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the Temple Church. Other dispu- defended with all the strength which tants against the Puritans had been logic, and eloquence, and learning, content simply to deny that Scrip- could lend to his cause. The reture is the only rule of Church- maining three books were not pubpolity, claiming for the civil power, lished in his lifetime, and were or the pro tempore governors of the supposed to have been tampered Church, both right and liberty for with, before publication. legislating according to their dis- Dr. Arnold, with his wontedenergy cretion. Hooker lifted the discus- once said, “I long to see somesion into a higher region. He thing which should solve what is to maintained in his first book that all me the great problem of Hooker's laws, whether natural-made known mind. He is the only man that I through reason and life: or super- know, who, holding with his whole natural—revealed in Scripture; are mind and soul, the idea of the eterequally of Divine origin, and are nal distinction between moral and therefore of valid authority and positive laws, holds with it the love obligation. “They,” he says, for a priestly and ceremonial re“rightly maintain that God must ligion, such as appears in the fifth be glorified in all things, and that book.” And this problem seems the actions of men cannot tend unto still the harder to solve when we his glory, unless they be framed light upon the rich vein of Gosafter His law; but it is their error pel truth which runs through his to think that the only law which discourses upon Justification, the God hath appointed unto men in that perpetuity of Faith in the Elect, behalf is in the sacred Scripture." and other subjects. Hooker's HighUpon this foundation he then, in Churchism was a different thing from the second, third, and fourth books, Laud's. He had no serious differdeals with the main arguments of ences with his Puritan brethren the Puritans, denying first, that touching“ sound doctrine, although Scripture is the only rule of all he did not cherish such ardent things which in this life may be affection as they did, for the great done by men; and then, that it Presbyter of Geneva. It was by a must of necessity contain a form of perfectly independent course of Church-polity, the laws whereof study, that he arrived with them at may in no wise be altered. The the same doctrinal conclusions; and, fourth book more directly meets the while his range of view was ampler assertion that “our form of Church- than theirs, his heart too, rested polity is corrupted with Popish placidly in the "gospel of the grave orders, rites, and ceremonies, ba- of God.” In the discourse upon nished out of certain Reformed Justification, having exposed the Churches, whose example therein errors of the Church of Rome conwe ought to have followed.” But it cerning the doctrine, he says, is in the fifth book that Hooker girds “Let it be counted folly, or frenzy, himself for a hand-to-hand fight or fury whatsoever; it is our over every inch of the “debateable comfort 'and our wisdom; we care land." Here, the goodly frame of his for no knowledge in the world but beloved Church with its holy places, this That man hath sinned, and

God hath suffered ; that God hath tures, holy rites, and the substantial made himself the Son of Man, and endowments of consecrated reve that men are made the righteousnues, is elaborately set forth, and ness of God.” Again, in the second

on to

do the stability: Ferent for us

sermon upon part of St. Jude's logy :-Simon, Simon, Satan hath Epistle, he bears a strong testi- desired to winnow thee as wheat; here mony against Romish doctrine, is our toil: but I have prayed for thee which needs only conversion of its that thy faith fail not; this is our terms to suit Sacramentalism also. safety. No man's condition so sure A strange and strong delusion it as ours; the prayer of Christ is is wherewith the Man of Sin hath be more than sufficient both to witched the world; a forcible spirit strengthen us-be we never so it must needs be, which hath weak, and to overthrow all adverbrought men to such a senseless sary power--be it never so strong and immeasurable persuasion as and potent. His prayer must not this is, not only that men clothed exclude our labour; their thoughts with mortality and sin, as we our are vain, who think that their selves are, can do God so much watching can preserve the city service as shall be able to make a which God Himself is not willing full and perfect satisfaction before to keep. And are not theirs as the tribunal seat of God for their own vain, who think that God will keep sins, yea, a great deal more than is the city for which they themselves sufficient for themselves; but also are not careful to watch ? The that a man at the hands of a Bishop husbandman may not therefore burn or a Pope, for such or such a price, his plough, nor the merchant formay buy the overplus of other sake his trade, because God hath men's merits, purchase the fruit promised I will not forsake thee. of other men's labours, and build And do the promises of God conhis soul by another man's faith. Is cerning our stability, think you, not this man drowned in the gall of make it a matter indifferent for us bitterness ? Is his heart right in the to use, or not to use the means sight of God? Can he have any whereby, to attend, or not to attend part or fellowship with Peter, and to reading, to pray, or not to pray with the successors of Peter, who that we fall not into temptation ? thinketh so vilely of building the It was not the meaning of our precious temples of the Holy Lord and Saviour in saying," Father, Ghost. Let his money perish with keep them in thy name,that we him, and he with it, because he should be careless to keep ourjudgeth that the gift of God may selves. To our own safety, our be sold for money. But, beloved own sedulity is required. And in the Lord, deceive not yourselves, then blessed for ever and ever, neither suffer ye yourselves to be be that mother's child, whose faith deceived : ye can receive no more hath made him the child of God. ease nor comfort for your souls by The earth may shake, the pillars of another man's faith, than warmth the world may tremble under us; for your bodies by another man's the countenance of the heaven may clothes, or sustenance by the bread be appalled, the sun may lose his which another doth eat. The just light, the moon her beauty, the shall live by his own faith.

stars their glory: but concerning Another extract from the dis- the man that trusteth in God, if course upon the certainty and per- the fire have proclaimed itself unpetuity of Faith in the Elect, may able as much as to singe a hair of súffice to exhibit the teaching of his head; if lions;-beasts ravenous Hooker respecting this distin- by nature and keen with hunger, -guished doctrine of Puritan theo being set to devour, have as it

religiousful man, change, his

were, religiously adored the very hasten the downfall of Charles the flesh of the faithful man, what is there First, was but a logical deduction in the world that shall change his from Hooker's fundamental propoheart, overthrow his faith, alter his sitions in his fifth book. And every affection towards God, or the affec- revival of mediæval rites and ceretion of God to him? If I be of monies in our own, or preceding times this note, who shall make a separa- more or less owes its development tion between me and my God ? to the countenance given to them “Shall tribulation, or anguish, or by the logic and genius of Hooker. persecution, or famine, or naked Perhaps the best solution of the ness, or peril, or sword ?" No; “I problem is, that the very greatness am persuaded that neither these, of his mind and the breadth of his nor death, nor life, nor angels, nor view rendered him incapable of perprincipalities, nor powers, nor ceiving the practical inconsistency things present, nor things to come, of a Scriptural faith and a Romish nor height, nor depth, nor any other ritual. The Apostle Paul found no creature” shall ever prevail so far difficulty in conforming to the Jewover me. “I know in whom I have ish ceremonial worship when Chrisbelieved;” I am not ignorant whose tian charity required it, but both precious blood hath' been shed for the Jewish and Gentile Christians me; I have a shepherd full of kind were ill-able to follow his example, ness, full of care, and full of power : or to applaud the true ground of unto him I commit myself; his own his behaviour. The Apostle, howfinger hath engraven this sentence ever, knew that Christian truth was on the tables of my heart, Satan particularly incompatible with Jewhath desired to winnow thee as ish forms, although he charitably wheat, but I have prayed for thee yielded compliance to Jewish prethat thy faith fail not." Therefore, judices whenever his conscience the assurance of my hope I will suffered him. But Hooker had no labour to keep as a jewel unto the similar conviction. Because he himend, and by labour, through the self could hold the doctrines of free gracious mediation of his prayer, I grace, and yet zealously observe the shall keep it.”

orders of the Rubric, he deemed it It is truly difficult to expound equally easy for others to do the the mysterious conjunction of oppo- same. His system is but a splendid site religious systems in Hooker's theory, and the history of the mind. Antagonism to Rome, and Church of England since his time inclination towards Rome, are alike has proved its impracticability. manifest in his works. His eloquent The judgment of posterity has and philosophical vindication of approved the demand of the Purithe obnoxious ritual of the English tans that the Reformation of the Church rallied the waverers of his Church of England should embrace party in his own day, and has been the ritual as well as the creed of a bulwark against church reformers the Church, and that the Scripture and so-called latitudinarians ever must be regarded as the supreme since; and yet no evangelical could and sufficient rule of reformation. forge a keener weapon against A Scriptural church-polity is the Rome, or smite with stronger hand, i necessary practical complement of on behalf of the Articles of Faith, , a Seriptural creed. The logic of The Sacramentalism of Laud, which Hooker, aided as it was by his amcontributed in no small measure to ple knowledge and splendid genius, has failed to disprove the Puritan's assertion that Anglicanism tends to Rome. It may be, and doubtless is, hard to hit the flaw in his reasoning ; but it is a true spiritual instinct which prompts us to suspect it. By all the rules of the art of war, it was said, the English army was beaten at Waterloo, but never theless they drove the enemy from

the field. And by all the rules of intellectual conflict perhaps the Puritans were beaten in the ecclesiastical battle of the 16th century, but the subsequent events of our national history, and the indications of the present time, predict the ultimate completion of that Church Reform which the book of the Laws of Ecclesiastical Polity was written to withstand.

THE NEW YEAR.
What deepening sound falls on the listless ear,
As if an angel's whisper spoke to man.
Hark! 'tis the knell of time,—the dying year
Breathes its last sigh, and measures out its span;
And new-born time its solemn message tells,
Of sorrow's tears, and pleasure's transient gleam,
And wakes new joy, as when the happy bells
Ring out their merry bridal peals, or seem,
In muffled notes, to say—“this life is but a dream." .

There rise the heights of Providence sublime,
Casting dark shadows on this vale below-
Heights which an angel's footsteps must not climb-
Above the range of mortal ken to know;
Hid in the Infinite, save where the light .
Of burning prophecy its brightness throws,
Reveals the future to our wondering sight,
Prescribes the medicine for creation's woes,
And tells the weary troubled earth of sweet repose.

Lo sits in grandeur Gaul's imperial King,
Subtle in councils, terrible in fight,
Or peace, or war, his double speeches bring
His honour sullied, but his sabres bright.
Lo, Russian hordes in their embattled ire,
Trample from Polish soil and Freedom's day,
The spark of liberty's most holy fire;
Remorseless as the vulture, bears away
To her high rock the fluttering and defenceless prey.

Heaven keeps its councils well—the signs are given
And whispered only to the soul of prayer;
Signs in the roaring sea, and signs from Heaven,
Signs in the sun, and comet's wandering star,
Creation's wonders providence proclaim
Unfurl the banners of His high decree,
And speak the grandeur of His awful name!
Nations look up and pray-they may be free,
Whilst sabres flash; and some cry liberty !
Some for oppression shout, and all for victory!

Oh, Christ! Jehovah's everlasting Son,
Descend once more, put on thy bright array,
Thon throned, anointed, everliving One!
Come to our night, and make our darkness day;
Hast thou not promised thine expecting bride,
A speedy advent ? Answer to her call,
Let Thy right arm roll back the crimson tide
Of cruel war; its clarion trump recall,
Rebuild the world, and ransom’d from their thrall,
The myriad nations at Thy holy feet shall fall !

HENRY Dowson.

Bradford, 1864.

Reviews.

Memoirs of the Life and Philanthropic The late Dr. Andrew Reed was in

Labours of Andrew Reed, D.D.; with every sense of the words an able Selections from his Journals. Edited minister of the New Testament, by his Sons, ANDREW REED, B.A., During the day in which he lived, and CHARLES REED, F.S.A. London: many of the pulpits of Evangelical Straban and Co., 32, Ludgate Hill. Nonconformity were occupied by some 1863.

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