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Emigration, which at one time was carried on to a con- | siderable extent, has in recent years greatly diminished. Of the 2088 persons who left Denmark in 1875, 1678 emigrated to the United States • of America, 329 to Australia, 47 to Canada, and 34 to' other parts of America, including the Salt Lake City.
The Danes are a yellow-haired and blue-eyed Teutonic race, of middling stature, and still bearing traces of their kinship with the Northern Scandinavian peoples. Their habits of life resemble those of the North Germans even more than those of their friendly, neighbours the Swedes. The independent tenure of the land by a vast number of small farmers, bonder, who are their own masters, gives an air of carelessness, almost of truculence, to the well-to-do Danish peasant. He is thoroughly well satisfied with himself, takes an eager interest in current politics, and is generally a fairly-educated man of extreme democratic principles. The gaiety of the Danes is surprising; they have nothing of the stolidity of the Germans, or the severity of the Norwegians. The townspeople show a-iias in favour of French habits and fashions. The separation from the duchies of Schleswig and Holstein, which were more than half German, has intensified the national character; and there is now no portion of the Danish dominions, except perhaps in the West Indian islands, where a Scandinavian language is not spoken.
History.—The original form of the word Denmark is Danmork, the march or border of the Danir; but whence the name Danir, or Danes, proceeded is undecided, and has given rise to endless antiquarian discussion. A traveller of the name of Pytheas, who lived more than three centuries before the Christian era, is the first to speak of a northern country, under the name of Thule, by which he is believed to have meant Jutland. At this time the inhabitants of Southern Scandinavia are supposed to have been Celts, and it was long after this that what Bask defined as the Sarmatic Invasion (the flooding of the north of Europe by emigrants from Asia) began to take place. These Goths, as they were called, came through Russia into Germany and Denmark, and passed on into Sweden across the Sound. It used to be supposed that they pushed before them the races of the Lapps and Finns, but the latest discoveries of archaeology tend to prove that these latter came from Siberia over the north of the Gulf of Bothnia,and met the Goths a little outside the Arctic Circle. The gods anciently worshipped in Denmark were the AZsir, a family of heroic deities in which the characteristics of the leaders of the Sarmatic Invasion are probably enshrined. The language spoken by all the Northern Goths was originally, or very early, called the Domic tunga, or Danish tongue, which gave way in the 13th and 14th centuries, when the Danish supremacy was on the decline, to Norrana Mil, or Norse speech. From the earliest historical accounts we possess it appears that Jutland was divided among a great number of petty chieftains, often at war with one another. These tmaa-Ttongar, or " little kings," as they were called, were, however, to some degree banded together, and entirely distinct from the eastern Danes of the islands. These also were ruled by a variety of chiefs, but they all recognized the supremacy of the king of Lejre, a city in Zealand somewhere near the present town of Boeskilde. Western Denmark was known to the Northmen as Bed Gotland, and consisted of all the mainland north of the Elbe, that is, Holstein, Schleswig,. and Jutlarfd. Island Gotland consisted of the islands, and of the provinces of Skaania and Bleking, that is, all the south of Sweden. During the rule of the Valdemar kings, the old chronicler, Saxo Grammaticus, recorded in Latin an immense number of mythical and semi-mythical stories concerning the old history of Denmark, and his chronicle
is a treasure-house of truth and falsehood. According to him, the country takes its name from a King Dan the Famous, who united the tmaa-kongar under his sole rule, and He was succeeded by a King Frode, with whom a golden age set in. The question of supremacy among the Scandinavian peoples was settled in favour of Sweden at the battle of Bravalla, which was fought, as is supposed, in the 8th century between Sigurd Ring, king of Sweden, and Harald Hildetand, king of Denmark; with this battle the purely mythic age closes In 823 the gospel was first preached in Denmark by Borne Frankisb monks sent by the emperor Louis le Debonaire. Little was done in the way of actual conversion, but the road was opened for future missionaries. The famous Ansgarius failed to impress the Danes, though he was consoled by his brilliant success among the Swedes. The Christians," however, began by degrees to be tolerated. The first king of all Denmark was Qorm the Old, who flourished between 860 and 936. He was the son of a king of Lejre, and by great administrative and strategical skill managed to absorb into his hereditary dominions not only all that is now included in Denmark, but Schleswig, Holstein, Skaania, and even some provinces in Norway. And besides gaining all this territory, he also pushed his conquests for a while as far as Smolensk and Kieff in Russia, as Aix-la-Chapelle in Germany, and as Sens in France, after besieging Paris.
At the period in question, or rather somewhat later, namely, about the early part of the 10th century, commences the authentic history of the country. As early as the 8th century the Danes were remarkable for their wellplanned predatory expeditions by Bea, as was proved by their repeated invasions of England, their occasional descents on Scotland, and their conquest of Normandy. To cross a sea of three or four hundred miles in breadth was a bold undertaking for men unacquainted with the use of the compass; but the number of islands in Denmark early accustomed the inhabitants to navigation, and gave them a practical dexterity in it.
The early establishment of the Danes in England, and the subsequent arrival of bodies of their countrymen, joined to the talents of two of their princes, Sweyn, or Svend, and Canute, enabled the latter to acquire the'crown of England. Canute (or Knud) the Great completed the conquest begun by his father, and became kin j of England as well as of Denmark in the year 1018; he resided generally in the former country, and left the crown to his sons Harald and Harthaknud. On the death of the latter, without male heirs, the Danish dynasty in England came to a close in 1012.
The feudal system was introduced in the 12th century, which, as well as the 13th, was marked in Denmark by contentions between the sovereign and the barons. About the 13th century the population of the towns in Denmark, as in Germany, though still very small, became such as to entitle them to obtain from the Crown charters of incorporation, and an exemption from the control of the barons, in whom was vested almost the whole property of the land. A regular constitution began now to be formed in Denmark, and the towns sent deputies or representatives to the States, Or Parliament, which, it was enacted, should meet once a year. It was also ordered .that the laws should be uniform throughout the kingdom, and that no tax should be imposed without the authority of Parliament
It is unnecessary to recapitulate the successive sovereigns of Denmark in the Middle Ages, of whom few were of distinguished ability. The names of most frequent occurrence among them in those early times were Knud, Valdemar, and Erik. Those of Christiern, or Christian, and Frederick were of later date. One of the most remarkable of the sovereigns in the Middle Ages was Valdemar II.. who suoceed«sd to the crown in 1202, and who was the most prosperous and afterwards the most unfortunate of Danish kings. He conquered Holstein and Fomerania, and in 1217 the emperor recognized his authority over a large part of the north of Germany,—all in fact north of the Elbe. Valdcmar then pushed his forces into Norway and Sweden, but with less success; but in 1219 ho set out on a vast crusade against the Pagans in Esthonia, the whole of which lie overran, forcibly converting the inhabitants. It was in this war that Denmark commenced to nse the Daunebroq. or national standard, a white cross on a bloodred field. On his return, in the midst of his magnificent success, a great calamity befell Valdemar; he was treacherously captured at Lyii in 1223 by the duke of Schwerin, and imprisoned for several years in a dungeon in Mecklenburg; but he finally escaped, and ruled until his death in 12-11.
The chief mercantile intercourse of Denmark in those times was with Lubeck and the north-west of Germany. To the Baltic Lubeck was nearly what Venice was to the Mediterranean, the earliest commercial town of consequence. There was also some traffic from Denmark to the mouths of the Vistula,—the name of Dantzic, or Dansvik (Danish town or port), indicating that a Danish colony, aware of the advantages of the situation, had established itself there.
During the same period (the 14th century), the association of the Hanse Towns had acquired considerable strength, and asserted strenuously the freedom of commerce in tho north of Europe. Denmark, commanding the entrance into the Baltic, was the power most interested in laying merchant vessels under a toll or regular contribution; and the result was repeated contentions, followed at times by open war, between the Danish Government and this powerful confederacy.
The most important event, however, in the history of Denmark, or indeed of Scandinavia, in the Middle Ages, was the conjunct submission of Sweden, Denmark, and Norway to oue sovereign, by the compact or union of Caluaar, in the year 1397. Valdemar III., king of Denmark, having died in the year 1378, left two daughters, of whom the second, Margaret, was married to Hakon VI., king of Norway. On the demise of her husband the government of Norway remained in her hands; and afterwards, on the death of her son, who had been declared king of Denmark, the States, or Parliament, of that country £xed this princess cn the throne, on her consenting to extend and secure their rights and privileges. The States of Norway followed their example; so that Margaret, finding herself seated on the thrones of Denmark and Norway, directed her attention to that of Sweden, the succession to which would have fallen to her husband Hakon had he survived. The Swedes were divided into two parties—that of Margaret, and that of a duke of Mecklenburg. An appeal to arms took place, and the result was favourable to the cause of the queen, her competitor being defeated and made prisoner. In 1397 the States of the three kingdoms were convoked at Calmar, a town situated in the south of Sweden. There they concurred in passing the Act known as the Union of Calmar, by which the three kingdoms were henceforth to be under one sovereign, who should, however, be bound to govern each according to its respective laws and customs. To guard against their separation, it was enacted that, if a sovereign should leave several sons, one of them only should be the ruler of the three kingdoms, ind in the event of the reigning king or queen dying without children, the senators and parliamentary deputies of the three kingdoms should jointly proceed to the election of another joint sovereign.
Such were the precautions taken by Margaret, who has beza called the Semiramis of the North, in order to banish
war and political dissensions from Scandinavia. For a time they were successful, and peace and concord were maintained during the lifetime of the queen and" her two successors. But the union, as regarded the Swedes, was far from being cordial; they submitted reluctantly to a foreign family, and considered themselves as obliged to act in subserviency to the political views of Denmark. At last the severity, or rather the cruelty, of one of the Danish kings, Christian II., and the appearance of an able assertor of Swedish independence in Gustavus Vasa, led to an insurrection, which, beginning in the northern province of Dalecarlia, extended throughout Sweden, and led to a definitive separation of the two crowns in the year 1523.
In 1490 the reigning king of Denmark mado a com mercial treaty with Henry VIL of England, by which tbe English engaged to pay the Sound dues on all vessels entering or returning from the Baltic: and in return they were allowed to have mercantile consuls in the chief seaports of Denmark and Norway. By this time the extension of trade htd given rise in Denmark, as in England, to a middle class, among whom the sovereign found iu each country the means of balancing the political weight of the nobility; hence a grant was made by the kings of Denmaik of various privileges to traders, and of relief from a number of local imposts on the transit of merchandise.
The rude habits of the age were strongly marked by the difficulty which the Danish Government found in putting a stop to the practice of plundering merchantmen shipwrecked on the coast. The practice was to collect in the vicinity of a wreck such a number of the inhabitants as to prevent the master or mariners from opposing the seizure of the merchandise. Even bishops residing on the coast, though humane in their treatment of the crews, did not scruple to aid in taking forcible possession of the cargo; and it is a remarkable fact, that a law passed by the king, about the year 1521, for the prevention of these practices, was abrogated and publicly bnmed at the instance of the barons and clergy a few years after, when a new sovereign had succeeded to the crown.
The doctrines of the Reformation found their way into Denmark at an early date. Frederick I., who began to reign in 1525, and had formerly been duke of Holstein, in that year embraced the Protestant religion. The inhabitants of Denmark being divided between the Catholics and Protestants, Frederick began by an edict for tolerating both religions. An assembly of the States, or Parliament, next passed a solemn Act for the free preaching of the Protestant faith, and for allowing ecclesiastics of any class to marry and reside in any part of the kingdom. The consequence of this was a reduction of the number of the inmates of abbeys, monasteries, and convents, along with the general diffusion of the Lutheran faith throughout the kingdom. This rapid progress enabled the succeeding sovereign, Christian lit, to act like Henry VIII. of England, by annexing tho church-lands to the Crown, and strengthening the power of the sovereign at the expense of that of the clergy.
The great religious war which broke out in 1618 for the first time fixed the attention of Europe on Denmark. The victories of the imperial general Tilly, and of Maximilian of Bavaria, over the Protestants, appeared to make the Emperor Ferdinand, who was the head of the Catholic party, complete master of Germany, when Christian IV. of Denmark, encouraged by England and France, determined to take up the Protestant cause as a principal in the general contest. But being weakly supported by his allies, the Danish king, after one year's campaign, was obliged to flee before the victorious army of Wallenstein (1626),- and to sue for peace, which was concluded at Lubeck in 1629. By the stipulations of this peace Denmark bound itself never to interfere iu the affairs of Germany, and was oesides compelled to acknowledge Wallenstein as duke of Mecklenburg. This peace would have been still more humiliating for Denmark, if France, already influenced by the counsels of Richelieu, had not interposed ils efforts on behalf of the vanquished. The emperor now thought of nothing less than the entire subjection of Germany to his will. A new adversary, however, arose in Gustavus Adolphus the king of Sweden. The short and glorious career of this king will be found described in its proper place. But this much must bo here observed, that despite the fall of Adolphus in the battle of Liitzen in 1632, the power of Sweden was becoming continually more considerable, and consequently an object of real envy to all its neighbours, but especially to Denmark. Thus it happened that besides the general religious war, repeated hostilities were being carried on between Sweden and Denmark separately.
The first contest lasted from 1637 to 1645, and the treaty concluded in the latter year proved rather a truce than a peace. The Danish Government formed an alliance with Holland, and aided that republic in its sanguinary contest in 1652 with England, then under the authority of Cromwell. The king of Sweden at that time was Charles Gustavus, a prince in the vigour of life, and actuated by all the ambition and enterprise of the house of Vasa. He had carried his military operations into Poland, which then, as at other times, seemed to invite the presence of foreigners by its internal dissensions. But on learning the hostile disposition of the Danish Government, Charles withdrew his troops from Poland, entered Holstein, and overran the whole province. As soon as the winter had advanced, and it had become practicable to cross on the ice the arms of the sea separating the Danish islands from the mainland, the Swedish army traversed in that manner the Little Belt, took Odense, the capital of the island of Funen, and even invested Copenhagea That capital was not without a military force, but its walls were weak, nor was it adequately supplied with provisions or military stores. On this occasion the Danes, with their king Frederick HI. at their head, displayed great firmness, and resisted the efforts of the Swedes, until; under the mediation of the English envoy at the court of Copenhagen, hostilities were suspended, and a treaty signed. This treaty, however, was only partly carried into execution. Dissatisfied at the delay which took place, Charles Gustavus made a second attempt on Copenhagen iu the autumn of 1658; but he found it impracticable to prevent the introduction of supplies into the city by sea, as the Dutch now came to the assistance of their Danish allies. Still the Swedes persisted in the siege, and in the depth of winter (in February 1659) made an attempt to take Copenhagen by storm. The attacks were made on three points; each was headed by an able commander, but all were unsuccessful, and the siege was necessarily converted into a blockade. Soon afterwards the king of Sweden died, and the sanguinary contest was brought to a close by the treaty of Copenhagen in 1660. This peace ceded to the Swedish Crown Skaania, Aland, several places on the island of Riigen, and a free passage through the Sound.
In the following year, 1660, the vicissitudes of war were succeeded by a remarkable revolution in domestic politics. The reigning king of Denmark had gained great popularity, as well by his spirit and firmness in the field, as by resisting the claims made by the nobility to the disadvantage of the other orders of the state. He was thus assured of the support of the middle classes in any attempt to reduce the
fower of the nobility. On the assembling of the States, or arliament, the representatives of the different towns were found sufficiently strong, when united with the clergy and strengthened by the power of the Crown, to outweigh the
influence of the nobility, aud the court determined to act with vigour in extending its prerogative. The political contest began about the crown lands, which had hitherto been let to nobles only, and at very low rents. It was proposed arfd carried in the Parliament, that men of any class or station might henceforth be candidates for them, and that they should be let to the highest bid&er. The next proposition of the clergy aud commons was, that the crown, hitherto in some degree elective, should be" so no longer, but should devolve, as a matter of right, on the lawful heir, whether male or female. Henceforth, in Denmark, whatever power conld be shown to have belonged to any ruler in any country, was now forthwith to be understood as belonging to the king.
This remarkable change in the form of the government is to be explained chiefly by the repugnance of the people of Denmark to the ascendency of the nobility. The French Revolution proceeded from causes somewhat similar; but in Denmark the control possessed by the privileged class was not tempered, as in France, by civilized and refined habits. The direct authority of the nobles was also greater, for they possessed the power of life and death over their vassals. Frederick lived ten years after this singular evolution,—a period which enabled him to consolidate it, and to reinstate in pea.ee the trade and finances of his country.
His successor, led away by the ardour of youth, abandoned the pacific policy of his father, and ventured to make war against Sweden. He relied on the aid of the elector of Brandenburg, commonly called the Great Elector, the possession of so extensive a country as Prussia placing him quite at the head of the princes of the empire. Swedish Pomeronia was chosen as the scene of operations, from being open to attack by the Prussians. The Swedes were overmatched in force, but being well commanded, they made a firm and spirited resistance. By sea the Danes had the advantage, having the aid of a Dutch squadron commanded by Van Tromp. ' This enabled them to convey an invading force to Skaania, or Scania, the southern and most fertile province of Sweden. Here the forces of the Swedes were brought to bear against their opponents, with the advantage of vicinity to their supplies. The result was that the Danes were obliged to retreat from Skaania, and, after several alternations of success, peace was signed between the two kingdoms in 1G79, the year after the treaty of Nimeguen had suspended the war in the central part of Europe. As usual, after much bloodshed and many vicissitudes of fortune, the adverse states were placed by the treaty in nearly the same situation as at the commencement of the war; but hopes of peace for the future were justified by the marriage of the young king of Sweden, Charles XL, with a princess of Denmark.
These hopes were realized during twenty years; and peace continued until 1699, when, Charles XI. having died, the reigning king of Denmark, Frederick IV., was tempted by the youth of Charles XII. of Sweden to invade the dominions of his ally the duke of Holstein. Frederick was little aware of the spirit of his opponent, who became afterwards so well known in the wars of the north of Europe. Charles, determined to strike at once at hia enemy's capital, lost no time in crossing the narrow sea between Sweden and Denmark, and in investing the city of Copenhagen. The inhabitants in alarm appealed to the humanity of the young monarch; and the result was the speedy conclusion of peace, with the payment of a sum of money to the Swedes. Taught by this lesson, the Danish Government remained neutral in the following years, when the course of events led Charles and hia army into Poland and Saxony, where for a time success attended his arms. After the defeat of Charles at the battle of Pnltowa, ia the year 1709, and his subsequent flight into Turkey, the king of Denmark eagerly embraced the opportunity of renewing hostilities with Sweden, and invaded both Holstein in the south and the province of Skaania to the north. Skaania was badly provided with troops, but it had officers trained in one of the best military schools of the age, and a peasantry full of national antipathy to the Danes. The result was a spirited attack on the invading army, followed by its defeat and precipitate flight into Denmark. The war was then carried on with alternate success in different parts—in Fomerania, in Holstein, and in Norway; until at last the military career of Charles XII. came unexpectedly to a close in the end of 1718. Some time afterwards, negotiations were opened between Sweden and Denmark, under the mediation of England, and ended in 1720 in a definitive treaty of peace, concluded at Stockholm. It was then that Sweden lost all the advantages gained since the Peace of Westphalia, and that George I. of England, as elector of Hanover, Prussia, and Peter the Great shared with Denmark the spoil of Sweden, From that time no danger threatened Denmark from the side of its neighbour, though the cessation of the rivalry was more perceptible in the decline of Sweden than in the progress of Denmark.
The Danish Government had now ample experience of the sacrifices attendant on war, and of the expediency, to a state of such limited power, of avoiding political collisions. It consequently adopted a peace policy, to which it has almost ever since endeavoured to adhere.
It waa towards the middle of the 18th century that the family of Bernstorff became known in the councils of Denmark,—the first minister of that name, a man of superior talent and information, having come forward at that time. By the prudence of the ministry, and the pacific disposition of the sovereign, Denmark was kept from taking part in the war begun in Germany in 1740, as well is in the more general contest begun in the same country ia 1756.
Frederick V. of Denmark was twice married, and died in 1766, leaving a son by each wife. The crown devolved of course on the elder, his son by the first wife, who took the neme of Christian VIL He was a weak prince, and listened too readily to the insinuations of his step-mother, whose secret wish was to secure the succession of the crown to her own son, and who did not scruple, with that view, to sow discord between Christian and his young consort, a princess of England, the youngest daughter of George II. The circumstances were these. A German adventurer named Struensee had ingratiated himself into the favour of Frederick V., the late king, and had found means to be appointed his prime minister—a situation which he was ill qualified to fill He continued to hold that office under Christian, and was introduced to the young queen as her husband's confidential minister. On this the queen dowager founded an intrigue, and succeeded in persuading the king that the queen, in concert with Struensee and his friend Count Brandt, had formed a project to set him aside, and to get herself declared regent of the kingdom. By corking on the fears of this weak prince, the queen dowager prevailed on him to authorize the arrest of the queen and the two ministers The latter were thrown into prison, and Struensee was accused of having abused his authority as minister, and of other criminal acta. As there was no proof of these acts, recourse was had to the barbarous alternative of torture, the dread of which led Struensee to declare, in the form of a confession, much to the injury of the young queen, which is now considered as unfounded. This, however, did not enable him to escape, for he and Count Brandt were both beheaded in April 1772; whilst the queen consort was, at the instance of the British
Government, allowed to retire and to pass the remainder of her short life at Zell, in Hanover, repeatedly but fruitlessly demanding an open trial. This ill-fated princess died in her twenty-third year, without the satisfaction of knowing that the author of her misfortunes, the queen dowager, had lost her influence at the court of Denmark.
One of the principal political questions between Great Britain and Denmark occurred in 1780, during the war carried on by England against France, Spain, and the North American colonies. During that arduous contest, England, superior at sea, had no difficulty in obtaining, by her own merchantmen, a supply of hemp, cordage, and other naval Btores from the Baltic, whilst France and Spain trusted to receiving such supplies by neutral vessels. But the English Government denied the right of neutrals to carry warlike stores ; and the northern powers, headed by the ambitious Catherine of Russia, entered into a compact, called the Armed Neutrality, by which, without resorting to actual hostility, they sough!, to overawe England, and to continue the questionable traffic. Happily no bloodshed followed this diplomatic menace, and the question fell to the ground in 1782, on the negotiution for a general peace.
The king of Denmark, subject all along to imbecility, became after 1781 quite incapablo of governing. His son, the crown prince, was therefore appointed regent, and soon passed several judicious enactments. The peasants living on the crown lands were gradually emancipated—an example followed by a number of the nobility on their respective estates. In the abolition of the African slave trade Denmark had the honour of taking the lead amOng the Governments of Europe. The crown prince, guided by the counsels of Count Bernstorff, son of the minister already mentioned, long remained neutral in the political convulsion engendered by the French Bevolution. He continued to adhere steadfastly to this plan until in 1801 the emperor Paul of Russia having, as in the cose of the Armed Neutrality, formed a compact of the northern powers hostile to England, a British fleet was sent into the Baltic under the orders of Sir Hyde Parker, with Lord Nelson as his second in command.
It was this fleet which taught the Danes that their capital was not impregnable, and that the long line of men-of-war moored in front of the harbour was an in. sufficient defence against such enterprising opponents. The attack took place on 2d of April 1801; and the resistance of the Danes was spirited, but fruitless. The loss of the English in killed and wounded exceeded 1000 men, but that of their opponents was much greater, and most of their shipping was destroyed. Happily little injury was done to the capital A cessation of hostilities took place forthwith, and was followed by u treaty of peace. The death of Paul, which occurred soon afterwards, dissolved the compact between the northern courts.
But no treaty of peace could be regarded as permanent during the ascendency of Napoleon. After defeating first Austria and then Prussia, that extraordinary man found means to obtain the confidence of the emperor Alexander of Russia, and in the autumn of 1807 threatened to make Denmark take part in the war against England. Although the Danish Government discovered no intention to violate its neutrality, the English ministers, eager to please the public by acting on a system of vigour, despatched to the Baltic both a fleet and an army, in order to compel the surrender of the Danish navy, upon condition of its being restored in the event of peace. To such a demand the crown prince gave an immediate negative, declaring that he was both able and willing to maintain his neutrality, and that his fleet could not be given up on any such condition. On this the English army landed near Copenhagen, laid siege to that city, and soon obliged the Government to purchase its safety by surrendering the whole of its naval force.
This act, the most questionable in point of justice of any committed by the British Government during the war, can hardly be defended on the score of policy. The resentment felt on the occasion by the emperor of Russia was so great as to deprive England during four arduous years of the benefit of his alliance; and the seizure of the Danish fleet so exasperated the crown prince and the nation at large, that they forthwith declared war against England, throwing themselves completely into the arms of France.
The hostilities between England and Denmark were carried on by sea, partly at the entrance of the Baltic, and partly on the coast of Norway. These consisted of a series of actions between single vessels or small detachments, in which the Danes fought always with spirit, and not unfrequently with success. In regard to trade, both nations suffered severely,—the British merchantmen in the Baltic being much annoyed by Danish cruisers, whilst the foreign trade of Denmark was in a manner suspended, through the naval superiority of England.
The situation of the two countries continued on the same footing during five years, when at last the overthrow of Bonaparte in Russia opened a hopo of deliverance to those who were involuntarily his allies. The Danish Government would now gladly have made peace with England; but the latter, in order to secure the cordial cooperation of Russia and Sweden, had gone so far as to guarantee to these powers the cession of Norway on the part of Denmark. The Danes, ill prepared for so great a sacrifice, continued their connection with France during the eventful year 1813; but at the close of that campaign a superior force was directed by the allied sovereigns against Holstein, and the result was, first an armistice, and eventually a treaty of peace in January 1814. The terms of the peace were, that Denmark should cede Norway to Sweden, and that Sweden, in return, should give up Pomerania to Denmark. But Pomerania, being too distant to form a suitable appendage to the Danish territory, was exchanged for a sum of money and a small district in Lauenburg adjoining Holstein. On the part of England, the conquests made from Denmark in thB East and West Indies were restored,—all, in short, that had been occupied by British troops, excepting Heligoland,
After the Congress of Vienna, by which the extent of the Danish monarchy was considerably reduced, the court of Copenhagen was from time to time disquieted by a spirit of discontent manifesting itself in the duchies, and especially in that of Holstein, the outbreak of which in 1848 threatened the monarchy with complete dissolution. A short recapitulation of the relation of the different parts of the kingdom to each other will furnish a key to the better comprehension of these internal troubles. Y?hen Christian L of the house of Oldenburg ascended the throne of Denmark in 1448, he was at the same time elected duke of Schleswig and Holstein, while his younger brother received Oldenburg and Delmcnhorst. In 1544 the older branch was again divided into two lines, that of the royal house of Denmark, and that of the dukes of Holstein-Gottorp. Several collateral branches arose 'afterwards, of which those that survived were—the Augustenburg and Gliicksburg branches belonging to the royal line, and the ducal Holstein-Gottorp branch, the head of which was Peter IIL of Russia. In 1762 Peter threatened Denmark with a war, the avowed object of which was the recovery of Schleswig, which had been expressly guaranteed to the Danish Crown by England and France at the Peace of Stockholm (1720). His sudden dethronement, however, prevented him from putting this design into execution. The empress Catharine agreed to an accommodation, which was signed at Copenhagen in
1764, and subsequently confirmed by the emperor Paul, 1773, by which the ducal part of Schleswig was ceded to Us Crown of Denmark. The czar abandoned also his part of Holstein in exchange for Oldenburg and Dclmonhurst, which he transferred to the youuger branch of the Gottorp family. According to the scheme of Germanic organization adopted by tho Congress of Vienna, the king of Denmark was declared member of the Germanic body on account of Holstein and Lauenburg, invested with three votes iu the General Assembly, uud had a place, the tenth in rank, in the ordinary diet.
After the restoration of peace in 1815, the states of tho duchy of Holstein, never so cordially blended with Denmark as those of Schleswig, began to show their dis content at the continued non-convocation of their own assemblies despite the assurances of Frederick VI. Tho preparation of a new constitution for the whole kingdom was the maiu pretext by which the court evaded tho claims of the petitioners, who met, however, with no better success from the German diet, before which they brought their complaints in 1822. After the stirring year of 1830, the movement in the duchies, soon to degenerate into a mutual animosity between the Danish and German population, became more general. The scheme of the court to meet their demands by the establishment of separate deliberative assemblies for each of the provinces failed to satisfy the Holsteiners, who continually urged the revival of their long-neglected local laws and privileges. Nor were matters changed at tho accession in 1838 of Christian VIII., a prince noted for his popular sympathies and liberal principles. The feeling of national animosity was greatly increased by the issue of certain orders for Schleswig, which tended to encourage the culture of the Danish language to the prejudice of the German. The elements of a revolution being thus in readiness waited only for some impulse to break forth into action. Christian died in the very beginning of 1848, before the outbreak of the French revolution in February, and left his throne to his Bun Frederick VII., who had scarcely received tho royal unction when half of his subjects rose in rebellion against him.
In March 1848 Prince Frederick of Augustenburg, having gained over the garrison of Rendsburg, put himself at the head of a provisional Government proclaimed at KM. A Danish army, marching into Schleswig, easily reduced the duchy as far as the banks of tho Eider; but, in the meantime, the new national assembly of Germany resolved upon tho incorporation of Schleswig; and the king o' Prussia followed up their resolution by sending an army into tho duchies under the command of General WrangeL The Prussian general, after driving the Danes from Schlcs wig, marched into Jutland; but on the 26th of August an armistice was signed at Malmoe, and an agreement come to by which the government of the duchies was intrusted to a commission of five members—-two nominated by Prussia, two by Denmark, and the fifth by the common consent oi tho four, Denmark being also promised an indemnification for the requisitions made in Jutland.
After the expiry of the armistice, the war was renewed with the aid of Prussian troops and other troops of the confederacy (from March to July 1849), when Prussia signed a Becund armistice for six months. The duchies now continued to increase their own troops, being determined to carry on the war at their own charge without the aid of Prussia, whose policy they stigmatized as inconsistent and treacherous. The chief command of the SchleswigHolstein army was intrusted to General Willisen, a scientific and able soldier; but henceforth the Danes had little to fear, especially as the cry of German unity brought but an insignificant number of volunteers to the camp of the Holsteiners. The last victory of the Danes, under generals