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defertion. Yet on a nearer view of circumstances and characters, we shall not consider the political martyr, merely as a convert to false popularity, but rather as a refined (though often disappointed) specula:ist, who weighs the chances of events, and calculates the fluctuations of power with an almost arithmetical nicety.'

It is needless to lead our Readers into those intricate mazes in political conduct, which the ingenious Writer thinks it easy to unravel, by the help of this clue.

The ibird species of these self-created martyrs are, the self- -proclaimed victims, who court the public favour, or pacify the public resentment, not only by voluntary but even by visionary fufferings. In the front of this venerable band appear the military martyrs, armed with recriminating invectives, fhielded by new formed connections, stored with voluminous harangues, arrayed in all the pomp of burlesque inquiries, and adorned with all the trophies of partial approbation. In vain would common sense oppose her strength against the power of military eloquence ; in vain might she reprefent, that true valour would require no aid from the refinements of fophiftry, that real exploits would borrow no ornament from the pomp of declamation; that the commanders of former days established the glory, and extended the empire of their country, not by tedious recitals, but by actual and effectual enterprizes; that the proofs of meritorious service did not then rest upon the opinion of friendly witnesses, but on the records of impartial history, on the gra:eful applause of their countrymer, on the universal sense of mankind.

Here the Author approaches the main object of his view in this publication, viz. the arraignment of the conduct (military and political) of General Burgoyne; which is here exposed to a severity of investigation by no means new to this unfortunate commander, – who, fince his parole-return to England, hath sustained many attacks of this kind : herein experiencing the truth of the maxim held by a celebrated French warrior" That a loft batile hath a long tail.”

Our Author takes leave of the General, with the following declaration of his inducements to the discussion of a subject' by no means agreeable,' viz. 'I will freely own, the first motive that led me to this inquiry, was a desire of vindicating characters very powerfully, or at least speciously assailed. Every step I have proceeded in it, every view in which I have considered it, has uniformly tended to confirm me in this opinion, that you are not that oppressed officer, not that unprejudiced politician, which your speeches and publications have to induftriously proclaimed you --that whatever misfortunes you may have suffered, whatever loffes you may have endored, have been the consequence of your own acts, or the effects of your own solicitation.-llad the case appeared otherwise to my mind, no consideration could cver have induced me to throw the lealt imputation on your conduct, or infinuate the slightest doubt of your fincerity.Art. is. Speech of Edmund Burke, Efq; Member of Parlia

ment for the City of Brittol, on presenting to the House of Commons (Feb. 1), 1780) “ A Plan for the better Security of the Rev. Mar. 1780.

R

Inde Independency of Parliament, and the economical Reformation of the Civil and other Establishments. 8vo. 2 s. Doilley.

This noble and wonderful piece of oratory, of which we have here an authentic copy *, will immortalize the name of BURKE. Art. 16. Thoughts on the present County Petitions. Addressed to

the entlemen, Clergy, and Freeholders, throughout England. By an Old-fashioned Independent Whig. 8vo. 1 s. L. Davis. 1780.

This writer discountenances the petitions, on such grounds as seem to evince his thorough acquaintance with the state of parties in this country. In short, he is a political sceptic, and does not credit even the Minority themselves for any degree of fincerity, in regard to this extraordinary manæuvre :~he does not believe they win co obtain the prayer of their petition, left they should, themselves, be affected by it, when it may be their turn to have the distribution of the loaves and files. These cool thoughts were thrown out during the earlier stages of the county meetings; and the publication was, no doubt, intended to act as a damper.

M E DICA L. Art. 17. Ari Answer to the Letter addressed by Francis Riollay,

Physician of Newbury, 10 Dr. Hardy, on the Hints given concern. ing the Origin of the Gout, in his Publication on the Colic of Devon, &c. &c. By James Hardy, M. D. 8vo. 13. Cadell, &c. 1780.

When a man once mounts his hobby-horse, there is no Atopping him. 'Tis in vain for a friend to say, “ For God's sake, dismount the vicious beast will throw you—you will have your neck brokem your joints dislocated-or at least, you will get heartily splashed and bedaubed.”—It does not fignify-on he goes-whip and spar-till his career ends in a quagmire.

Dr. Hardy having laid down to himself as an undeniable position, “ that the primary causes of the gout arise from the action of mineral substances admitted into the human system,” will not recede from his point, though affailed by the most powerful arguments, both theoretical and experimental. If you tell him, that French gentlemen, who make their own wine, and are remarkably curious about it, would never be so absurd as to mix poison with it, and yet have their full share of the gour-he answers you with a quotation from the Maison Ruftique, in which you find three methods directed for preventing wines from turning fous. The first of these is the suspending á ball of lead in the cask. Here nobody would deny the possibility of a noxious impregnation. The second is the fumigating with brim. itone, or, as we call it, the summing of wine. Now, mark the Doctor's ingenuity! This brimitone, he says, may be native sulphur --native fulphur often contains arsenic-consequently your wine may be impregnated with arsenic by this practice. The third method is boiling down the mult; concerning which, the Doctor thinks it suf

• Another edition has appeared, (but not printed under the Author's inspection) price 18 6 d. Published by Hey, in Paternoster Row,

fisiert

2 S.

ficient to say, that as a vessel of copper, tin, or lead, would probably be used in this operation, his mineral hypothesis is still safe. If after all, you urge, that these noxious impregnations might poflibly occasion a colic or pally, but that the goue is a different affair-nos says he, they are the same thing in effect, though a little different in appearance. To such reasoning do people sometimes descend in support of a favourite hypothesis !

A. Art. 18. An Essay on the Cure of Abscesses, Wounds, and Ulcers: Allo, a New Method of curing ihe Lues Venerea, with Dr. Hun.

t's and Mr. Cruickshanks's Opinion on this Method, and also on the Absorption in Human Bodies; with Experiments on insensible Perspiration. By Peter Clare, Surgeon. The Second Edition, illustrated by Cases and Anatomical Engravings. 8vo.

48. Boards. Cadell, 1779. In our Review for June laft, we gave some account of the first edition of this work. Considerable additions are now made to it, particularly in the observations furnished by Mr Cruickshanks. Art. 19. Thoughts on Amputation. Being a Supplement to the

Letters on Compound Fractures, and a Comment on Dr. Bilguer's Book on this Operation. To which is added, A short Essay on the Use of Opium in Mortifications. By Thomas Kirkland, M. D. Member of the Medical Society at Edinburgh. 8vo. Dawson. 1780.

Mr. Pott, in a late publication *, pointing out the neceffity of amputation in certain cases, and the advantage of performing this operation speedily, was led to make some fevere frictures on Dr. Bilguer's celebrated work, in which a contrary practice was maintained. On the other hand, Dr. Kirkland, of Ashby, takes up the pen in favour of Bilguer, and attempts to fhew, that his general doctrine is neither fo ablard nor mischievous as Mr. Pott has reprefented it; and that his own experience, particulary in compound fractures, confirms the fuppofition that ar putation is much less frequently necessary. than is usually imagined. As degree of injury is almost the sole thing which must determine this point, it is very dif. ficult to lay down any precise rules in these cales ; but we think it fufficiently appears, that Dr. Kirkland and his friends, as well as practitioners in various other parts of the country, have saved many a limb, which would have been doomed, without hesitation, to the knife, in a London hospital. It is very possible, however, that the attempt to save the limb in one case, and its speedy removal in the other, may be both equally right; fince the difference between the air of a crowded city hospital, and that of a private chamber in the country, will give room to expect a very different event in fimilar accidents : and we are rather surprised, that this important circumfance in the debate has been so little dwelt on by either party.

Dr. Kirkland's remarks on the use of opium, in mortifications, tend chiefly to shew, that the propriety of employing this remedy will entirely depend on the particular nature and symptoms of the case: that wherever there is much pain and irritability, opiates will greatly affilt in the cure; but that where the vis vitæ are very languid,

See Review for March 1779.

A.

! s. 6 d.

the part affected indolent, and nervous energy destroyed, cordial and ftimulating medicines are proper, and opium is prejudicial.

N O V E L. Art. 20. The Relapse. A Novel. In Two Volumes. 12mo.

55. Lowndes. 1779. There has, of late, been such an uncommon dearth of this kind of food, chat, at this time, no doubt, many thousand eager appe

tites are craving for fomething new, to whom a dish prepared by the author of Indiana Danby will be a delicious morsel.

B.
AFFAIRS OF THE EAST-INDIA COMPANY.
Art. 21. Thoughts on the Treaty now agitating between Govern-

ment and the East India Company, Thewing the conceived Defects of
che Propositions drawn up by the Court of Directors; and con-
taiping a new Set of Propositions, perhaps more advantageous to
the Public, to the Company, and the oppressed Inhabitants of
Hindoftan. By Archibald Mitchell, late Major of Engineers, be.
Jonging to the Establishment of Fort St. George. 46o.
Donaldson. 1780.

Mr. Mitchell appears to have studied his subject with due attention, and to have discussed it with ability and perspicuity. The points under his confideration are enumerated in the title. He puts The following query,– Would it not be proper that the Government or the Company Thould give 1000 l. or such other fum as they fall think adequate, to be paid to the person who gives in the best and shortest draughts of a charies, or articles of partnership, betwixt Government and the Company?'-Should chis hint be taken, we think Mr. Mitchell well qualified to put in for the prize; of which his Propofitions *, above mentioned, may be taken as a specimen, being laid down as the basis of an agreement between Government and the Company. Art. 22. Heads of an Agreement between Parliament and the East

india Company. 8vo. 13 Pages. These propositions seem io be laid down on the part of the Company, but we know not on what authority. They are dated Feb. 18, 1780: those, prepared by the Court of Directors were given at the East India House, on the 28th of January. Art. 23. State of the East India Company, with an Examination

of the Propofitions now before the Proprietors, considered as Matier of Account; and Sketch of equitable Terms of an Accommodation between the Public and the Proprietors. 8vo. I s. Sewell, 1780.

The calculations, estimates, and observations contained in this compendium of the Company's great and moit essential concerns, appear to come from a person well informed, and deeply experienced, in regard to a subject which mult, in the highest degree, affect the commercial and eventually the political interests of this country. The Writer figns himself An old and faithful Servant of the Com

* The Company's Propofitions are added, by way of Appendix to this pamphlet.

pany;"

7

fany;" and we are ready to conclude, from the contents of his
publication, that he has not affumed an imaginary character.

L A' W.
Art. 24. Abstract of the Smugglers, Arrell, Militia, Conviels,

House Tax, and other interesting Acts of Parliament passed in the
Sellions of 1779. 8vo. 1 s. 6 d. Fielding and Walker.

An useful and judicious abridgment. The great bulk to which
the volume of our acts of parliament is annually swoln, renders fome
publication of this kind almost necessary. We really believe that
the most prolific authors in this country are (with due reverence be
it spoken) Messrs. the King, Lords, and Commons; and that the
fruits of their joint labours, for ten years past, far exceed, in num-
ber and size, all that the two universities have produced in the course
of half a century. Is it not then time to abrogate the ancient max-
im that “ignorantia legis excusat neminem? What a task does the
legislature impofe on the good subjects of this realm in expecting
that their understanding and memory hould keep pace with the
enormous growth of the statute book !
** For who can read so fast, as they can write?”

T.
DR A MA TI c.
Art. 25. The Times; a Comedy. As it is now performing at

che Theatre-Royal in Drury Lane. By Mrs. Griffith. 8vo,
I s. 6 d. Fielding and Walker. 1780,
To this comedy is prefixed an advertisement beginning thus :

* The favourable reception which the following comedy has met with from a candid and generous Public, calls for my warmest acknowledgments; and though it may be of little consequence to them to know the source of so flight an amusement, I think myself bound by truth and gratitude to own, that the firit idea of this piece was hioted to me by my ever-respected and lamented friend Mr. GarRICK, who mentioned GOLDONI's Bourru Bienfaisant, as a ketch that, if adapted to our times and manners, might be rendered pleafing to an English audience. Those who have read the French piece muft judge how far I have profiled by Goldoni's work; but of this I am certain, that had Mr. GARRICK lived to afford me that friendly affiftance which he has done on former occasions, my comedy would have been more worthy of the reception with which it has been honoured. I will, however, hope that, “ with all its im• perfections on its bead,” the same indulgence which attended its representation, will follow it into the closet; and that the Reader will allow me the only merit I presume to claim, that of meaning well.'

Sir William Woodley, the Bourru Bienfaisant, has, we think, been rather more ably delineated by Garrick's own hand, in his little comedy of Bon Ton. His Sir John Trotley and Mrs. Griffith's Sir William Woodley are, in their leading features, extremely similar to each other. The additional touches, given to Sir William, rather aggravate than heighten the character: for surely his intention to join his piece to a man thirty years older than herself, relishes of absurdity rather than benevolence. His peevithness, and harmless love of backgammon, are more pleasant qualities.

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