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prevent the flame from bursting forth in which case the car' was lost) they set on fire those huge heaps of pine or fir, letting the tar and pitch run out in a channel.

14. Pliny faith, it was customary for the ancients, to hold Aeęces of wool over the steam of boiling tar, and squeeze the moisture from them, which watery substance was called pissinum.. Ray will have this to be the same with the piffelæum of the ancients ; but Hardouin in his notes on Pliny, thinks the piffelæum to have been produced from the cones of cedars. What use they made of these liquors anciently I know not : but it may be presumed they were used in medicine, though at present, for ought I can find, they are not used at all.

15. From the manner of procuring tar (a) it plainly appears to be a natural production, lodged in the vessels of the tree, whence it is only freed and let loose (not made) by burning. If we may believe Pliny, the first running or tar was called cedrium, and was of such efficacy to preserve from putrefaction, that in Egypt they embalmed dead bodies with it.. And to this he ascribes their mummies continuing uncorrupted for so many ages.

16. Some modern writers inform us that tar flows from the trunks of pines and firs, when they are very old, through incisions made in the bark near the root; that pitch is car inspisfated; and both are the oyl of the tree grown thick and ripened with age and fun. The crees, like old men, being unable to perspire, and their secretory ducts obstructed, they are, as one may fay, choaked and stuffed with their own juice.

19. The method used by our colonies in Ame: rica, for making tar and pitch, is in effect the same with that of the ancient Macedonians; as fa) Sect. 13.


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appears from the account given in the Philosophical Transactions. And the relation of Leo Africanus, who describes, as an eye witness, the making of tar on mount Atlas, agrees in substance, with the methods used by the Macedonians of old, and the people of New England at this day.

18. Jonstonus in his Dendrographia, is of opi. nion, that pitch was anciently made of cedar, as well as of the pine and fir grown old and oily. Ic should seem indeed that one and the same word was used by the ancients in a large sense, so as to comprehend the juices issuing from all those trees. Tar and all sorts of exsudations from evergreens are, in a general acceptation, included under the name resin. Hard coarse resın or dry pitch is made from tar, by letting it blaze till the moisture is spent. Liquid resin is properly an oily viscid juice oozing from the bark of evergreen trees, either spontaneously or by incision. It is thought to be the oil of the bark infpiffated by the fun. As it issues from the tree it is liquid, but becomes dry and hard being condensed by the sun or by fire.

19. According to Theophrastus, resin was obtained by stripping off the bark from pines, and by incisions made in the silver fir and the pitch pine. The inhabitants of mount Ida, he tells us, îtripped the trunk of the pine on the funny side two or three cubits from the ground. He observes that a good pine might be made to yield resin every year; and indifferent every other year; and the weaker trees once in three years, and that three runnings were as much as a tree could bear. It is remarked by the same author, that a pine doth not at once produce fruit and resin, but the former only in its youth, the latter in its old age. .

20. Turpentine is a fine resin. Four kinds of this are in ufe. The turpentine of Chios or Cy.


prus which flows from the turpentine tree; the Venice turpentine which is got by piercing the Larch tree; the Strasburgh Turpentine which Mr. Ray informs us is procured from the knots of the silver fir; it is fragrant and grows yellow with age: The fourth kind is common turpentine, neither transparent, nor so liquid as the former ; and this Mr. Ray taketh to flow from the mountain pine. All these turpentines are useful in the same intentions. Theophrastus faith the best resin or turpentine is got from the Terebinthus growing in Syria and some of the Greek lands. The next best from the silver fir and pitch pine.

21. Turpentine is on all hands allowed to have great medicinal virtues. Tar and it's infusion contain those virtues. Tar water is extremely pectoral and restorative, and, if I may judge from what experience I have had, it possesseth the most valuable qualities ascribed to the several balfams of Peru, of Tolu, of Capivi, and even to the balm of Gilead; such is it's virtue in asthmas and pleurisies, in obstructions and ulcerous erosions of the inward parts. Tar in fubftance, mix'd with honey, I have found an excellent medicine for coughs. Balsams, as hath been already observed, are apt to offend the stomach. But tar-water may be taken without offending the stomach: For the strengthening whereof it is the best medicine I have ever tried.

22. The folly of man rateth things, by their scarceness, but Providence hath made the most useful things most common. Among those liquid oily extracts from trees and shrubs which are termed balsams, and valued for medicinal virtues, tar may hold it's place as a most valuable balsam. It's fragrancy sheweth, that it is possessed of active qualities, and it's oiliness, that it is fitted to retain them. This excellent balsam may be pur.

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chased for a penny a pound, whereas the balsam of. Judæa, when most plenty, was sold on the very spot that produced it, for double it's weight in filver, if we may credit Pliny; who also informs us that the best balsam of Judæa fowed only from the bark, and that it was adulterated with resin and oil of turpentine. Now comparing the virtues I have experienced in car, with those I find ascribed to the precious balm of Judæa, of Gilead, or of Mecha (as it is diversly called) I am of opinion, that the latter is not a medicine of more value or efficacy than the former,

23. Pliny supposed amber to be a resin, and to distil from some species of pine, which he gathered from it's finell. Nevertheless it's being dug out of the earth shews it to be a foffil, though of a very different kind from other fosfils. But thus much is certain, that the medicinal virtues of amber are to be found in the balsamic juices of pines and firs. Particularly the virtues of the most valuable preparation, I mean falt of amber, are in a great degree answered by tar-water, as a detergent, . diaphoretic, and diuretic,

24. There is, as hath been already observed, more or less oil and balsam in all evergreen trees, which retains the acid spirit, that principle of life and verdure ; the not retaining whereof in fufficient quantity, caufeth other plants to droop and wither, Of these evergreen trees productive of resin, pitch, and tar, Pliny enumerates fix kinds in Europe ; Jonstonus reckons up thrice that number of the pine and fir family. And indeed, their number, their variety, and their likeness makes it difficult to be exact.

25. It is remarked both by Theophrastus and Jonstonus, that trees growing in low and shady places do not yield so good tar, as those which


grow in higher and more exposed situations. And Theophrastus further observes, that the inhabitants of mount Ida in Asia, who distinguish the Idæan pine from the maritime, affirm, that the tar flowing from the former is in greater plenty, as well as more fragrant than the other. Hence it should feem, the pines or firs in the mountains of Scotland, might be employed that way, and rendred valuable; even where the timber, by it's remoteness from water-carriage, is of small value. What we call the Scotch fir is fally so called, being in truth a wild forest pine, and (as Mr. Ray informs us) agreeing much with the description of a pine growing on mount Olympus in Phrygia, probably the only place where it is found out of these islands; in which of late years it is so much planted and cultivated with so little advantage, while the cedar of Lebanon might perhaps be raised, with little more trouble, and much more profit and ornament.

26. The pines which differ from the firs in the length and disposition of their leaves and hardness of the wood, do not, in Pliny's account, yield so much resin as the fir trees. Several species of both are accurately described and delineated by the naturalists. But they all agree so far as to seem related. Theophrastus gives the preference to that resin which is got from the silver fir and pitch tree (ελάτη and πίτυς) before that yielded by the pine, which yet, he faith, is in greater plenty. Pliny, on the contrary, affirms that the pine produceth the smallest quantity. It shou'd seem therefore that the interpreter of Theophrastus might have been mistaken, in rendering worn by pinus, as well as Jonstonus, who likewise takes the pine for the woáxin of Theophrastus. Hardouin will have the pinus of Pliny to have been by others called woung but by Theophrastus witus. Ray thinks the common

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