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unencumbered building of tho kind to be seen on n voyage up the Nile, lies about a mile and a half from the left bank of the river, within a square inclosuro formed by four crude-brick walls, each 1000 feet in length, and entered by means of a stone-built gateway, adorned with sculptures representing Domitian and Trajan engaged in acts of worship. The portico of the temple is about 135 feet in width, and is architecturally one of the richest and most beautiful structures of its class. It is supported by 21 columns, four deep, nearly 50 feet in height, and having a diameter of more than 7 feet at the thickest part. The capitals have sculptured on each of their four sides a full face of Athor, crowned by a small shriue or temple. The sculptures, which are of less merit than the architecture, represent offerings made by some of the earlier Caesars; and on the ceiling are various mystical subjects, probably of an astronomical import, and the famous quadrangular zodiac, which will be referred to again in the latter part of this article. Passing through the back wall of the portico (which was at oue time the front wall of the temple) the visitor enters a hall supported by three columns on each side, with cup-shaped capitals beneath those formed by tho temple-crowned faces of Athor; and thence, proceeding right onwards through two similar halls, he reaches the sanctuary, which is isolated by a passage running all round. On each side of the temple are many small apartments, and two entrance-ways from the exterior, as well as singular inclined passages in the walls, two of which are | entered from the sides of the portico. All the chambers and passages, except the two last mentioned, are profusely covered with sculptures and inscriptions of a religious character, chiefly depicting and narrating the piety of the sovereigns by whom the temple was erected. The royal names have not always been filled in, but, where they have been sculptured, they aie generally those of the last Cleopatra, and Csesarion, her son by Julius Csesar. A staircase on the left-hand side of the second chamber, behind the portico, conducts to the roof of the temple. Here are a sort of chapel and some small chambers, one ol which is very interesting, because its sculptures relate to the story of Osiris. The exterior of the temple is as completely covered with sculptures as the interior. Among the figures represented there are those of Cleopatra and Caesarion; but they cannot be supposed to bear any resemblance, since they belong not alone to a conventional art, but almost to its lowest period. There are two smaller temples within the same inclosure as the great temple of Athor, one dedicated to Isis in the thirty-first year of Augustus, and the other usually known as the Typhonium, from the representations of Typhon on the capitals of its columns, but probably connected with the worship of Athor.

The name Denderah, in Coptic Tentore, and in Greek Tentyra or Tenlyru, used to be regarded as equivalent to Thy-n Athor, "the abode of Athor;" but, according to an hypothesis started by Brugsch, and since proved by the investigations of Diimichen, it is now explained as "the Land of the Hippopotamus" (Tan-ta-rer), in allusion to the use of this animal as a symbol of the goddess Isis, who is regularly identified with Athor in the Denderah inscriptions. The sacred name was An, and a list is still extant of 136 substitutes or epitheta ornantia, such as the house of enlightened souls, the house of gladness, the house of the weeping and laughing of the sun-god Ra, Though, as already indicated, the presont temples of Denderah belong to the latest period of Egyptian art, the original occupation of the site for sacred buildings dates from the earliest times. According to an inscription discovered and published by Diimichen, who spent three months in personal exploration of the ruins, a restoration of the temple was effected

by Thothmes HI. of the 18th dynasty, in keeping wkh an ancient plan belonging to the reign of Chufu, which had been found, in the time of Pheops, " in the interior of a wall of the Southern House."

The people of Tentyra wore remarkable for their hostility to the crocodilo and its worshippers; and in their attacks on the reptile they displayed so much audacity and skill that the Romans in the time of Strabo brought a number of them over to Italy as a new attraction for the amphitheatre. In modem times the name of Denderah has become especially famous on account of the two designs known respectively as the circular and the quadrangular zodiac, which have bcon the subject of the most elaboraU discussion among Egyptologists. The former was discovered by General Desaix about the end of last century, and at length in 1820 removed by SL Lelorrain to Paris, where it was purchased by the Government for 150,000 francs, and deposited in the Biblioiltiqve Imperiale; the latter, first observed by M. Dupuis, a member of the French commission, is still in its original position, as, instead of occupying a comparatively small and portable disk, it forms, as already indicated, the decoration of two extremities of the temple portico, and thus consist* of two corresponding halves. Copies of both the zodiacs have frequently been made, and are easily accessible in F. C. Lautb'a La Zodia^aet de Denderah, Munich, 1865, a memoir in which he maintains that both designs are commemorative calendars of the Greco-Roman period.

See also Wilkinson's Ancient Egyptians ; Lctronne, Observation* sur Tobjei des representations zoduicates dt VantiqniU, Faria, 1824; Hrlma, Examen et explications des Zodiaqucs Egyptienn^s, 1822; Lcpsius's Zeitsehri/l fiir AZgyptisehe Spraclu und Alterthumskunde, passim/ Chabas, Sur tantiguiti ds Denderah; and especially Diimichcn's Ke\itste Mitihcilungen tins Aeggj>Un, and jCauSrkunde der Tempelanlagen ton Denderah, 1864.

DEXDERMONDE, in French Termonde, a town ot Belgium, in the province of East Flanders, about 18 miles east of Ghent, so called from its situation at the mouth of the Dender, a right-hand affluent of the Scheldt It is the scat of a court of primary instance, has a hospital, a lunatic asylum, two orphanages, an academy of architecture and design, a public library, and a picture gallery, and carries on the manufacture of woollens, linens, ropes, psper, tobacco, and various other branches of industry. In the old church of Notre Dame, which was raised to collegiate rank in HOC, there are two paintings by Yandyck—a Crucifixion and an Adoration of the Shepherds. Till 1264, when it passed into the' possession of Bobert Bethune, count of Flanders, Dendermonde was governed in direct dependence on the empire. Its name frequently occurs in the history of the various wars in the Low Countries, tLe most memorable occasions being in 1667, when it defended itself against Louis XIV. by laying the neighbourhood under water; in 1706, when it was besieged and captured by General Churchill; and in 1745, when it was taken by the French. The fortifications were dismantled by Joseph II. in 1784; but they were restored in 1822. The bridge over the Scheldt dates from 1825. Population in 1866, 8300.

DENHAM, Sir John (1615-1668), a royalist poet, who has won a place among the foremost British authors more by a happy accident than by any decided genius, was the only son of Sir John Denham, lord chief baron of the Exchequer in Ireland, and was born in Dublin in 1615. In 1617 his father was promoted to the rank of baron of the Exchequer in England, and removed to London with his family. The future poet attended a grammar school in London, and in Michaelmas term 1631 was removed to Oxford, where be was entered a gentleman commoner of Trinity College. Having taken his degree of B.A., bo began the study of the law at Lincoln's Inn in 1634 : but the character he had maintained at Oxford, of being " a alow, dreaming young man," gave way to a scandalous reputation for gambling, by which he beggared himself and seriously embarrassed his faiher. We learn that, by way of penance, he wrote at this time an Essay against Gamilig, whether, in prose or verse is not recorded. After his father's death the habit became still more dominant, and he squandered a fortune. It was a surprise to every cne, therefore, when in 1642 he suddenly, as Waller said, "broke out like the Irish rebellion, threescore thousand strong, when no one was aware, nor in the least expected it," by publishing in that year two most successful volumes of verse. The first of these was The Sophy, a tragedy in five acts, a thin folio, the theme of which was a Turkish tale of blood and intrigue, drawn from Sir Thomas Herbert's travels. This, Denham's only dramatic performance, is tame and correct, without passion, but free from tha faults of some of the minor authors of the time, It was successful, but it enjoyed nothing of the unparalleled popularity of his simultaneous venture, the descriptive poem of Cooper's Hill, the first edition of which in quarto was anonymous. In this famous piece no entirely new style was attempted, for Ben Jonson had led the w..y in theme and Cowley in mauner; but it had a smooth grace and a poluhed antithesis that were doubtful merits in poetry, but extremely dear to the rising generation. One quatrain, out of the three or four hundred lines of reflection and description, has been universally praised, and forms one of our most familiar quotations. Addressing the Thames, the poet says—

"O couM 1 flow like thee, and mate thy stream
Sly t,T*-at i-xamvile, as it is my theme I
Though deep, yet rlear; though gentle, yet not dull;
Strong without rage, without e'erflWing full"

Brought into royar notice by his poems, Denham was appointed high sheriff for Surrey and governor of Ffirnham Castle; but he showed no military talent, end soon followed the king to Oxford. Duriu? the civil war ho served the queen mother, and was intrusted with the letters in cipher that Cowley wrote to the king, which he managed to deliver into Charles's hands. Being detected, however, he was obliged to escape into France. 'In April 1648 he is said to have conveyed the young duke of York from St James's to Paris; it is certain that, later in that year, he was sent in company with Lord Crofts, as ambassador to Poland, to obtain money for the king, and he succeeded in bringing back .£10,000. In 1652 he returned, a ruined man, to England, and resided as the guest of the earl of Pembroko at Wilton for a year. He now disappears until the Bo-sloration. When Charles IL returned, Denham was made surveyor-general and Knight of the Bath, and seems to hare been well provided for; but his subsequent life was far from happy, for his second wife, a young woman of great beauty, was seduced by the duke of York, and becamo liis mistress. This catastrophe, which is abundantly noticed in the current literature of that day, shattered the old poet's reason; and he recovered from his insanity only to die, at his house near Whitehall, on the 10th of March 1668. He was buried in Westminster Abbey. In the same year, 1668, his works were collected in a single volume, entitled Poems and Translations. This included, besides Cooper's Hill and The Sophy, a fragment of an epic nn the destruction of Troy, some beautiful lines on the death of Cowley, written a few months before his own decease, a didactic poem on the progress of learning, and some translations. Notwithstanding the fame of Cooper's Hill, which Pope imitated in his Windsor Forest, Denham's poems have not been edited in modern times. He was one of the very first to note the tendency towards rhetorical and gallicized forms in public taste, and to gratify the new fashion. But to speak of him. as

was once customary, as a great reformer of metre and fashioner of language, is to fail to realize the limitations of his talent

DENLNA, Carlo Giovanni Maria (1731-1813), an Italian author, was born at Bevello, Piedmont, in-1731, and was educated at Saluzzo and Turin. In 1753 he was appointed to the chair of humanity at Pignerol, but he was soon compelled by the influence of the Jesuits toretiie from it In 1756 he graduated as doctor in theology, and began authorship with a theological treatise. Promoted lu the professorship of humanity and rhetoric in the college of Turin, ho showed his literary activity in his great work On the Revolutions of Italy, and in other writings. Collegiate honours accompanied the issue of its successive volumes, which, however, at the same time, multiplied his foes and stimulated their hatred. In 1782 ho repaired to Berlin, where he remained for many years, in the course of which he published various works. In 1S04 he went tc Paris as the imperial librarian, to which office he had beer, appointed by Napoleon, who was attracted to him at Metz. He died there on 5th December 1813. Deniua's reputation is mainly founded on his History of i/ie Revolutions of Italy, in which he combines a philosophic spirit and the habit of accurate narration.

DENIS, or DiONTsrus, St, the patron saint of FraDce, flourished in the middle of the 3d century. What is known of his life rests chiefly on the not altogether trustworthy authority of Gregory of Tours, according to which he was the leader of a band of seven missionaries who came from Borne to Gaul, and founded churches in seven cities. Denis Settled in Paris, where he made many converts, and became the first Christian bishop. In 272, during the persecution of Valerian, he was beheaded along with some of his companions. Another account places the date of the martyrdom between 286 and 290. The well-known legend, according to which St Denis after his decapitation walked two miles with his head in his hands, probably originated in a mistaken interpretation of pictures intended to indicate the manner of his death. It was not unusual to represent a martyr by decapitation bearing his head in his hands as an offering, and there are effigies of St Denis with the mitred head in its natural position and the head in the hands as well. The bodies of the three martyrs were thrown into the Biver Seine, but were afterwards recovered and honourably buried by a Christian lady named Catalla, not far from the place where they suffered. Over the tomb a chapel was built, which in the 5th century was replaced by a church. The famous abbey of St Denis was founded on the same spot by Dagobcrt in the 7th century. A later legend of the French church, following the tradition of the Greek Church, identified St Denis of Paris with Dionysius the Areopagite, who was converted by St Paul. One of the gravest charges brought against Abelard was the fact that he denied this identity on the authority of a passage in Bede. St Denis was gradually adopted as tho patron saint of the French people, St Louis being tho patron saint of the royal family. His festival is celebrated on the 9th October.

DENIZEN, an alien who obtains by letters patent {ex donatione regis) .certain of the privileges of a British subject He cannot be a member of the P-ivy Council or of Parliament, or hold any civil or military office of trust, or take a grant of land from the Crown. The Naturalization Act, 1870, provides that nothing therein contained shall affect the grant of any letters of denization by Her Majesty. See Naturalization.

DENMAN, Thomas, First Baron (1779-1854), one of the most distinguished of the chief-justices of England, was born at London, the son of a well-known physician, 23d July 1779. He received the rudiments of his edurn lion at Palgravo School, near Diss, in Norfolk, at that time conducted by Sirs Barbauld. At ten years of age ho was sent to Eton, and he afterwards was entered at St Johu's College, Cambridge, where he graduated in 1800. He took only an ordinary degree, having a positive distaste for mathematics. Soon after leaving Cambridge he married; and in 1806 he was_ called to the bar at Lincoln's Inn, and at once entered upon practice. His success was rapid, and in a few years he attained a position at the bar second only to that of Brougham and Scarlett. He distinguished himself by his eloquent defence of the Luddites; but his most brilliant appearance was as one of the counsel for Queen Caroline. His speech before the Lords was very powerful, and some competent judges even considered it not inferior to Brougham's. It contained one or two daring passages/ which made the king his bitter enemy, and retarded his legal promotion. At the general election of 1818 he was returned M.P. for Warehani, and at once took his seat with the Whig opposition. In the following year he was returned for Nottingham, for which place he continued to sit till his elevation to the bench in ] 832. His liberal principles had caused his exclusion from office till in 1822 he was appointed common Serjeant by the corporation of London. In 1830 he was made attorney-general under Lord Grey's administration. Two years later he was made lord chief-justice of the King's Bench, and in 1834 he was raised to the peerage. As a judge he is most celebrated for his decision in the important privilege case of Stockdale ». Hansard; but he was never ranked as a profound lawyer. In 1850 he resigned the chief-justiceship of the Queen's Bench and retired into private life. He died September 26, 1854.

See Memoir of Thomat, JirU Iaiiv Detimmi, by Sir Joseph ArnoiJJ, 2 role. 1F73.

DENMARK. The kingdom of Denmark, once a considerable power in Europe, but now confined within very narrow limits, comprises the peninsula of Jutland on the European continent and a group of islands in the Baltic. It lies between 54" 34' and 57* 44' 62' N. lat., and between 8* 4' and 12* 34' E long., with the exception of the Island of Bornholm, which lies between 14* 42' and 15' 10' E. long. It is bounded N. by the Skagerrack ; E by the Cattegat, the Bound, and the Baltio; S. by the Baltic, the Little Belt, and the German duchy of Schleswig; and W. by the North Sea. Its area amounts to 14,553 English square miles. With the oxception of Bornholm. which is situated considerably to the east between Pomerania and Sweden, the islands all lie close to one another, and form a cluster that almost closes the entrance to the Baltic The largest island, and the nearest to Sweden, is Zealand, or Sjajlland; the next in size, Funen, or Fyen, is divided from Jutland by only a minute channel; Lolland, Bornholm, Falster, Langeland, Moen, Samso, .£ro, Lsesb, Taasinge, Anholt, are, in order of their importance, the other noticeable islands.

Coast and Hut-face.—The coasts of Denmark is generally low and sandy; the whole western shore of Jutland is a succession of sand-ridges and shallow lagoons, very danger ous to shipping. Skagen, or the Scaw, a long, low, sandy point, stretches far into the northern sea, dividing the Skagerrack from the Cattegat. On the eastern side the coast is not so inhospitable; on the contrary there are Beveral excellent havens, especially on the islands. Nowhere, however, is the coast very high, except at one or two points in Jutland, and at the eastern extremity of Moen, where limestone cliffs exist. The long fjords, or 1rths, into which the proximity of the islands divides the coast, form a distinguishing feature. There is little variety in the surface of Denmark. It is uniformly low, the highest point in the whole country, Himmelbjerget in

Jutland, being only 550 feet above tho sea. Denmark, however, is nowhere low in the sense in which Holland is; the country is pleasantly diversified, and rues a little at the coast even though it remains flat inland. The landscape of the islands and the south-eastern part of Jutland is rich in beech-woods, coru-nelds, and meadows, and even the minute islets are green and fertile. In the western and northern districts of Jutland this gives place to a wide expanse of moorland, covert*! with heather, and ending at the sea in low, whitish-grey cliffs. There is a melancholy charm even about these monotonous tracts, and it cannot bo said that Denmark is wanting in natural beauty, though of a quiet order. It is obvious that in such a country there can exist no rivers. The Gudenaa, the longest of the Danish streams, is little more than a brook. Nor are there any large lakes. Pieces of water of considerable size, however, are numerous; of these the largest are the Arresd and the Esromsd in Zealand, and the chain of lakes of various names near Silkeborg in Jutland. Many of these meres, overhung with thick beechwoods, are extremely beautiful.

The climate presents no remarkable features. The country lies at the division between Eastern and Western Europe, and partakes of the characteristics of both. Its climate differs from that of Scotland (which is in the same latitude) less in the nature of the seasons than in the rapidity of their transitions. The following are the mean annual temperature (Fohr.) .•—

Copenhagen. Fredcrikahara.

Winter 82-9 82

Spring. 437 43-02

Summer 63 05 60-85

Autumn 49-1 48 65

Whole year 47 18 46-00

Snow falls on an average on thirty days in the year, and westerly winds are more prevalent than easterly in the ratio of 16 to 10. Storms of wind and rain are exceedingly frequent, particularly in July and August In the district of Aalborg, in tho north of Jutland, a cold and dry N.W. wind cajled siai prevails in May and June, and is exceedingly destructive to vegetation ; while along the west coast of the peninsula similar effects are produced by a salt mist, which carries its influence from 15 to 30 miles inland.

The fauna of Denmark presents no peculiarity. The wild animals and birds are those of the rest of Central Europe. The larger quadrupeds are all extinct; even the red deer—which was formerly so abundant that in a single hunt in Jutland in August 1593 no less than 1600 head of deer were killed—is now only to be met with in preserves. In the kjokken-moddings and elsewhere, however, are found vestiges which prove that the urochs, the wild boar, the beaver, the bear, and the wolf have all existed since the arrival of man. The usual domestic animals are abundantly found in the Denmark of to-day, with the exception of the goat, which is very uncommon.

In her flora, Denmark presents greater variety than would have been anticipated from so low and monotonous a country. The ordinary forms of the north of Europe grow with great luxuriance in the mild air and protected soil of the islands and the eastern coast; while on the heaths and along the sandhills on the Atlantic side there flourish a great variety of unusual species.

The Danish forest is almost exclusively made up of beech, a tree which thrives better in Denmark than in any other country of Europe. The oak and ash are now rare, though in ancient times both took a prominent place in clothing the Danish islands. The almost universal predominance of the beech dates from about two centuries ago. In the reign of Christian IV. the oak was still the characteristic Danish tree. No conifer grows in Denmark, except under careful

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