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terposed and brought about a second Reformation by the instrumentality of that great servant of God, Arndt, who soon acquired many associates, in preaching his everlasting Gospel unto the earthly-minded churches, and has since had many followers in every community of Christendom, to the present day. It is worthy of par. ticular remark, that the object of John Arndt's writings and labours was, to induce pastors to preach experimental religion, and excite men to the imitation of Christ. It was he who first laid the groundwork to the present method of doctrine, and manner of preaching concerning repentance and the fourfold state of man ; which was afterward matured in different ways, by those great men of God Spener, Frankius, the founder of the orphan-house at Hall and his followers, the count Zinzendorff, Tersteegen, Bunian, Baxter, Whitefield, Wesley, &c. &c. &c. All these men have been a great blessing to the Protestant churches, and distinguished themselves to enlightened observers, as belonging to Arndt's voice; though he himself is little known among English readers, at this distant period. He flourished principally between the years 1606–1621; and his pious writings, especially his most excellent work entitled "True Christianity," which has been translated into the Bohemian, Danish, English, Latin, French, Low-Dutch, Jewish-Dutch, Malabar, Polish, Russian, Swedish, Turkish, Warugian and Wendish languages, has been an immense blessing to the Church. His works contain many extracts from the most pious writings of former centuries, and have been of great service to those, who have written since for the salvation of souls. They are not only preserved in libraries, but found every where in the hands of the multitude, even in many Roman Catholic countries; and the

*See the works of Witenius, Tenzelius, Scharfius, Breithaupts Programma de laudibus Arndii, & Weismanni Hist. Eccl. Part. II. p. 980.

last day will attest, the multitude of his numerous spiritual offspring. For in almost every religious revival in Europe since his time, the followers of his voice have been chief instruments, and his writings, more or less, a principal means of Gospel blessings. Dr. Spener in his Theological Considerations, Part. III. p. 713. 714. expresses his judgment in the following words: The first rank is justly due to Luther, but Arndt is second only to him ; and I do not know, whether, in his writings, the Lord has not designed him for a work of equal importance. He devoted his whole life to preach and promulgate the conclusion of all doctrine; Fear God, and give him glory by keeping his commandments; for God shall bring every work into judgment: He hath made heaven, earth, sea, and the fountains of waters; therefore worship him, Eccles. XII, 13. 14. Of all these important doctrines he has professsedly written, and it is even remarkable, that he has published most pious and edifying contemplations of the six days of creation (the principal objects of which are mentioned in this verse ;) in which he labours to exalt the Almighty ruler of the universe, and to excite all rational creatures to worship at his feet. Those who are more minutely acquainted with the general method of teaching the most eligible points of doctrine before his time, and with the history of Pietism in Germany, will be able to trace his voice through the two last centuries, down to the present time, and acquire a complete idea of this angel.

Unto them that dwell on the earth. I have reserved this passage, in order that my explanation may appear more clear at this place. Bengelius prefers the reading of the Complutensian edition, to them that sit on the earth; which if adopted, may be explained both in a natural and moral sense. Those that sit on the earth, may be persons roused from their earthly-mindedness, in pensive

+See True Christianity, B. IV, part 1.

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contemplation of a spiritual life, dissatisfied with the state of religion in their various communities to which they hitherto belonged, and now intent on a separation, in quest of more spiritual nourishment. Or this expression may denote persons, dissatisfied with their present abode, and ready to emigrate into other countries. Here then we behold the reason of this angel's flight and message. This has been precisely the state of mind of thousands in Europe, both in the natural and moral sense of this word, when the hand of the Lord raised up his glorious instrument, Arndt, for the edification of his Church. The generality of the clergy, both in the Protestant and Roman Catholic communities, preached little more than controversy against heretics, or discourses full of symbolical narratives, Latin, Greek, and Hebrew phraces; and the more learned wrote works of science, or polemical disquisitions in folio, while vital godliness was almost totally neglected. Many thousands again ardently petitioned the throne of grace, for more wholesome spirituał nourishment, all which were now answered by the appearance of this angel. It is also no less worthy of remark, that the time of the first appearance of this angel, answers precisely to the dates of the first emigrations from Europe to America and other countries; and that these emigrants then, and for more than a century after, were persons dissatisfied, either with the civil or religious state of their couutry, and who either sought, or had a revival of religion among them, from one or other teacher belonging to the voice and followers of this angel. It is not at all improbable to my mind, that this reading, "that sit on the earth," may be the true one, and that these words were intended to designate the commencement of this period of emigrations. The ordinary clergy in every community, are at all times in danger of falling into a state of lukewarmness; hence the Lord directs, that some one may be animated by

the spirit and voice of this angel, in order to rouse his brethren.

Verse 8. And there followed another angel, saying, Babylon is fallen, is fallen, that great city, because she made all nations drink of the wine of the wrath of her fornication.

The learned Faber supposed the first angel to be a type of Luther, the second of Calvin, and the third of the insular Church of England. But this second angel, according to the very words of the text, is of far less importance and consequence in the church, than that great man of God, Calvin and his associates, the founders of the Reformed continental churches. The Reformers, indeed, prepared, and were the first instruments of the fall of Babylon; but the message of this angel, his chief aim, or peculiar fundamental principle, is no more than to proclaim that fall of Babylon, already near at hand, which she probably experiences after meeting with a tremendous catastrophe, and to expose her corruptions. For the words, Babylon is fallen, in my opinion, do not necessarily indicate the full consummation of her fall in this place; it is only declared at its different points of descent, chap. XVI, 19. XVIII, 2. and here, even some time before her last stage of insolence and vain-glory, chap. XVII, 1. Moreover, the words of this prediction on the lips of the angel, designate the completion of an event, which had not yet been accomplished in the time of Calvin, or his associates in the glorious work of the Reformation. Babylon had not then completed the whole round, to drench all nations with her cup of fornication; she has since visited many, which were then unknown, and captivated others, with whom Europe had not even yet commenced an intercourse at that time. See the history of the Romish missions in America, Ethiopia, China, Japan, Siam, &c. &c.

And there followed another angel saying. See verse 6, for the word another angel. He followed the other angel

in the midst of heaven, and of course, arose in the same central country of Christendom. Of the first angel it is remarked with emphasis, that he proclaimed his everlasting gospel with a loud voice, so as to resound through the symbolical heaven; but this second angel is only represented, as saying his message. See verse 9. and chap. XVIII, 2. His communication was not so extensive, nor of such a nature, as required to be delivered with that divinely inspired enthusiasm and fervency, as did the messages of the other angels.

Babylon is fallen, is fallen, that great City. The Vulgate reads, Babylon illa magna, Babylon the great. This mystic Babylon is not the world generally, the Roman empire within its ancient limits, nor the three established religions in Europe; as they are sometimes denounced by schismatics, on account of their being divided into many orders and sects, and have often been embroiled by religious controversy. Neither can I convince myself, that this name denotes the whole Romish church. In my opinion, this great city is no other than Rome, considered. however, as the residence of the papal hierarchy during its exalted state of power and great tyranny, which it exercised over the Church of Christ for many centuries. Rome is termed, Babylon the great city, in the Revelation, chap. XVII, 18. 5. XVIII, 2. not so much on account of the literal meaning of this word, which signifies confusion, as in allusion to the greatness, magnificence, idolatry, and universal dominion of that ancient city in Chaldea, which lorded tyrannically over the people of God under the Old Testament dispensation. In this respect, there is a greater resemblance between these two cities, than betwixt Babylon and any other city in the world. The ancient Jewish doctors also used to call Rome, Babylon,‡ and

+See Buxtorf. Lexicon Talm. Col. 2230, as cited by Bengelius. Sub nomine Babylonis nihil aliud, nisi regnum Cap. XIII, 1. intelligendum est. See Kuttners Hypomn. iu loco.

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