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of the mythological elements of the important seventeenth chapter. He traces the solar gods to Heliopolis, and considers the Osiris myth as probably derived from Abydos, and added at a later time.1 Professor Lepsius does not admit the Heliopolite origin of the solar group, on account of the small political importance of Heliopolis. Yet the circumstance that the chief divinities of that city, which had the sacred name Pe-ra, the abode of Ra, were Atmu, Shu, and Tefnet (Hit. xviii. 4, ap. Brugsch, Geogr. Inschr.) i 254, cf. 255) seems conclusive.2

Some account may now be given of thene divinities1 in' the order of the lists, the later additions being noticed last and then lesser divinities. It will be impossible to give more than the simplest particulars, and many names in the Pantheon must be omitted altogether.

Ra, the &nn, is usually represented as a hawk-headed man, occasionally as a man, in both cases generally hearing on his head the solar disk, round which the ureus, symbolic of royal power, ia sometimes coiled. His symbol is either the solar disk or the hawk. Ka had the most general worship of any Egyptian divinity, except Osiris. The worship of Osiris under his own name was more common than fliat of Ka under his, but this was in some degree compensated lor by the union of Ra with other gods-besides solar ones, such ax Amen, Num, Sebek, forming the compound divinities Amen-ra, Num-ro, Sebek-ra {Lepsius, Erst. Aeg. Q&tterkreis), \ and by his bciLg the typo of sovereignty, so that eaoh king was a Ra son of Ra. This importance of his worship was due to the adoption of Ra as the leading representative of the supreme being, from whom indeed he is sometimes undistinguishable in the EUualt\ though as alroidy noticed this does not seem to have been the primitive opinion, for there are evidences of his inferiority to the supreme god and to Osiris (De Rouge, "Etudes," Rev. Arch.,n.%., i 358). In the religious pointings he is the supreme being, carrying on in his course a constant warfare with and triumph over evil, represpnted by the great serpent Apop, a wholly evil being, not a divinity. His cored resembles that of Osiris, but with notable differences. Ka is purely solar. Ho is rnrely associated with any consort, and if so associated his consort is a female Ra (Lepsius, ErsL Aeg. Gutterhreis). He is always victorious. He protects mankind, but has nothing in common with them. Osiris on the other hand is only solar because he is the beneficent power of nature. He is constantly associated with Isis. He has a life-long conflict with a maleficent power, his brother or son Scth, who is not wholly evil. Vanquished and killed he recovers his life and wins, but it is rather Horus his son who wins, and Horns, a sun-god, is the direct link with Ra in the Osiris family. Osiris protects mankind because Iris life resembled theirs: if he did not live on earth, at leant his tomb was shown there. At Heliopolis two animals sacred to Ra were reverenced, * the block bull Mnevis, sacred to Ra and Atmu, and the Phccnix (Beunu) sacred to Ra. Both are connected with Osiris, the bull by the worship of Apis at Heliopolis, the Phoenix as also representing Osiris (Brugsch, Qeogr. Insehr., L, 257, 25S). In addition the sacred Persea-tree was reverenced at Heliopolis.

In the attempt undiT Dynasty XVIII. to establish sun-worship in an original or ideal simplicity, the only rtpresentation is the solar disk with the uneus entwined round it, and rays ending in human hands, one of which offers the symbol of life to the worshipperf The great sun-temple thru founded contained uo statue whatever (Lepsius, Erst. Aeg. QMcrkrcis).

fttntn ami Atmu may best be noticed together os merely two phases of Ra, representing, us already stated, the ruins and the setting sun, the suit of the iip|nT and the lower world. Their twincharacter is seen in the circumstance that Meiitu was wursMpped at Southern An (llermontlm) and Atmu at Northern An {Heliopolis, tin1 Oti of the Bible). Meiitu, or Mcntti-ra. is represented as Ra with the tall plumes of Amen, Atnm in a human form. Both cannot be dtstiuguihhcd from Ra ex. ept that probably their attributes were mere restricted, and while Muitu seems to bo within limits identical with Ra, the human fotm of Atmu may perhaps hiut a relation to Osiris.*

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Shu is light, apd Is a type of celestial' force, for he is represented supporting the goddess of heaven. M. de Rouge remarks that it is curious to find in this ancient cosmogony th« principle of force identified with the luminous principle ("Etudes,"Rev. Arek.f L 236). His figure is human and he sometimes hears on his head the ostrich-feather, which, though the initial of his name, must here hare its symbolical sense of 11 truth." The relation of light and truth is not less remarkable than tliat of light and force. Tefnet, associated with Shu in the cycle, is represented with the head of a lioness. This is the most common compound form of Egyptian goddesses, as the hawk-headed cf the gods. Doth are connected with solar worship. The lioness was probably chosen as the highest fonn cf the family to which the luminous-eyed cat, one of the most popular of the sacred animals, belonged.

Seb stands at the head of the family of Osiris. He is represented in human form like his cousort Nut They are called "father of the gods" and "bearer of the gods." Seb was the god of the earth (De Bongs* Ibid. 238), and &nt the goddess of heaven. Her name means the abyss, though curiously the primordial abyss is called, in ch* xvii, of the Ritual, uu, in the masculine {Ibid. 359).

Osiris, in Egyptian Hcsiri, is usually represented ns a rrmmmv, wearing the royal cap of Upper Egypt, which may indicate tie Thuiite origin of his worship, or that, as Horns and Seth were the special divinities of Upper and Lower Egypt, so h'i was particularly connected with tho upper country. His cap is usually flanked by ostrich plumes, wliich probably have a reference to Ma-t the goddess if truth and justice. The myth of Osiris ia the most interesting because the most human part of Egyptian mythology. It is impossible to attempt a mil account of it: the materials have yet to be gathered. "We cannot accept the treatise On Isis and Osiris as representing the older form of the myth. In dilferent documents we seem to trace iu growth, and notably do wo find in those later than Dyn. XXII. the change due to the altered theory of good and eviL Yet the general outlines are tho same in what we may icasonnbly hold to be the earliest documents.. It is these that arc, as for as possible, used here.

Osiris is essentially the good principle: hence his name TJunefer, the good being, rather than the revealer of good (Mositcro, Histoire Aneienne, 3S). Like Ra he is the creator, and like him in

fwrpetual warfare with evil. His brother, or son, Typhon, Seth Set), is his opponent They are light and darkness, physical good and evil, the Wile and the desert, Egypt end the foreign bind. Osiris is certainly moral good, Scth is to a certain extent moral evil. Throughout the Ritual they are in coulliut for right and wrong, for the welfare and destruction of the human soul. In ch. xviL, which was preserved intact from a remote age, this conflict appears. Seth is, however, not there distinctly named as the opponent of 0>iiis, except in the glosses, which may be as old or (like the case of thi Mishna and the Gemara) older than the tost, and once in the text he appears as joining with Horus his adversary in accomplishing the final condition of the deceased who had reached the abode of happiness (ver. 35); and on the other hand, one glos* explaius the executioner of souls to be Seth, but otherwise Horns the elder, brother of Osiris, who is but a variation of the younger Horus (vcr. 33). Yet the opposition of Osiris and Seth is a perpetual combat Osiris is vanquished. He is cut in pieces and submerged in the water. "Watched by his sisters, Isis his consort and 2vephthys the consort of Seth, he revives. Horus his son avenges hnn, and with the aid of Thoth, or reason, ho destroys the power of Seth, but does nut annihilate him. The myth is a picture of the daily life of the sun, combating darkness yet ut last succumbing to it, to ap]«ar again in renewed splendour, as the young Horus a solar god triumphs over Seth. It is also a picture of hitman life, its pcri>ctual conflict and final seeming destruction, to be restored iu the new youth of a brighter existence. In this view suffering is not wholly evil, but has its beneficent aspect in the accomplishment of hual go<*l There ore two .vays of explaining the origin of this myth. Either wc may regard Osiris as the sun of the night, and so the protector of those whe pass away into the realm of shades, or we may suppose that once taken as the ty|« And ruler of mankind in the after state, the hidde'i sun w as naturally chosen to represent him, the sun being with tho Egyptians the source and governor of all life. Thoso who make the solar idea the first form of the myth have to explain its specially human aspect, and particularly why we see no such aspect in any deep sense iu the case of Atmu the sun of the night iu the group of solar divinities.

It will be easily seen how such a story took ho'd of the affections of the Egyptians. Otitis was the type of humanity, its struggles, iu sufferings, its temporaiy defeat, and its final victory. The Jiving, and still mere the dead, were identified with him. Under his name, without distinction of sex, they passed into the hidden place

because the word turn has the sense man, and may be thus a play upon the uamo or the divinity (cf. De Hungc*, M Etudes," 350, 351), but it is more likely tliat Turn is here used us Osiris everywhere to the divine quality of the jmtilwd,

'*mpiiti), tlic divine world below (Rcr-nclcr), to be protected by liira In their con (liet frith Seth and his genii, and to have their final state determined by liim as their judge, Jt was to Osiris that the prayers and offerings for the dead were made, and all sepulchral inscriptions, excciit those of the oldest period, are directly addressed to him.. As lsis is a form of the female principle, Osiris, the sun and the VUe, was considered in one phase to be the male principle. The Osiris of Mendes was the name of this form, which was inure especially known by the name of Mendes. - ^

The three most famous of those more sacred animals which were Worshipped as individuals, not as a class, were the bulls Apis and Mnevis and the Mendcsiah goat. Of these Apis and the Hendesiau goat were connected with tlie worship of Osiris. Manetho says that all these animals were first reckoned among the gods under a very early Egyptian Pharaoh, Kaicchds, in Egyptian Ka-kau, second king of Dyn. II.1 It is very characteristic of the Egyptian religion that the reverence for Osiris should have taken this grossly-material form. ''*

The bull Apis, who bears in Egyptian* the same name as the Kilo; HApi, was worshipped at Memphis. Here M. Mariette discovered a series of the tombs of tliese bulls, with tablets recording the reign? in which they were buried, and in several cases further exact particulars of date, thus affording important chronological evidence. Apis was considered to be the living emblem of Osiris, and was thiw connected with the sun and the Kile, and the chronological aspect of both explains his being also connected with the moon. On the death of an Apis, a successor was sought for nud recognized by certain marks. He was then inaugurated and worshiped during his lifetime. (See Aims. )

Sarapis, or Sera pis, in Egyptian Hesiri-Hapi, is the defunct Apis, who hus become Osiris. The great extension of the worship of Sarapis, after the importation of his statue by Ptolemy 1., woo merely a development of long existing Egyptian ideas. Hence the rapid spread and great popularity of this worship. (See Seiiapih.)

The Mendesian goat nad no special name. He is called the Ram. He was considered an emblem of Ra and Shu as well as of Seb and Osiris, but probably he was chiefly sacred to Osiris, and in his solar as{iect, which would thus introduce the relation to the more i markedly solar gods. The seat of his worship was Mendes in the eastern part of tiio Delta, where Dr Brugsch has discovered A very interesting stele of the reign of Ptolemy II., Philadelphus, giving the history of the finding and inauguration of a sacred ram, and of the honour paid to him and to his temple; His worship was similar to that of Apis, Imt of a grosser form, inasmuch as the goat a* y%m

was a symbol of the productive force of nature.1

lsis, or Hes, represented as a woman bearing on her head her emblem the throne, or the solar disk and cow's horns, is the female form of Osiris. Unlike Ra, the Osiris family have consorts; but no one is so distinctly as lsis a counterpart and of equal importance. Though the place of lsis is not as significant as that of Osiris in the myth to which they belong, she is necessary to it, and this is probably the reason why she attained an importance beyond the othex Egyptian goddesses except only Hathor, who is but another lsis.

Seth, the Egyptian Set, usually called by the Greeks Typhon, is represented with the head of a fabulous animal, having a pointed snout and high square ears. He was the brother or sou* and opponent of Osiris, the divinity of the enemies of Egypt, and the chief of the powers which fought with the human soul in the after life, lie certainly represents physical evil. It would be easy to account for his worship in Egypt were it not fur his appearing as the enemy of gods as well as of men. There is indeed something illogical iu his holding a place in the Pantheon, which gains consistency by his expulsion, though the consequent confusion of mornl and physical evil was detrimental to ethical ideas. It is remarkable as showing the Egyptian notion of Seth while he was still worshipped, that iu the Tombs of the Kings at Thebes, those whose names are composed with bis, Setee I. and II., and Set-nekht, use instead the name of Osiris. This seems to have been sometimes done afterwords by a change in the inscriptions, but still at the time when the tombs were first completed, and thus while the reverence of Seth, as is shown

1 M. de Rouge1 has noticed that the name of this king, "the male of males " or "the bull of bulls," may be connected with the eultus <-f the sacred bulls, while that of Bin&thris, his successor, contains a symbol, the ram, interchangeable with the goat, which makes it look like a second commemorative medal (Six Prem. Dyn., 243, 244). If this be so the names of theso early Pharaohs must have been taken oa Ihfir accession or on some remarkable event, like the throne-nanii-s After the introduction of that second name. A change of name during n king's reign for a religious reason is seen in the case of the sun* worshipping Amenoph IV., who took the name of Khu-en-aten.

3 Records of the Past, viii. 91 scqq., where the stele of Mendes is translated.

» It has been usual to call Setli the brother of Osiris; Dr Brngv-h prefers to style him his son (Hist., 2 ed. p. 20, 22). This double relationship is the key to the similar position of Horus, and Ute identity of Hathor and 1*1*. V

by these royal names, was in full bloom (Lepsinl, Erst. Acg. (JdUcrkreis). The subsequent change of opinion as to Seth, his identification with moral evil, and his consequent expulsion from the Pantheeu have been already noticed. Iu consequence his figure and name are usually effaced on the monuments, and other gods take his place in the cycles in which he had a position. In later times Seth is the enemy of all good, feared and hated, but no longer reverenced. The date of the change is as yet undetermined. It lias^ been usually assigned to the Kubastite kings who composed Dyn. XXII. M. Mariette has discovered the curious fact that one of those kings, a hitherto unknown Osorkon, altered the figure of Seth iu the legends of Ramses II. at Tanis to that of a Set-Ra (Music BoxUak, p. 273). Was this the beginning of the change!

Ncphthys, or Kcbti, the sister of Osiris and lsis, and consort of Seth, docs not, as r ns the Egyptian documents tell us, share hU character. It is rather as the sister of lsis that Bhe there appears, aiding her in her labours to recover and revive Osiris. Thus like lsis she is a protector of the dead, and her figure and worship escaped the fate of those of Seth.

Horus, or Hur, is iu the cycles tlie son of Osiris and lsis. Thcie Is also a Horns the elder, Ha roe lis, Har-oer, brother of Osiris, and a Horus the child, Harpocrates, Har-pe-khruti.son of Osiris and lsis* and two other forms, Har-Hut, the Horus of Hut or Apolhnopolis Magna, and Har-Giu-akhti, "Horus in the horizon." Hums is generally hawk-headed, and thus a solar god connected with Ra. This connection is perhaps strongest in the form Har-em-akhu, worshipped at Hellopolis sometimes even as Ra-Har-em-akhu. The most interesting form is that of Horns as the son and avenger of Osiris. Osiris being identified with the sun of the night. Herns is naturally the sun of tlie day. From this identification arose the idea of an infant Horus as the rising sun. As Horns took the place of Osiris in the contest with Seth, he became the elder Horus, to bo on an equality with his opponent, who seems oftener the brother than the son of Osiris. Specially Horus is the ruler of Upper Egypt, and the typical king of Egypt as much as Ra. It is indeed so hard to distinguish Horus from Ra that it seems impossible to hold any opinion but that they had their origin in separate religious systems.

Hathor, Athor, or Hat-bar, whose name means "the abode of Horus,'' is hard to distinguish from lsis.* She was worshipped with lsis at Dendarah (DUmiclien, Bauurkundt da Tcmpdanlagen ron Otndera, 3, 4) and Dr Brugsch even supposes the local goddess to have been Isis-Hathor (Gcogr. Inschr., i. 202, 203), but this he has not proved, for the representations and titles are different for the twe goddesses (c/. Dumiclien, I.e.). The cow was sacred tc both Hathoi and lsis, and both wear the disk and cow's horus. Hathor in the form of a cow plays an important port in Anicnti (c/. Dumiclien, ibid. 21; Mariette, Music 3oulaqt 118, 119). Curiously she is more widely revcreueed thaneveu lsis. She is really the female counterpart of Osiris. She was, like him, worshipped throughout Egypr, and the great temple of Adfoo contains a list of ovei three hundred names of the goddess in hei local forms (Diiniichen, Hid. 20). Still more remarkably, in late times, the cow, here the symbol ol Hathor, not seldom takes the place of the name ot Osiris as applied to women deceased: instead of taking the form of Osiris, they take that of Hathor (Ibid, 21). It is characteristic of the Egyptian religion that this irregularity should occur, and we may well hesitate to attempt to define the place of Hathor in the Pantheon (Mariette, Music Bouhiq, 118), though M. Diiinichen has made this endeavour in a very interesting passage, that could be accepted hud he given sufficient authority from the monuments, and not showu traces of the influence of Greek interpretation, besides too great a tendency to reason on the negative evidence of the simple statements of the earlier monuments (Ibid. 20, scqqX

Phtha, or Ptah, the Egyptian Hephaestus, is the first to be noticed, of tho divinities introduced into the chief cycles after their formation. His name is one of the Egyptian words which can be recognized letter for letter in Hebrew (nh§ "he opened, began," and (Piel) "carved"); and the sense is similar. Ptah is thus the divine architect (cf. Brugsch, Histoirc, 2d ed., 21). He was the chief god of Memphis, worshipped under a human form, sometimes as a pigmy, supposed to be an embryo. He was the creative force, but seemingly not as the sun. Though when connected with the local form of Osiris worshipped at Memphis under the name Sekcri-Hcsiri, and then called Ptah-Sekcri-Hesiri, he is sometimes hawk-headed, this is rather with a reference to Horus than to Ra. Perhaps Professor Lepsius's view that he is put before Rain the Memphite form of the cycle as an abstract idea of intellectual power is the true one. If so, it seems probable that tlie worship of Ptah was of foreign origin.

Amnion, the Egyptian Amen, "the hidden,'* probably owed his importance to the greatness of Thebes, the chief Egyptian seat of his worship. He seems to derive his characteristics from his association with other gods. As Amen-ra ho takes the qualities of

4 Dilmichen considers Hathor as the female principle to be identicti frith lsis (Jiautirkund* vonbendera, 20)..

the Bin; as Amen-ra ka-mut-f, "Che nusband of his mother,'1 he takes those of Min or Khem, the productive principle. Rarely he bos the rain-headed form that Greek notions would lead us to expect.

Sebek, the crocodile-headed god, seems to have held a similar place to Seth. There may hare been a time when he was reverenced throughout Egypt, but-in the Graeco-Romnn period he was a local divinity so disliked in most parts of Egypt that, as already noticed, the Arsinoite nome where he was worshipped does not appear in the

geographical lists. His sacred animal the crocodile was held in abhorrence and hunted wherever Sebek was not reverenced (<*/. Branch, Bi»t.t 2d. ed., 106, 107).

Thoth, or Tauut, is the head of the second cycle in the two principal forms of the cycles. As the chief moon-god he thus takes an inferior place corresponding to that of Ra. H* is generally represeatca as ibis-headed, aud frequently bears the disk and crescent of the moon. He is the god of letters and of the reckoning of time, and thus sometimes has solar attributes. The ibis and the cynocephalus were sacred to him. As the deity of wisdom he aids Horas in his conflict with Seth, and records the judgment of the deceased before Osiris. He appears in Phoenician mythology, though not at a period early enough for us to iufer that his worship was not borrowed fiom Egypt. Yet it is not impossible that here, as in the case of Phtha, wohave a trace of early Eastern influence. It is at least remarkable that the great seat of his worship, Hermopolis Magna, bearing in ancient Egyptian the civil name Sesennu, also Pe-sesenuu and lla-sesenuu, Eight, or the Abode, or House of Eight, is called in Coptic JXjXtOYfli or

JAJJUOYff £.(-CltA.Y. two), where the numeral eight approaches the Semitic form (Brugseh, Oeogr. Inschr., i. 219). Was the change in the Coptic numeral due to an ancient form of the name of this celebrated city! 4

Ma-t, the goddess of truth, succeeds Thoth in a fragment of the list of the dynasties of the gods in the Turin chronologies! papyrus. She is characterized, by the ostrich-feather, the emblem of truth, upon her head. She thus corresponds to Shu, holding the corresponding place. Thoth is called her husband (Lfpsius, KQnigsbuch, taf. iii. 22), but she is not his consort at Hrriuopulia (lirugsch, Oeogr. Inschr., i. 220). She is the daughter of the *un. Her place in the myth of Osiris is very important, for it is in h>-r hall, where she is called the Two Truths, that the deceased are judged,

Anubis, or Anup, jackal-headed, probably hold in one system the next place to Ma-t He belongs to the family of Osiris, being called the son of that divinity. He presided over mummification. In the earliest sepulchral inscriptions the divinity addressed is Anubis, not Osiris. No reason bos yet been discovered for this. There can be little doubt that (Kins was always intended, and that the earliest inscriptions, for some reason connected with the Egyptian reticence as to this divinity. Address Anubis.

The four genii of Amenti were iuferior divinities connected with embalming. They were called A inset, HApi, Tiu-mut-f, and Kebh* senuf. The vases found in Egyptian tombs which bear covers in the forms of the head* of these genii were intended to contain the viscera of the mummy, as it was held to be of importance that every part of the body should be preserved.

The rest of the principal Egyptian god* may now be noticed as far as possible in the order of their importance. It must, however, be remembered, that we are likely to be misled by the abundant monuments of Upper Egypt, and the scantiness of those of Lower Egypt, and that therefore we cauuot yet decide which were insignificant members of the Pantheon.

Chnuphis, or Khnum, represented with a ram's head, and to whom the ram was sacred, is the soul of the universe, and thus is spoken of Iu the creator {Mariette, J/itsIf Jtoulaq, 113). He was specially worshiped in Nubia, and at the First Cataract, with his consort Sati, the gtnldcss of the inundation (llrugsch, Qcoyr. I/uch., i. 150, stqq). lie is closely connected with Amen.

The Egyptian Pun, the god of Pauopolis, or Chcmmis, was Min, or Khem, the productive principle, a form of Osiris. He was worshipped at Tanopolis witn a form of> Isis as his consort (Brugseh. ibid.t 212, SCOT.) It is remarkable that he was connected with Amen at Thebes, fur the myth uf Ameu and that of Oairis are singularly apart.

Mendes, or lia-neb-tet is merely a local form of Osiris, lord ot Mendes, connected with tb* worship of the sacred rain, or Mendesian goat (Brugseh, ibid., 267, 208, 271, 272 ; XetvnU of the Ptut, riii. 91).

Neith, or Nit, worshipped at Sals, identified by tho Creeks with Athena, is one of the few goddesses who held tho fir*t place in local worship. From the idea of a supreme Wing, single and selfprodueing, arose that of a female aspect of this being. Thus Khnum ts called, as representing this being, "the father of fathers, the mother of mothers" (Marictte, Jfu**> Boutaq, 113). This would suggest the personification of a female principle. This principle seems specially represented by the higher goddesses, like Neith, who is called " the mother who bare the suu, the lir»t bora, kut not

begotten, born" (Dragsch, Gcoqr. Ttuehr., i. 217). She wears tlw crown of Lower Egypt, where sho was principally worshipped.

Pakht, or Sokhct, and Ihwt, are two forms of one goddess difficult to distinguish. They are both usually lioness-headed, though sometimoa they have the head of the cat, their sacred animal. Pakht was worshipped at Memphis as the consort of Phtha ; Bast seems to have held a place at her city Bulastis like that of Neitli at Sals. The monuments identify Hathor with Bast, and Isis with both Pakht and Bast, Hathor being called "Lady of Bubnstis,'* while Isis is spoken of as 14 bringing misfortune u the goddess Pakht, bringing peace as the goddeas Bast" (Champ., Kot. Man. 192, ap. Brugseh, Cayr. Luchr., i. 276). Pakht and Bast thus represent a double nature, not unlike the two principles in the Osiris myth i Mariette, Music Bottlaq, 1106; Brugseh, Gcuyr. Iiuchr., L 275, 276). Pakht aud Bast were identified with Artemis (Brugseh, ibid., 224, 275).

Mut, the "mother," consort of Amen-ra at Thebes, is, as her name implies, another embodiment of the female principle, though not in so important a form as Neith, so far as our present knowledge goes.

Khuns, worshipped at Thebes as the son of Amen and Mut, is a lunar divinity wearing the disk and crescent of tho moon, his hair being plaited in the Bide-lock of a child. Sometimes he is hawkheaded, and thus connected with the sun. As a divinity mainly lunar his iuferior place is accounted for.

The goddess Suben, identified with Eileithyia or Lucina, was worshipped at the town Eilethyia. She was especially the mothtrrgoddess, and the goddess of southern Egypt; ner symbol, that of maternity, was the vulture (Mariette, Mustt Boulaq, 121).

The goddess corresponding to Suben was Uati, or Buto, who was the protector of the north, and whose emblem was the ursus serpent

Oouris, or Anher, was the local deity ef the ancient city of Thin is. His functions are not clearly defined.

Imhoiep, identified by the Greeks with ,£sculapius, was tho son of Ptah and Pakht, and with them formed the triad of Memphis. He is probably the god of the sciences, and similar to Thoth (Mariette, ibid. 117, 118).

The Nile as a divinity bears the same name as the sacred Memphite bull, H4pi, probably meaning 41 the concealed." He is represented as a man with pendent breasts, to indicate the fertility of the river. A hymn to the Nile by Enna, who flourished under Menptah, the successor of Ramses II. (Dyn. XIX.), shows how completely even an iuferior Egyptian divinity was identified with the supreme god, aud with the principal members of the Panthron (Select Faptjri, xx.-xxiiL, exxxiv.-exxxix.; Maspcro, llymue a* Aif, a critical edition, and JUeords of the Past, iv. 105, eryj., au elegant translation by the Rev. F. C. Cook).

The Egyptian divinities were frequently associated in triad*, temples being dedicated to one of these lesser cycle*, consisting of father, mother, and child. The child is almost always a son. It is extremely difficult to make out a local triad in several Costs where there were two chief local divinities, or where the chh-f divinity wasa goddess. At Thebes the triad was Amcu-rn, Mut, and Khuns; at Memphis, Ptah, Pakht or Sckhet, and lmhotep; at Ombos there were two triads, Sebek, Hathor, and Khuns, and Haruer, Tasen-nefert, and Pnebto-pklirut; the triad of Nubia and at Elephantine was Num, Sati, and the goddess Ank-t; at Apollinopolis Magna, Har-Hut, Hat-har, and Har-pkhrut ; at I-atopoUs, Num, Nebuut, ami Har-pkhrut; at Hormonthls, Munt, Ra-ta, and Har-nkhrut; and Osiris, Isis, aud Horns throughout Egypt. The third member of the triad always belongs to nn iuferior rank, and is sometimes a child-god (khrut), as will bo observed in the three cases in which Har-pkhrut (Harj»ocrates) occurs, and the similar instance of Pnebto-ptthrut. Much of our knowledge of the Egyptian triads is founded on late documents of the Ptolemaic and Roman temples, and it is poasihle thut the idea may have not Wen asTim-h. developed in earlier times. The whole subject ni|uircs a careful investigation.

The Egyptian notions as to the cosmugony are too closely identified with mythology to be very clearly defined. It seems, however, that they held that the heavenly abyss was the abode of the supreme deity, who there produced the sun aud the moon as well as the rest of the Pantheon. Yet it is stated in one gloss in the Hitual that the abyvi itself was the supreme deity. (</. Do Kougc, " Etudes," AVt\ Arch., n.s., i. 235, vqq.). The aspect of the passages of the J? it mat in which these ideas are developed seems as if due to the attempt to introduce philosophical ideas into the mythology, as though the Egyptians had some notion of the origiu of things independent of that mythology.

_ The worship of the Egyptian deities was public aud piivate—that of the tsmplcs and that of the tombs. Every town had at least one temple dedicated to the chief divinity of the place, with certain associated gods, and usually, if not always, a living symbol in the form of a sacred animal supposed to be animated by the chief local divinity. The services were conducted by priests, and on occasions by the king, and by scribes, who sometimes formed a college and lived at the temples, the various duties of which required the services of learned men. It is probable that the common people had a very Bniall sharo in the religious services, the most important of which took placo in the smaller inner chambers, which could never have admitted many worshippers. The outer courts, and still more the great inclosures containing the whole group of temple-buildings, must, however, have been the chief public resort for business and pleasure. There were no other public buildings, or, apparently, market-places. Like the modern mosque, the temple must have been the chief ceutre of the population.

The worship in the tombs was not local. It was always connected with Osiris or a divinity of the same group, and had the intention of securing benefits for the deceased in the future state. It took place in the chapel of each tomb of the wealthy; and though properly the function of the family, whose members officiated, the inscriptious invite all passers-by, as they ascend or descend the Nile, overlooked by the sepulchral grottoes, to say a prayer for the welfare of the chief person there buried.

The sacrifices were of animals and vegetables, with libations of wine, and burning of incense. Human sacrifice seems to have been practised in early periods. The monuments do not mention it, but Manetho speaks of its having been abolished, at least at one place, by Amdsis, no doubt the first king of Dynasty XVIIL The reference is probably to some barbarous usage during the great war with the Shepherds.1

The origin and destiny of man in the Egyptian religion is now known to ns on the authority of its own documents, which in the main confirm what Greek writers had already stated on the subject. The aspect of the Egyptian teaching is either that of a simple theory, which was afterwards mythically interpreted, or of a union of such a theory with a superstition existing side by side with it. In the famous seventeenth chapter of the Ritual it is possible, as De Rouge has done with extraordinary skill, to extract from the text a consistent theory which the glosses confuse by the mythological turn they give to the simple statements of the text Notwithstanding this difficulty, it is sufficiently clear that the Egyptians attributed to the human soul a'divine origin, that they held that it was throughout life engaged in the warfare of good and evil, and that after life its final state was determined by judgment according to its doings on earth. Those who were justified before Osiris passed into perpetual happiness, those who were condemned into perpetual misery. The justified took the name of Osiris, the judge, tinder which they indeed already appeared for judgment.

Had this plain outline been left unfilled by the priests, the Egyptians might have been credited with a lofty

1 According to Plutarch, Manetho stated that human sacrifices were anciently practised at Eilctliyia (De It. et Otir. I. cap. 73); whereas Porphyry says, on the same authority, that AraSeis abollsl-ed them at Heliopolis (/)« Abtlin., p. 199). As, however, according to Porphyry Ihey were sacrificed to Hera, who would well correspond to 8uben, gndilnn of Eilethyia, not to any goddess of Heliopolis, it Is probable Heliopolis is an error for Eilethyia ('H\,o5 wi\ti for Ei>7i0wai rdAffi, as in the other passage where this is a correction for UiOmat wiktt), but the two citations are very different. According to Porphyry, Amosis substituted waxen figures for the victims. The figure called the "Bride of the Nile," now annoaUy thrown into the river at the rutting of the Canal of Cairo, Is said to represent a girl annually Hcrificrd in former times.

philosophy. Unfortunately, howpver, a thousand super, stitions took the place of the attempt to lead an honest life. In the tombs we find every one who could pay for a sculptured record characterized ns justified, every mummy already an Osiris. How was this determined? Possibly there was a council held, which deeided that the deceased could be treated as one who was ccttain of future happiness. It is, however, more probable that the learning curtain prayers and incantations, the performance of ceremonies, and the whole process of embtiming, together with tho charms attached to the mummy, and prayers said by those who visited the tomb, wero held to secure future happiness. In reading the Ritual we are struck by the small space given to man's duties as compared with flint filled by incantations and charms. The human mind must havo lost sight of the value of good and seized upon the multifarious equivalents which needed nothing to be dono by way of either self-restraint from evil or active benevolence. Thus as we look at tho documents we see a noblo idea lost in a crowd of superstitious fancies; as we look at the Egyptians as they lived, we trace tho effect of the indomitable good, and yet find it always greatly alloyed with evil. The Egyptian idea of the future state is the converse of that of Socrates. It is no littlo incident of human weakness, like the request to sacrifice a cock to jEsculapius, which injures but does not destroy a harmonious wholo; a mere glimpse of truth is seen through thick mists peopled with the phantoms of the basest superstition.

In the long course of ages the Egyptian ideas as to the future state seem to have undergone changes, not in themselves, but in the manner in which they were regarded. The vast labour expeuded on the Pyramids, and their solid simplicity, are in striking contrast with the elaborate religious representations of the tombs of the kings of Dynasties XIX. and XX. So, too, the sculptures on the walls of the tombs of subjects of the earlier kings, representing the everyday life of duty and pleasure, give place to funereal and religious scenes in the later periods. These were fashions, but they show the changed mood of the national mind. It is only in a tablet of the ago of the Ptolemies that Greek ideas assert their predominance in a touching lament addressed from the land of shades, which no longer speaks of active happiness, but in its place of purposeless oblivion (Birch, "Two Tablets of the Ptolemaic Period," Archaologia, xxxix. 22, 23).

Laws and Government.—We are gradually gaiuing an insight into the Egyptian laws. This is principally due to M. Chabas, the third volume of whoso Melange! Egyptologiques mainly consists of essays, nearly all by himself, on texts relative to the administration of justice under the Pharaohs. His general results confirm the accuracy of what Diodorus Siculus and Plutarch state on the subject. It was to be expected that their evidence would have been good as to matters which could not havo been easily misunderstood, and which must iu the case of Diodorus have been personally observed. In this matter the two Bets of authorities may fairly bo combined.

The government of Egypt was monarchical It was determined as early as the rule of Dynasty IL, according to Manetho, that women could reign. Accordingly we find instances of queens regnant. Their rule, however, seems to have been disliked, and they are passed over in the lists made under Dynasty XIX., when, it may be observed, the royal family seems to have been affected by Shemite influences. The royal power can scarcely have been despotic, although under certain kings it became so. It is sufficient to compare Assyrian and Babylonian with Egyptian history and documents to perceive a marked difference. The earliest monuments indicate a powerful local aristocracy holding hereditary functions. Those of.

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tho Empire (f)ynaslies XVIIL-XX.) scarcely indicate any such class. Even the -princes are no longer a royal clan, but the children of the reigning "sovereign. The whole system of government rests -with the king, who appoints all the functionaries and dismisses them at his pleasure. Hence arose a vast and corrupt bureaucracy, to which the decay of Egypt may have been mainly due. At all times the country was governed by nomarchs and lesser officers. In the earliest period theso were local magnates whose office was at least sometimes hereditary, and whose iuterest it was to promote the welfare of their districts. Under the Empire governments seem to have been mere places of profit given by favour and held by force and corruption, according to the Turkish method.

The laws were administered by judges appointed by the Icing. It is certain that commissions for an occasion were thus formed. We do not know that there were judges appointed for life; but it is probable that such was the case, as it must have been the duty of a class to be thoroughly acquainted with the written laws. A legal scribe may, however, have been attached to each commission.1 All the particulars of each case, though not necessarily submitted in writing, were recorded, and the decision was written. The process was conducted with great care, and the culprit examined on his oath. The punishments probably were not extremely severe. For murdor, but not for manslaughter, death was the penalty. Adultery was severely punished, perhaps rather by custom than by law. Theft was rigorously prosecuted. For sacrilegious theft the criminal was punished with death. The laws relating to debt are not yet well known. They appear to have been complicated by a system of loans and pawning, and to have been subject to modifications. Of the tenure of land we know little. The temple-lands seem to have been held in perpetuity, nnd this was probably the case with private domains in the oarliest period (De Rouge, SUPrem. Dyn., 25S, note 1).

Army.—We know little as yet of the organization of the Egyptian army, but much of its arms and mode of conducting warfare. It consisted from very early times of foreigners as well as Egyptians. The Egyptian troops seem to have been a military caste, though not in the strictest sense, and to have had certain lands allotted to them. There were two main divisions of the army,—a chariot-force, in which each chariot contained an archer and a charioteer, and was drawn by two horses; and a force of foot-soldiers variously armed, chiefly heavy infantry, armed with shield and spear, sword, axe, or mace, and light infantry, with bow, and axe or falchion, as well as slingers. It may be noticed that flint-tipped arrows were used in the chase. We know nothing of the military manoeuvres, but it is evident that the troops were drilled to move in formations, and that the art of besieging was as well understood as by the Assyrians, in the mode of attacking the enemy's fort as well as in that of protecting the soldiers.

Manners and Customs.—The subjects of the walls of the Egyptian tombs and the hieratic papyri tell us much of the domestic life of the ancient people. The education in the earliest age seems to have been more manly and more simple than in that of the Empire, when the college of a temple or the miniature court of a great officer was the Bchool instead of the estate of the landed proprietor. This system, however, gave almost his only chance of advance

1 M. Chabos has given the constitution of a tribunal under Dynasty XX. It was held at the great assizes of Thebes, and presided oyer by the paliarch, with nine inferior judges, including his three assessors, who were a royal controller, a niajordomo, and another royal controller, the Pint prophet of Amen-ra and an inferior prophet, a royal scribe, a captain of cavalry, an ensign of the navy, ai.J the commandant of the city. The last was the prosecntor, and was himself condemned by the other judges on the acquittal of the defendants {illlangu, Ui. i. 131, *<■)•

ment to a poor man's son, for the very highest posts were open to the successful scholar. (Cf. Brngsch, Hist. 2d ed. 16,17.) Circumcision was practised from thi earliest times, but apparently not as a religious rite, and not until the earlier years of childhood had passed. Of the education of girls there is no indication, but, as they afterwards shared the public life of men, and even held posts of importance in the priesthood, it could not have been neglected. It has not been proved that the Egyptians had any definite marriage law. We find, however, that they married but one wife, who is termed the lady of the house, and shares with her husband the honours paid to the deceased. Concubinage was no doubt allowed, but it is seldom that we find any trace of children more numerous than those of legitimate wives could be. The family of Ramses IL is an instance of an Oriental household, and the fifty-two children of Baba, whose tomb is found at Eilethyia, may also be cited, though tho term children may in this case include other descendants (rf. Brugsch, ibid. 176, 177). Ordinarily the aspect of the family is that which it wears in civilized countries. The women were not secluded, and, if they did not take the place of those of republican Rome, it was due to faults of national character rather than the restraints of custom. There was no separation into castes, although many occupations were usually hereditary. As there was no noble caste, there was nothing to prevent the rise of naturally able persons but the growth of the official class, which gradually absorbed all power and closed the avenues to success. The corruption of this class has been remarkably shown by the researches into the Egyptian administration of justice by M. Chabas, who cites lists of robbers of tombs and houses containing the names of scribes and priestt, besides a higher grade of servants (ilelanyes,iii. i. M4,»/7 !. There are other indications of the social condition of Egypt under the Empire in the complaints of the lower class against the brigandage to which they were Bubject on the part of persons who found means to interest the highest functionaries, and so escape merited punishment At the same time it is to be remembered that they had the right of direct appeal to the king {/bid. 173-216). This part of the picture of Egyptian life is strikingly like that of China, and the dislike of foreigners is consistent with the comparison. The lower class being uneducated, and for the most part very poor, was held in contempt by the higher, and this was especially tho case with labourers and herdsmen. All handicrafts were considered unworthy of a gentleman, and even the sculptor and painter were not raised above this general level. The only occupations lit for the upper class were priestly, civil, and military, and the direction of architectural and other works which required scientific knowledge, not Bkill of hand. The servants were of a higher grade than the labourers: not so the slaves, who were generally captives taken in war.

The everyday life of the ancient Egyptians is abundantly represented in the pictures of tho tombs from the earliest monumental age to that of the Empire. The rich passed much of their time in hospitality, giving feasts at which the guests were entertained in various ways. The host and hostess sat together, as did other married people, and the other men and women generally were seated apart. The seats were single or double chairs, but many eat on the ground. Koch fcaster was decked with a necklace of flowers by the servants, and a lotus flower was bound to the head, on which was also placed a lump of ointment. Small tables were set before the guests, on which were piled meat, fruits, cakes, and other food, and wine-cups were carried round. Before the repast, hind musicians and dancers entertained tho company, and often ttue asemi to tavo been tho sole object of invitation.

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