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repeated attention, especially in these climates, where strongʻliquors so fatally and so frequently produce those very distresses they are designed to remedy; and, if I am not misinformed, even among the ladies themselves, who are truly much to be pitied. Their condition of life makes them a prey to imaginary woes, which never fail to grow up in minds unexercised and unemployed. To get rid of these, it is said, there are who betake themselves to distilled spirits. And it is not improbable they are led gradually to the use of those poisons by a certain complaisant pharmacy, too much used in the modern practice, palsy drops, poppy cordial, plague water, and such like, which being in truth nothing but drams disguised, yet coming from the apothecaries, are considered only as medicines.
104. The foul of man was supposed by many ancient sages, to be thrust into the human body as into a prison, for punishment of past offences. But the worst prison is the body of an indolent Epicure, whose blood is inflamed by fermented liquors (a) and high fauces, or render'd putrid, sharp, and corrosive, by a stagnation of the animal juices through noth and indolence; whose membranes are irritated by pungent salts, whose mind is agitated by painful oscillations of the nervous (b) system, and whose nerves are mutually affected by the irregular passions of his mind. This ferment in the animal economy darkens and confounds the intellect. It produceth vain terrours and vain conceits, and stiinulates the foul with mad desires, which, not being natural, nothing in nature can satisfy. No wonder, therefore, there are lo many fine persons of both sexes, shining themfelves, and shone on by fortune, who are inwardly miserable and sick of life.
105. The hardness of stubbed vulgar conftitutions, renders them insensible of a thousand things, that fret and gall those delicate people, who, as if their skin was peeled off, feel to the quick every thing that touches them. The remedy for this exquisite and painful fenfibility is commonly fought from fermented, perhaps from distilled, liquors, which render many lives wretched, that would otherwise have been only ridiculous. The tender nerves, and low fpirits of fuch poor creatures, would be much relieved by the use of tar-water, which might prolong and cheer their lives. I do therefore recommend to them the use of a cordial, not only safe and innocent, but giving health and spirit as surely as other cordials destroy them.
106. I do verily think, there is not any other medicine whatsoever, fo effectual to restore a crazy conftitution, and chear a dreary mind, or so likely to subvert that gloomy empire of the spleen (a), which tyraniseth over the better sort (as they are called) of these free nations ; and maketh them, in spight of their liberty and property, more wretched Naves than even the subjects of absolute power, who breath clear air in a funny climate. While men of low degree often enjoy a tranquillity and content, that no advantage of birth or fortune can equal. Such, indeed, was the case, while the rich alone could afford to be debauched; but when even beggars became debauchees, the case was altered.
107. The public virtue and spirit of the British legislature, never shewed itself more conspicuous in any act, that in that for suppressing the immoderate use of distilled fpirits among the people, whose strength and numbers conftitute the true wealth of a nation ; though evafive arts (a) 103.
will, it is feared, prevail so long as distilled fpirits of any kind are allowed, the character of Englishmen in general, being that of Brutus, Quicquid vult, valde vult. But why should such a canker be tolerated in the vitals of a state, under any pretence or in any shape whatsoever? Better by far, the whole present set of distillers were pensioners of the public, and their trade abolished by law; since all the benefit thereof put together would not balance the hundredth part of its mischief.
108. To prove the destructive effects of such spirits with regard both to the humane species and individuals, we need not go so far as our colonies, or the savage natives of America. Plain proof may be had nearer home. For, albeit there is in every town or district throughout England, some tough dram-driuker, set up as the Devil's decoy, to draw in profelytes; yet the ruined health and morals, and the beggary of such numbers evidently shew that we need no other enemy to compleat our destruction, than this cheap luxury at the lower end of the state, and that a nation lighted up at both ends muft soon be consumed.
109. It is much to be lamented that our Infulars, who act and think so much for themselves, should yet, from grofsness of air and diet, grow stupid or doat sooner than other people, who, by virtue of elastic air, water-drinking, and light food, preferve their faculties to extreme old age ; an advantage which may perhaps be approached, if not equalled, even in these regions, by tarwater, temperance, and early hours; the last is a sure addition to life, not only in regard of time, which, being taken from Neep, the image of death, is added to the waking hours, but also in regard of longevity and duration in the vulgar G 2
sense. I may say too, in regard of spirit and vivacity, which, within the same compass of duration, may truly and properly be affirmed to add to man's life : it being manifeft, that one man, by a brisker motion of his spirits and succession of his ideas, shall live more in one hour, 'than another in two ; and that the quantity of life is to be estimated, not merely from the duration, but also from the intenseness of living. Which intense living, or, if I may so say, lively life; is not more promoted by early hours as a regimen, than by tar-water as a cordial; which acts, not only as a flow medicine, but hath also an immediate and cheerful (a) effect on the spirits.
Io. It must be owned, that light attracted, seereted, and detained in tar (b), and afterwards drawn off in its finest balsamic particles, by the gentle menftruum of cold water, is not a violent and fudden medicine, always to produce its effect at once, (such, by irritating, often do more mischief than good) but a safe and mild alterative, which penetrates the whole system, opens, heals, and strengthens the remote vessels, alters and propels their con. tents, and enters the minutest capillaries, and cannot therefore, otherwise than by degrees and in time, work, a radical cure of chronic distempers. It gives nevertheless speedy relief in most cases, as I have found by my self and many others. I have been surprized to see persons fallen away and languishing under a bad digestion, ' after a few weeks recover a good stomach, and with it flesh and strength, so as to seem renewed, by the drinking of tar-water. The strength and quantity of this water to be taken by each individual person is best determined from experience. And as for the time
(6) 8, 29, 40.
of taking, I never knew any evil ensue from its being continued ever so long; but, on the con trary, many and great advantages, which fometimes would not perhaps begin to shew themselves till it had been taken two or three months.
111. We learn from Pliny, that in the first ferment of new wine or mustum, the ancients were wont to sprinkle it with powdered rosin, which gave it a certain sprightliness, quædam faporis acumina. This was esteemed a great improver of its odour and taste, and was, I doubt not, of its falubrity also. The brown old rosin, that is to say, harden'd tar, as being more easily pulverized and fifted, was most in request for this purpose. They used likewise to season their wine-vefsels with pitch or rosin. And I make no doubt, that if our vintners would contrive to medicate their wines with the same ingredients, they might improve and preserve them, with less trouble and expence to themselves, and less danger to others. He that would know more particulars of this matter may consult Pliny and Columella. I shall only add, that I doubt not a Gmilar improvement may be made of malt liquor.
112. The pintívn of Theophrastus and resina of Pliny are sometimes used in a general sense, to signify all sorts of oily viscid exsudations from plants or trees. The crude watery juice, that risech early in the spring, is gradually ripened and infpiffated by the solar heat, becoming in orderly succession with the seasons an oil, a balsam, and at last a resin. And it is observed by chemists, that turpentine diffolved over a gentle fire, is, by the constant operation of heat, successively transformed into oil, balsam, pitch, and hard friable resin, which will incorporate with oil or rectified spiric, but not with water.