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A CHAIN of

PHILOSOPHICAL REFLEXIONS

AND

INQUIRIES

Concerning the Virtues of
TAR WAT ER,
And divers other Subjects connected together

and arising one from another.

BY THE
Right Rev. Dr. GEORGE BERKELEY,

Lord Bishop of CLOYNE,
And Author of The Minute Philosopher.

As we have opportunity, let us do good unto all men. Gal. vi. 10.
Hoc opus, hoc ftudium, parvi properemus et ampli. Hot.

A NEW EDITION,
With ADDITIONs and EMENDATIONS.

DUBLIN Printed,

LONDON Re-printed,
For W. Innys, and C. HITCH, in Pater-nóster-rotin
and C. Davis in Holbourn. MDCCXLIV.

. [Price Two Shillings.] .,

A Letter to T. P. Esq. from the Author of Siris.
A MONG the great numbers who drink Tar-water in

Dublin, your letter informs me there are several, that make it 1 1 too weak or too strong, or use it in an undue manner. To obviate these inconveniences, and render this water as generally useful as possible, you desire I would draw up some rules, and remarks, in a small compaís; which accordingly I here send you.

Norwegian tar being the most liquid, mixeth best with water. Put a gal· lon of cold water to a quart of this tar, ftir and work them very strongly to

gether, with a fat stick, for about four minutes. Let the vessel stand covered forty eight hours, that the tar may subside. Then pour off the clear water, and keep it close covered, or rather bottled, and well stopped, for Use. This may do for a general rule; but as stomachs and constitutions are so various, for particular persons, their own experience is the best rule. The strenger the better ; provided the stomach can bear it. Less water or more stirring makes it stronger; as more water, and less stirring makes it weaker. The same tar will not do quite so well a second time, but may serve for common uses.

Tar water, when right, is not higher than French, nor deeper coloured, than Spanish white wine. If there be not a spirit very sensibly perceived on drinking, you may conclude, the tar water is not good. If you would have it good, see it made yourself. Those who begin with it, little and weak, · may, by habit, come to drink more and stronger. According to the season of the year, or the humour of the patient, it may be taken, cold or warm.

As to the quantity, in chronical cases, une pint of tar water a day may suffice, taken on an empty stomach, at two, or four times; to wit, night and morning; and about two hours after dinner and breakfast. Alteratives, in general, taken little and often, mix best with the blood. How oft, or how strong, each stomach can bear, experience will shew; nor is there any danger in making the experiment. Those who labour under old habitual ilia nesses, must have great patience and perseverance in the use of this, as well as in all other medicines ; which, if sure and safe, must yet be now in chronical disorders; which, if grievous or inveterate, may require a fullquort every day to be taken, at fix doses, one third of a pint in each, with a regular diet. In acute cases, as fevers, of all kinds, it muft be drank warm in bed, and in great quantity ; perhaps a pint every hour, till the patient be relieved; which I have known to work surprizing cures. - My experiments have indeed been made within a narrow compass; but as this water is now grown into publick use (though it seems not without that opposition which is wont to attend novelty) I make no doubt, its virtues will be more fully discovered. Mean while, I must own myself persuaded, from what I have already seen and tryed, that tar water may be drank with great safety and success, in the cure or relief of most if not all diseases, in ulcers, eruptions, and all foul ca ses'; scurvies of all kinds, disorders of the lungs, ftomach, and bowels; in nervous cases, in all imiammatory distempers; in decays, and other maladies : Nor is it of use only in the cure of sickness; it is also useful to preserve health, and a guard againit infection and old age; as it gives lasting spirts, and invigorates the blood. I am even induced, by the nature and analogy of things, and its wonderful success in all kinds of fevers, to think, that tar water may be very useful in the plague, both as a cure and preservative. ..

But, I doubt, no medicine can withstand that execrable plague of distilled spirits, which operate as a Now poison ; preying on the vitals, and wasting the health and strength of the body and soul; which pest of humane kind, is, I am told, by the attempts of our * Whisky patriots, gaining ground in this wretched country, already too thin of inhabitants. I am, &c.

* Whisky is a spirit distilled from malt, tbe nigking of wbich poison, cheap and plenty, as being of our growth, is esteemed, by fome unlucky patriots, a benefit totbeer Country

.. A CHAIN of PHILOSOPHICAL REFLEXIONS

. AND INQUIRIES, &c.

OR INTRODUCTION to the following
piece I assure the reader, that nothing

could, in my present situation, have in-
i duced me to be at the pains of writing
it, but a firm belief that it would prove a valua-
ble present to the public. What entertainment so-
ever the reasoning or' notional part may afford the
mind, I will venture to say, the other part seemeth
so surely calculated to do good to the body, that i
both must be gainers. For if the lute be not well
tuned, the musician fails of his harmony. And in
our present state, the operations of the mind, fo
far depend on the right tone or good condition of
it's instrument, that any thing which greatly con-
tributes to preserve or recover the health of the
body, is well worth the attention of the mind.
These considerations have moved me to communi-
cate to the public the salutary virtues of tar-wa-
ter ; to which I thought myself indispensably

obliged, by the duty every man owes to mankind. i And, as effects are linked with their causes, my

thoughts on this low, but useful theme led to farother inquiries, and those on to others remote, perhaps, and speculative, but, I hope, not altogether useless or unentertaining. .

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