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This tunicle of the soul's whether it be called pure æther, or luciform vehicle, or animal spirit seemech to be that which moves and acts upon the gross organs, as it is determined by the soul, from which it immediately receives impression, and in which the moving force truly and properly resides. Some moderns have thought fit to deride all that is said of æthereal vehicles, as mere jargon or words without a meaning. But they should have considered, that all speech concerning the soul is altogether, or for the most part, metaphorical ; and that, agreeably thereunto, Plato speaketh of the mind or soul, as a driver that guides and governs a chariot, which is, not unfitly, styled avgoeidès, a luciform æthereal vehicle, or öxnud, terms expressive of the purity, lightness, subtilty and mobility of that fine celestial nature, in which the soul immediately resides and operates.
172. It was a tenet of the Stoics that the world was an animal, and that providence answered to the reasonable soul in man. But then the providence or mind was supposed by them to be immediately resident or present in fire, to dwell therein, and to act thereby. Briefly, they conceived God to be an intellectual and fiery spirit, wysõua vosgov xal wupwdes. Therefore though they looked on fire (f) as the tó vigenovexàv or governing principle of the world ; yet it was not simply fire, but animated with a mind.
173. Such are the bright and lively signatures of a divine mind, operating and displaying itself in fire and light throughout the world, that, as Aristotle observes in his book De mundo, all things seem full of divinities, whose apparitions on all kades strike and dazzle our eyes. And it must be
owned, the chief philosophers and wise men of antiquity, how much foever they attributed to second causes and the force of fire, yet they supposed a mind or intellect always resident therein, active or provident, restraining it's force and directing it's operations.
174. Thus Hipocrates in his treatise, De diæta, speaks of a strong but invisible fire (f), that rules all things without noise. Herein, faith he, resides foul, understanding, prudence, growth, motion, diminution, change, neep and waking. This is what governs all things and is never in repose. And the fame author, in his tract De carnibus, after a
ferious preface, setting forth that he is about to de: clare his own opinion, expresseth it in these terms : 6. That which we call heat, Jequor, appears to me s something immortal, which understands all " things, which fees and knows both what is pre« fent, and what is to come."
175. This fame heat is also what Hippocrates calls nature, the author of life and death, good and evil. It is farther to be noted of this heat, that he maketh it the object of no sense. It is that occult, univerfal nature, and inward invisible force, which actuates and animates the whole world, and was worfhipped by the ancients under the name of Saturn; which Vossius judges, not improbably, to be derived from the Hebrew word Satar, to lye hidden or concealed. And what hath been delivered by Hippocrates agrees with the notions of other philofophers : Heraclitus, (b) for instance, who held fire to be the principle and cause of the generation of all things, did not mean thereby an inanimate element, but, as he termed it, wūs ceifwov, an everliving fire. (s) 168.
156. Theophraftus, in his Book, De igne , distinguishech between heat and fire. The first he considers as a principle or cause, not that which appeareth to sense as a passion or accident existing in a subject, and which is in truth the effect of that unseen principle. And it is remarkable, that he refers the treating of this invisible fire or heat, to the investigation of the first causes. Fire, the principle, is neither generated nor destroyed, is every where and always present (a); while its effects in different times and places shew themselves more or less, and are very various, soft, and cherishing, or violent and destructive, terrible or agreeable, conveying good and evil, growth and decay, life and death, throughout the mundane. system.
177. It is allowed by all, that the Greeks derived much of their philosophy from the Eastern nations. And Heraclitus is thought by some to have drawn his principles from Orpheus, as Orpheus did from the Ægyptians; or, as others writes he had been auditor of Hippasus a Pythagoreang who held the same notion of fire, and might have derived it from Egypt by his master Pythagorasy who had travelled into Egypt, and been instructed by the sages of that nation. One of whose tenets it was, that fire was the principle of all action ; which is agreeable to the doctrine of the Stoics, that the whole of things is administred by a fiery intellectual spirit. In the Asclepian Dialogue, we find this notion, that all parts of the world vege. tate by a fine subtil æther, which acts as an engine or instrument, subject to the will of the fupreme
178. As the Platonifts held intellect to be lodged in foul, and soul in æther (b); fo it paffeth (a) 43. 102_457
for a doctrine of Trismegistus in the Pimander, that mind is cloathed by soul, and soul by spirit. Therefore 'as the animal spirit of man, being subtil and luminous, is the immediate tegument of the human soul, or that wherein and whereby she acts; even so the spirit of the world, that active fiery æthereal substance of light, that permeates and animates the whole system, is supposed to cloath the soul, which cloaths the mind of the universe.
(179. The Magi likewise faid of God, that he had light for his body and truth for his foul. ' And in the Chaldaic oracles, all things are supposed to be governed by a rüg vosgòr or intellectual fire. And in the fame oracles, the creative mind is said to be cloathed with fre, Έσσάμενος πυρί πύρ, which oriental reduplication of the word fire, seems to imply the extreme purity and force thereof. Thus also in the Psalms, Thou art clothed with light as with a garment. Where, the word rendered light might have been rendered fire, the Hebrew letters being the same with those in the word which signifies Fre, all the difference being in the pointing, which is juftly counted a late invention. That other fcripture fentence is remarkable: Who maketh his ministers a flaming fire ; which might, perhaps, be rendered more agreeably to the context, as well as consistently with the Hebrew, after this manner: Who maketh flaming fire his ministers; and the whole might run thus: Who maketh the winds his messengers, and Aaming fire his ministers.
180. A notion of fomething divine in fire, arrimating the whole world, and ordering its several parts, was a tenet of very general extent (a),
(a) 156 157, 163, 166, 167 168, 17, 72, 73, 749 175, 177, EN
being embraced in the most distant times and places, even among the Chinese themselves; who make tien, æther, or heaven, the sovereign principle, or cause of all things, and teach that the celestial virtue, by them called li, when joined to corporeal substance, doth fashion, distinguish, and specificate all natural beings. This li of the Chinese seems to answer the forms of the Peripatetics. And both bear analogy to the foregoing philosophy of fire.
181. The heaven is supposed pregnant with virtues and forms, which constitute and discriminate the various species of things. And we have more than once observed, that, as the light, fire, or celestial æther, being parted by refracting or reflecting bodies, produceth variety of colours ; even so, that same apparently uniform substance being parted and secreted by the attracting and repelling powers of the divers secretory ducts of plants and animals, that is, by natural chemistry, produceth or imparteth the various specific properties of natural bodies. Whence the tastes and odours and medicinal virtues so various in vegetables.
182. The tien is considered and adored by the learned Chinese, as living and intelligent æther, the rūg voegór of the Chaldæans and the Stoics. And the worship of things celestial, the sun and stars, among
the eastern nations less remote, was on account of their fiery nature, their heat and light, and the influence thereof. Upon these accounts, the sun was looked on by the Greek theologers as the spirit of the world, and the power of the world. The cleansing quality, the light and heat of fire are natural symbols of purity, knowledge, and power, or, if I may so say, the things themL 2