of Emma, who carried her lover across the court-yard of the palace on her back. The scene was witnessed from a window by Charlemagne, who related it next morning to his counsellors and asked their advice. The severest punishments were suggested for the clandestine lover, but Charlemagne rewarded the devotion of the pair by consenting to their marriage. The story is inherently Improbable, and it ia farther discredited by the facts that Eginhard himself does not mention Emma among the nnmber of Charlemagne's children, and that a story similar in its details ha* been told of a daughter of tho emperor Henry III.
Odenwald on the Maine. In the document conveying jam property to him he is simply called Einhardus, but in a document of June 2, 815, he is called abbot In becoming abbot he did not dismiss his wife. After this period we find him at the head of several monasteries, Blandigny of Ghent, Fontenelle in the diocese of Eouen, St Bavon of Ghent, St Servais of Maastricht, and St Cloud (but not the St Cloud near Paris), and he had also charge of the church of St John the Baptist at Pavia.
Eginhard began to grow tired of the intrigues and troubles of court life, and in 830 finally withdrew to Muhnheim, which he named Seligenstadt, where he had erected a church to which he had transported the relics of St Marcellinus and St Peter. His wife helped him in all his efforts, and her death in 836 caused him bitter grief. The emperor Louis visited him in his retreat the same year, probably to console him, but Eginhard did not long survive his wife, for he died March li, 840.
Eginhard was a man of culture. He had reaped the benefit, of the revival of education brought about by Charlemagne, and was on intimate terms with Alcuin. Ha was well versed in Latin literature, and knew Greek. Ha was very small in bo.'v, a feature on which Arcuin wrote an epigram. F's most famous work is his Vita Caroii Magni, written in imitation of the Lives of Suetonius. It is the most reliable account of Charlemagne that we have, and a work of some artistic merit It was written soon after the death of the great emperor. It was very popular in the Middle Ages. Porta collated upwards of sixty MSS. for his edition.
The other works of Egtnhard are—(1) Annate* Francorum, extending from 741 A.d. to 829 A.d.; some doubt their authenticity, without good reason; (2) Epittolae, handed down only in one MS., now at Laon and of considerable importance for the history of the times; (3) Hitloria Tramlationii Beatorum Ghrxsti Martyrun Marcellini et Petri, written in 830, and giving a curious narrative of how the bones of the martyrs were stolen and conveyed to Seligenstadt, and what miracles they wrought. To this is added a poem on the same subject. A treatise written by him, De Adoranda Cruce, has not come down to us.
The literature on Eginhard is very extensive, almost all who deal with Charlemagne, early German literature, and early French literature treating of him. The fullest and best account are given by Teulet and Jaffe in their editions.
The modem editions of Eginhard's works are by Pertz in vols, L and ii. of his Monumenia Germanics Eistorica, Hanover, 16281829; Teulet, Einhardi omnia qua extant Opera, Paris, 1840; Migne, Patrologia Latin*, torn. 104, Paris, 1886 (the Life of Charlemagne is in vol 97); and Philip Jane in vol. ir. of his Bibliotheca Jterum Qcrmanicarum, Berlin, 1867. Teulet's is the handiest and most complete edition, and he deserves special prnise in connection with the letters. Ports and JaiTe published the Lift of Charlemagne separately for the use of schools. Teulet gives a full account of all previous editions, of the MSS., and of translations. Some of the other editions contain oibliographicol references. A tnuislaof the Life of Charlemagne has appeared in English by W. Cloister, London, 1877 (J. D.)
EGLANTINE (E. Frisian, egeltiere; French, aiglantier), a name for the sweet-brier, Basa rubigirwa, and for R. lutea, another species of Lindley's tribe of Botes Bubiginoetr, and apparently the It. Eglanteria of Limneus. The signification of the word seems to be thorn-tree or thornbush, the first two syllables probably representing the Anglo-Saxon egla, egle, a prick or thorn, while the tenninv tion is the Dutch tere, taere, a tree (see Wedgwood, Diet Eng. Etymology). Eglantine is frequently alluded to in the writings of English poets, from Chaucer downwards. Milton, in L'Allegro, 1. 48, is thought by the term "twisted eglantine " to denote the honeysuckle.
JiGLLNTON, Amhibald William Montgoickris, (hibtkicth Eabl Oi (1813-1861). lord lieutenant of Ireland, was born at Palermo, September 29, 1812. He was the grandson of Hugh, the twelfth earl, and only son of Archibald, Lord Montgomerie, who at the time of his son's birth held a diplomatic post in Sicily. He was only in his eighth year when he succeeded to the title and estates on the death of his grandfather, in December 1819. The young earl was educated at Eton College; and for some time his chief object of interest was the turf. He had a large racing stud, and won success and a reputation in the sporting world. In 1839 his name became more widely known in connection with a tournament which he projected, and which was held at his Beat in August of that year. At this attempted revival of medieval pageantry, one of the knights was Prince Louis Napoleon, afterwards emperor of the French. The earl of Eglinton was a staunch adherent of the Conservative, party, and, on the formation of the first Derby, administration in February 1852, he was called from his' comparative retirement to fill the office of lord lieutenant of Ireland. He retired with the ministry in the following December, having by the manliness of his character, his affability, and his princely hospitality made himself one of the most popular of Irish viceroys. On the return of the earl of Derby to office in February 1858, the earl of Eglinton was again appointed lord lieutenant, and discharged the duties of this post till June 1859. Before his second retirement he was created earl of Win ton in the peerage of the United Kingdom. He had been elected in 1852 lord rector of Glasgow University. The earl was* twice married; first, in 1811, to Theresa, widow of Captain E. H. Cockerell, B.N., by whom he had four children. The countess died in December 1853; and in 1858 the earl married the Lady Adela Capel, only daughter of the earl of Essex. He lost his second wife in December 1860, and died suddenly himself at St Andrews, October 1, 1861. He was succeeded in the earldom by his eldest son, Archibald William, Lord Montgomerie.
EGMONT (eomond), Lamoral, Count or, Prince of Oavre (1522-1568), was born in Hainault in 1522. He was the younger of the two sons of John IT., Count of Egmont, by his wife Francisca, princess of Gavre, and succeeded to the title and estates on the death of his elder brother Earl, about 1541. In this year he served his apprenticeship as a soldier in the expedition of the emperor Charles V. to Algiers, distinguishing himself in command of a body of cavalry. In 1545 he married Sabina of Bavaria, sister of the Elector Palatine, and the wedding was celebrated with great pomp at Spiers in the presence of the emperor. Soon afterwards Egmont was invested with the order of the Golden Fleece. He accompanied the emperor in the various campaigns and progresses of the following years, was with him at the unsuccessful siege of Metz (1553), and in 1554 was sent to England as head of an embassy to seek the hand of Queen Mary for Philip (II.) of Spain. He was present at their marriage solemnized shortly after at Winchester. In the summer of 1557 Count Egmont was appointed commander of the Spanish cavalry in the war with France; and it was by his vehement persuasion that the battle of St Quentin was fought The victory was determined by the brilliant charge which he led against the French. The reputation which he won at St Quentin was raised still higher m 1558, when he encountered the French army under De Thermea at Gravelines, on its march homewards after the invasion of Flanders, totally defeated it, and took Marshal de Therm es and many officers of high rank prisoners. The battle was fought against the advice of the duke of Alva, and the victory made Alva Egmonf s enemy. But the oount now became the idol of his oountryuiiio, who looked upon him
as the saviour of Flanders from devastation by the French. He was nominated by Philip stadtholder of the provinces of Flanders and Artoia. At the conclusion of the war by the treaty of Cateau Cambresis, Egmont was one of the four hostages selected by the king of France as pledges for its execution. As stadtholder he now showed some sympathy with the popular discontent excited by the Spanish Government, and particularly by Cardinal Qranvella, minister to the regent Margaret As a member of the council of state he joined the prince of Orange in a vigorous protest addressed to Philip (1661) against the proceedings of the minister; and two years later he again protested in conjunction with the prince of Orange and Count Horn. He was invited by Philip to go to Spain to confer with hirt^ on the subject of the remonstrance, but he declined. Egmont, however, who was a strict Catholic, afterwards spoke in less hostile terms of the minister; and, at the same tune that he was courting the favour of the middle classes, he was becoming more a favourite at the court of the regent In January 1565 he accepted a special mission to Spain to make known to Philip to some extent the state of affairs in the Netherlands and the demands of the people. At Madrid the king gave him an ostentatiously cordial reception, and all the courtiers vied with each other in lavishing professions of respect upon him. But earnest discussion of the real object of the mission was evaded by the king, and Egmont had to return to the Netherlands loaded only with fine words of flattery and promise. At the very same time instructions were sent to the regent to abate nothing of the severity of persecution, and the Inquisition was reestablished. Egmont was indignant, and the people were in a state of frenzied excitement In 1566 a confederation of the nobles (Lei Chteux) was formed, the doenment constituting it being known as the Compromise. Egmont then withdrew to his government of Flanders, and showed himself, after some vacillation, an unscrupulous supporter of the Spaniards and fierce persecutor of heretics. In the summer of 1667 the duke of Alva with an army of veterans arrived in the Netherlands, to supersede the regent Margaret, and to crush with the strong hand the popular opposition. One of his first acts was the treacherous seizure of Counts Egmont and Horn, who were imprisoned at Ghent A sham process was begun against them, and after some months they were removed to Brussels, where sentence was pronounced by Alva himself on the 4th June 1568. Egmonb was declared guilty of high treason and condemned to death. It was in vain that the most earnest intercessions had been made in his behalf by the emperor Charles V., the order of the Golden Fleece, the states of Brabant, the electors of the empire, and the regent herself. Vain, too, was the pathetic pleading of Egmont's wife, who with her eleven children was reduced to want, and had taken refuge in a convent Egmont was beheaded at Brussels the day after the sentence was pronounced, June 5. He met his end with calm resignation; aud in the storm of terror and exasperation to which this tragedy gave rise Egmont's failings were forgotten, and he and his fellow victim to Spanish tyranny were glorified in the popular imagination as martyrs of flemish freedom. This memorable episode proved to be the prelude to the famous revolt of the Netherlands, the issue of which was independence. Goethe made it the theme of a tragedy. In 1865 a monument to Counts Egmont and Horn, by Fraiken, was erected at Brussels.
Full details may be found In Bercht s OetehichU da Oraf.% Egmont 0810): Clouet's EUgt historimu du Camlt tTEgmmt (1825): Prewotf ■ Biliary «/ Philip 11 fl855-fi9) ; Motley'i Jtite of At Dutch Republic (1866); and Juste's Li Comic SEgmmt et is CamU dt Bantu (1881).
EGB.ET. Soo He«os.
EGYPT is a country at the north-eastern extremity of Africa, bounded on the N. by the Mediterranean Sea, on the S. by Nubia, on the E. by Palestine, Arabia, and the Bed Sea, and on the W. by the Great Desert.
The name of Egypt in hieroglyphics is Kern, which becomes Remi in demotic, a form preserved in the Coptic KHJUIE (Sahidic), KHJUl(Bashmuric), and XHiJLt (Memphitic), with unimportant variants. The sense is " the black (land)," Egypt being so called from the blackness of its cultivable soiL1
In Hebrew Egypt is called Mizraim, a dual, some
times used as a singular.2 It describes the country with reference to its two great natural divisions, Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt, or the Delta. In the prophets Mazor, I'^V, occurs as the singular form, and means Lower Egypt, Pathros being used for Upper Egypt.? Thus Mizraim may be compared to the two Sicilies, though sometimes we find Mizraim for the lower country where we should expect Mazor. (Gesen. Thtt. s. v. Mizraim.) The meaning of Mazor is probably the "fortified," rather than the "border," referring to the natural strength of the country.
The Greek A'yvirrrw first occurs in the Homeric writings. In the Odyssey it is the name 01 the Kile (masculine) as well as of the country (feminine). Afterwards it is not used for the river. No satisfactory Egyptian4 or Semitic origin has been proposed for it. The probable origin is the Sanskrit root gup, "to guard," whence may have been formed agupta, " guarded about," a similar sense to Mazor.'
The Hebrew Mazor is preserved in the Arabic Misr,
ya*t, pronounced Masr in the vulgar dialect of Egypt
1 Cf. Pint. De /side et Otiride, cap. 33. Dr Brugsch objects to the idea that Kem mar be connected with the biblical patriarchal name Nam Dn (forming part of poetic names of Egypt in the Psalms:—" the land of Ham," cv. 23, 27, cvi. 22; "the testa of Ham," lxxviii. 61), on the ground that it is philologically difficult to connect the Egyptian K with n [Oeogr. Inschr., i. p. 74, note*). This objection would be valid were the case one of a Semitic word transcribed in ancient Egyptian; it is not so where we have a root which is common, aa this may be, to both (cf. Bunsen's Jigypfs Place, v. 757, 758). The meaning of the Hebrew root Dn ia "hot, warm." The Arabia root c
signifies "it became hot," and describes blackneu as a result
of heat; and the word k'L>z*. 11 black mud" also occurs.
'The use of Mizraim as the proper name of an individual appears to be aa early as the time of Karosos II. Mazrime occurs as the name or a Hittite, the brother of tHe king (Brugsch, Geogr. Inschr., ii. 25, pi. xviii. 77). The Hebrew dual form ia similarly transcribed in Hahanemi, Mahanaim (ii. 61, pL xxiv. 22), a word not actually dual, and the Aramaic dual also In Nehanna, the Hebrew Naharaim (L pL ix. 333).
1 Pathros rosy take its name from the Pathyrite Nome, so called from its metropolis, P-hat-har (Brugach, Oeogr. Inschr., i. 188, 189, pi. xxvii. 839). As this nonie contained Thebes, it might have a signification like Thebais. De Rouge prefers p-to-res, " the country cf the south," or Upper Egypt. (Xx Premieres Dynasties, Mho. de CIntt., xrv. ii. 231).
* Dr Brngsch has conjecrtmrly identified Afywrroj with Ha-ke-ptah, the sacred name of Memphis, from which the westernmost branch of the Nile, the Canobic, with it* two mouths, the Canobic and the Bolbitine, those best known to the early Greeks, seem to have been called (oooot. Inschr., L 83).
* The apparent ralation of Af-yva-rot to oi-yinrtos, a vulture, might seem to suggest a mythological origin for the proper name. M. Pictet has, however, most ingeniously traced both to gup, to guard, thongh his supposition that the name originally was connected with the Shepherd rule in Egypt must be regarded as hazardous (Origins* IndoKmropeenna, i. 4Mi.je.77 )■ It ia better to consider it a translation st Mazor. aa Nsftot of Sblbor.
It occurs in the Koran aa the name of Egypt (xliii. 60), but has been applied to the country and to its chief capitals since the Arab conquest, El-Fustat, now called Maar-el'Ateekah, or Old Masr, and El-Kahireh, the Cairo of the Europeans.*
By the Greeks and Romans Egypt was usually assigned to Asia, thongh some gave it to Libya, or Africa. This difference was owing to the adoption of the Nile as the division of the two continents, which would naturally have given half of the country to each continent.
In ancient times Egypt was the country watered by the Nile north of the First Cataract, the deserts on either side being assigned to Arabia and Libya.' The Egyptian name, "the black land," is only applicable to the cultivable land. The Misr of the Arabs is distinctly restricted to the same territory, the adjoining deserts being called the deserts of Egypt Physically, ethnographically, and politically, the two tracts are markedly different, but it is now usual to treat them aa a single country.
Physical Geography, Productions, And Inhabitants.
The political advantages of Egypt, in situation, natural strength, and resources, can hardly be overrated. It lies in the very route of the trade between Europe and Asia, and that between Africa and the other two continents. It is the gate of Africa, and the fort which commands the" way from Europe to the East Indies. The natural ports on the Red Sea and the Mediterranean, selected and improved by the wisdom of Alexander and the Ptolemies, whose enterprises have been eclipsed by those of M. de Leasers in our own days, have always been enough for its commerce, which the great inland water-way of the Nile has greatly aided. The inhabited country, guarded by deserts and intersected in Lower Egypt by branches of the Nile and canals, in Upper Egypt closely hemmed in by the mountains on either side, is difficult to reach and to traverse; at the same time its extreme fertility makes it independent of supplies from other lands, and thus easier to defend. The ancient wealth and power of Egypt should occasion us no wonder, nor even that the country still prospers in spite of centuries of Turkish misrule.
"The extent of the cultivated land in Egypt [Mr. Lane calculates] to be equal to rather more than one square degree and a half; in other words, 5500 square geographical miles. This is less than half the extent of the land which is comprised within the confines of the desert; for many parts within the limits of the cultivable land are too high to be inundated, and consequently are not cultivated; and other parts, particularly in Lower Egypt, are occupied by lakes, or marshes, or drifted sand. Allowance also must be made for the space which is occupied by towns and villages, the river, canals, etc Lower Egypt comprises about the same extent of cultivated land as the while of Upper Egypt" • Since the date when this wns written,
"In the Arabic lexicons^alo Ii placed under the root
which Id the second conjugation has the sense "he built cities," "he
commanded a city should be a capital;" but we also find Jjo^c "red mad," the term used meaning both red and reddish brown.
7 Probably the oldest southern boundary was at SUsflis, near Oebe!> ea-Silsileh.
■Mrs Poole, Englishwman in F.g\rp1. I. 85,66. Ml Lane "made his calculation from a list of all the towns and villages in Egypt, and the extent of cultivated land belonging to each. This list is appended to Do