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A Chain of

Philosophical Reflexions

INQUIRIES

Concerning the Virtues of

TAR W A TER,

And divers other SubjeSls connected together
and arising one from another.

BV THE

Right Rev. Dr. GEORGE BERKELEY,
Lord Bishop of Cloyne,
And Author of The Minute Philosopher.

As we have opportunity, let us do good unto all men. Gal. vi. Id.
Hoc opus, hoc Jludium, parvi properemus et ampli. Hot.

A New Edition,
With Additions and Emendations*

Dublin Printed,
LONDON Re-printed,
For W. Innys, and C. Hitch, in Pater-no/ler-roi#
and C. Davis in Holbourn* Mdccxliv.
[Price Two Shilling]

A Letter to T. P. Esq. from the Author of Sir is.

A\sONG the great numbers who drink Tar-water in Dublin, your letter informs me there are several, that make it too weak or too strong, or use it in an undue manner. To obviate these inconveniences, and render this water as generally usesul as possible, you desire I would draw 'up some rules, and remarks, in a small compass; which accordingly 1 here fend you.

Norwegian tar being the most liquid, mixeth best with water. Put a gallon of cold water to a quart of this tar, stir and work them very strongly together, with a flat stick, for about four minutes. Let the vessel stand covered forty eight hours, that the tar may subside. Then pour off the clear water, and keep it close covered, or rather bottled, and well stopped, for Use. This may do for a general rule; but as stomachs and constitutions are so various, for particular persons, their own experience is the best rule. The stronger the better; provided the stomach can bear it. Less water or more stirring jnakil it stronger; as morewater. and less stirring makes it weaker. The fame tar will not do quite so well a second time, but may serve for common uses.

Tar water, when right, is not higher than French, nor deeper coloured, than Spanish white wine. If there be not a spirit very sensibly perceived on drinking, you may conclude, the tar water is not good. If you would have it good, fee it made yourself. Those who begin with it, little and weak, may, by habit, come to drink moreand stronger. According to the seasosrof the year, or the humour of the patient, it may be taken, coJd or warm.

As to the quantity, in chronical cafes, one pint of tar water a day may suffice, taken on an empty stomach, at two, or four times; to wit, night and morning; and about two hours after dinner and breakfast. Alteratives, in general, taken little and often, mix best with the blood* How oft, or how strong, each stomach can bear, experience will shew; nor is there any danger in making the experiment. Those who labour under old habitual illnesses, must have great patience and perseverance in the use of this, as well as in all other medicines ; which, if sure and fase, must yet be slow in chronical disorders; which, if grievous or inveterate, may require a full quart every day to be taken, at six doses, one third of a pint in each, with a regular diet. In acute cases, as fevers, of all kinds, it must be drank warm in bed, »nd in -great quantity; perhaps a pint every hour, till the patient be relieved; which I have known to work surprizing cures.

My experiments have indeed been made within a narrow compass; but as this water is now grown into publick use (though it seems not without that opposition which is wont to attend novelty) I make no doubt, its virtues will be more fully discovered. Mean while, I must own myself persuaded, from what I have already seen and tryed, that tar water may be drank with great safety and success, in the cure or relief of most if not all diseases, in ulcers, eruptions, and all foul cafes*; scurvies of all kinds, disorders of the lungs, stomach, and bowels; in nervous cafes, in all imstammatory distempers; in decays, and other maladies: Nor is it of use only in the cure of sickness; it is also usesul to preserve health, and a guard against infection and old age; as it gives lasting.fpirts, and invigorates the blood. I am even induced, by the nature and analogy of things, and its wonderful success in »11 kinds of fevers, to think, that tar water may be very usesul in the plague, both as a cure and preservative. •'. «

But, I doubt, no medicine can withstand that execrable plague of distilled spirits, which operate as a flow poison ; preying on th? vitals, and wasting the health and strength of the body and foul; which pest of humane kind, is, I am told, by the attempts of our * Whisky patriots, gaining ground in this wretched country, already too thin of inhabitants. lam, &c.

* Whisky is a spirit difiilhd from malt, tbetrtqhing of vvbicbpoijon, cheap ami pl">ty, ai beingofoiir griitutb, is efiiemitby Jome unlucky patriots, a benefit tttbiir ituntry i «. .

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FOR Introduction to the following piece I assure the reader, that nothing could, in my present situation, have inT duced me to be at the pains of writing it, but a firm belief that it would prove a valuable present to the public. What entertainment soever the reasoning or' notional part may afford the mind, I will venture to say, the other part seemeth so surely calculated to do good to the body, that both must be gainers. For if the lute be not well tuned, the musician sails of his harmony. And in our'present state, the operations of the mind, so far depend on the right tone or good condition of it's instrument, that any thing which greatly contributes to preserve or recover the health of the .body, is well worth the attention of the mind.

j These considerations have moved me to communi~ cate to the public the salutary virtues of tar-wa5 ter; to which I thought myself indispensably ^ obliged, by the duty every man owes to mankind, to And, as effects are linked with their causes, my *" thoughts on this low, but usesul theme led to saro ther inquiries, and those on to others remote, perhaps, and speculative, but, I hope, not altogether

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