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favour of the former, against fome writers of note; and maintains, that a war will be sooner terminated, and in a manner more advantageous for a people, when the sovereign commands his armies in perfon.
Our Author considers all branches of knowledge, except those already mentioned, not only as prejudicial, but even of the most pernicious consequence both to a prince and the state, at the head of which he is placed. The demonstration of this paradox (for such at least the violence of Signor Planelli's expreslion renders it) is the subject of the third Chapter; in which this Author, though learned himself, exerts all his power of argument and persuasion to banish learning from the throne, or rather, ought we to say, to prevent its making its way thither. We think that this exclusion of learning from Royalty is susceptible of restrictions and modifications, to which our Author has not given a proper degree of attention, and which result from the natural character, genius, and capacity of a prince, as well as from the constitution of the government over which he presides. We should not like to see a monarch wri. ting commentaries on Terence or Aristophanes, or making bad or middling poems himself; but we should rather be edified than offended, if we met with annotations of a royal pen on certain passages of Livy, Tacitus, or the Commentaries of Cæsar.-EN modus in rebus.
After having finished his plan of education for the head, our Author proceeds to that part of his plan that relates to the heart. He points out the manner in which a wise governor may rectify the irregular propensities, improve the good dispositions of his royal pupil, and form in his mind that love of his subjects, and that spirit of active application to business, that are the two effential constituents of the character of a good prince. This is the subject of the fourth Chapter; and in the fifth and following Chapters he shews, that from these two qualities all other princely virtues naturally Aow. His illustrations of this plan of royal or princely education discover a confiderable fund of knowledge, and more especially an intimate acquaintance with the history and interests of the European ftates.
4to, (containing 1681 Pages.) With Cuts. Paris. 1780.
HIS is the work of a scholar, a performer, a composer,
years reading, as the Author * tells us, and of the extracts made from some thousands of volumes on the subject of music, accompanied with his own reflections on the nature, power, and branches of that charming art. It was originally designed to occupy a place in another work, by the same hand, intitled, A Voyage through Switzerland and Italy; but its bulk increasing beyond expectation, required its being published apart.
The Introdu&tion contains an interesting inquiry concerning the music of the ancients. Of the astonishing effects of that music accounts have been given, which, if genuine, our Author is rather disposed to attribute to the extreme fenfibility of the Greeks and Afiatics, than to the transcendent excellence of their art, or the extraordinary merit of their performers. A warm climate, lively passions, a keen tafte for pleasure, fineness of organs, and above all, perhaps, the custom of joining perpetually with music the charms of poetry, all these are circumstances which account more or less for the extraordinary effects of music in ancient times. Plato maintained, that the inmost feelings and thoughts of the mind might be distinctly represented and expressed by different notes of the lyre: our Author proves this to be imposible; he expofes alfo, with learning and judgment, the ignorance of the Athenian sage, with respect to this branch of the fine arts; and though he acknowledges, that the ancients cultivated music with zeal and afsiduity, that they looked upon it as an object of great importance in the education of their children, who were taught to sing before they were taught to read, and that some of their greatest men made music a serious object of study; yet he is persuaded, that the ancients made very little progress in the science of sound; and he appears to us to have proved this point with a high degree of plausibility, if not with irrefragable evidence. That the Greeks had the art of painting sounds, or writing music, is certain ; but what can be more fabulous than Aristotle's story of the horses of the Sybarites, throwing their riders, by dancing to the flutes of the Crotoniates, who had used that stratagem to conquer their enemies, as they knew the education of these animals, and how much they were affected by the harmony and melody of sounds ?
This idle story, which Athenæus took from a book of Ariftotle t, long since loft, is adopted by Pliny; and another Roman author of high note $ tells one, still more ridiculous, of
* M. DE LABORDE, who comes indeed somewhat late after Dr. Burney, and other able writers on this subject, but not too late to be read with pleasure and inftrution by the lovers of this fine art.
+ This book treated of the republic of Lybaris.
certain floating islands in Lydia, which first danced into a circle at the sound of a fute, and afterwards came gently together, and formed a line along the borders of the lake.
M. De LABOR DE's Work is divided into fix Books. The first treats of music in general, its division, its antiquity, its origin, the uses to which it was first applied, the state of that art among the Jews, Chaldeans, and other Oriental nations, as also among the Egyptians, Grecians, Romans, and Italians. It also treats of the dances, geltures, and the public plays of the ancients, &c. We find, moreover, in this first Book a compendious history of music, from the Gauls down to the present time, an account of the origin and progress of that art among the Chinese, the Hungarians, the Persians, Turks and Arabians. The details here are learned, entertaining, and furnish a great variety of agreeable instruction. The Author has made considerable use of Father Amiot's Memoir concerning the Chinese music *, and of the excellent Memoirs of M. Burette and the Abbé Rouffier, concerning the music of the ancients. At the conclusion of this first Book he has placed fome precious remains of antiquity relative to the subject of his Work, as, ist, The only Fragments of Grecian music that are known, with a Translation by M. Burette ;—they consist of three Hymns ; one to Calliope, another to Apollo, and a third to Nemesis (set to Music, in four Parts, of which the Greek found or tune makes the treble), and the first eight verses of the first Pythic Ode of Pindar. 2dly, A Table of the Notes of the Grecian Music, vocal and instrumental, compared with the Notes of Modern Music. This Table, perfectly well executed, exbibits the 1620 characters which have been preserved by Alypius, and it will certainly be of great use in decyphering the pieces of Grecian music that may be found in the manufcripts of Herculaneum and Pompeia.
In the second Book we meet with a history, accompanied with figures, of the musical instruments of the ancients, divided into three classes; wind-inftruments, pulsatile, and stringed. His observations upon che defcets of the harpsichord in particular are learned and ingenious. The subjects that employ our Author in the remaining part of this book are—the Mulc of the Rufians--the Opera- the Comic Opera—the Opera (called by the trench) Bouffon-the Spiritual Concert--the Fraternity of St. Julien de Menetriers--the Music of the Modern Greeks—the Sounding Stones of (hina--the Music of the Siamese—the Lyric Poetry and Music of the Morlachians.
See in this Appendix the mention made of this treatise, in our extract of the fifth and exch Volumes of the Memoirs of the Chinese Millionaries,
The third Book of this learned and entertaining Work con. tains the abridgment of a Treatise on Musical Composition, to which the Author has subjoined, ift, A general table of unia sons, together with a notice of the extent and powers of all the different instruments, and also of the different kinds of voices, 2dly, A comparative table, in which he endeavours to prove, that the term mode, as employed by the ancients, is equivalent to what we call tone ; with this difference only, that in each mode they went only through the degrees of the octave, whereas our tones extend much farther. 3dly, Several pieces of music of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. In this book M. De LABORDE is sometimes an opponent of the celebrated J. J. Rousseau, whose incomparable Dictionary of Music has been lately affaffinated in English, and some of whose doctrines are, in our opinion, refuted here with the utmost evidence. As these refutations are interesting, we intend to communicate some specimens of them to our Readers in a subsequent Article.
The fourth Book may very well be intitled, A Book of Songs; and however light this title may be, its contents are far from being frivolous. Songs are among the characteristical marks, from which an observer will learn much of the genius, spirit, and character of a people, and it will appear from the Historico-Poetico-Musical details, into which our Author here enters, that the French excel other nations in their amorous satirical, and Bacchanalian fongs. This Book is divided into twelve Chapters, of which the titles are as follows : Reflections on Songs : Of Grecian Songs-Of Roman Songs Of the changes that have taken place in the French language-Of French Songs, and the Poetical Songsters (or the ballad-making Bards) of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries—Songs of Coucy
A Table of the Songs of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, contained in the manuscripts of the Vatican, of the King of France, of the Marquis of Palmy, of Mel. de St. Palaye, de Clairambaut, et de Noailles-Concerning fome French Lyric Poets of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries
Songs of Denmark, Norway, and Iceland-Erje Songs and Poems -Songs of Perigord, Strasburg, and Auvergne--Seleet French Songs, set to Music, in four Parts—Songs of Gascogne, Bearne, Languedoc, and Provence - Grecian Dances—Dances of the Savages, Ruffians, Grecians, Chinese, and of several provinces in France.
[To be continued.]
* By the word amorous, we do not mean love, nor any thing out of the sphere of gallantry. It is almost only among the Italian and British bards chat love is sung with genuine sensibility.
AR T. XXII.
on several Points of Antiquity. By M. HEYNE, Counsellor, &c.
HIS second Part of M. Heyne's interesting Collection
contains a variety of instructive and entertaining matter relative to ancient literature and the arts. The first Discourse in this second Part treats of the famous Laocoon. Notwithstanding all the accounts we have of that sublime groupe in the writings of the Abbé Winkelman and other virtuofos, the Reader will here find perhaps new instruction with respect to its discovery, together with ingenious remarks on what has been said concerning it by Pliny, Virgil, and other writers, and a criti. cal hiftory of the art that is displayed in it. The second Discourse contains an inquiry into the real or supposed distinctions between the Fauns, Satyrs, Silenuses, and Pans. The third contains a curious account of the authors which Pliny followed in his Natural History. The fourth is a Discourse on the Toreuticum, or carving, especially that kind mentioned by Pliny, which was the art of moulding or casting figures in relievo. The fifth exhibits farther illustrations of the sculpture of the ancients in ivory; as also a Memoir concerning the manner of working in ivory, communicated to our Author by M. Spengler of Copenhagen, in which he shews, that the turning Jathe was not necessary to the formation of ivory statues, and men. tions several ancient remains of sculpture in that substance, that are still to be met with in the cabinets of the curious, particularly the head of a woman in the Royal collection at Copenhagen.
of the Hongarians, fro the earlies to the present Time, col-
here announced has been composed under the protection of the government, and of confequence the Author must be supposed to have had the ampleft fources of information, though not that unbounded liberty and independence to which alone we must look for impartiality. In the ancient parts of this history, he